John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, was a British nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763 under George III. He was arguably the last important favourite in British politics, he was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707 and the first Tory to have held the post. He was elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland when it was founded in 1780, he was born in Parliament Close, close to St Giles Cathedral on the Royal Mile in Edinburgh on 25 May 1713, the son of James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, his wife, Lady Anne Campbell. He attended Eton College from midsummer 1724 to Whitsun 1730, he went on to study civil law at the Universities of Groningen and Leiden in the Netherlands, graduating from the latter with a degree in civil law. A close relative of the Clan Campbell, Bute succeeded to the Earldom of Bute upon the death of his father, James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, in 1723, he was brought up thereafter by his maternal uncles, the 2nd Duke of Argyll and Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, 1st and only Earl of Ilay.
In August 1735, he eloped with Mary Wortley Montagu, whose parents Sir Edward and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu were slow to consent to the marriage. In 1737, he was elected a Scottish representative peer; because of his support for Argyll against Walpole, he was not re-elected in 1741. For the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany. In 1745, Bute moved to Westminster, where his family rented a house at Twickenham for forty-five pounds per annum, he became a close friend. After the Prince's death in 1751, Bute was appointed tutor to Prince George, the new Prince of Wales. Bute arranged for the Prince and his brother Prince Edward to follow a course of lectures on natural philosophy by the itinerant lecturer Stephen Demainbray; this led to an interest in natural philosophy on the part of the young prince and may have led to George III's collection of natural philosophical instruments. Bute furthermore became close to Prince Frederick's widow, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the Dowager Princess of Wales, it was rumoured that the couple were having an affair.
Indeed, one of the Prince of Wales's associates, John Horne Tooke, published a scandalous pamphlet alluding to the liaison, but the rumours were certainly untrue, since Bute held sincere religious beliefs against adultery and, by all indications, appeared married. In 1780, Bute was elected as the first President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland; because of the influence he had over his pupil, Bute expected to rise to political power following George's accession to the throne in 1760, but his plans were premature. It would first be necessary to remove both the incumbent Prime Minister and arguably the more powerful Secretary of State for the Southern Department; the Government of the day, buoyed by recent successes in the Seven Years' War, was popular and did well at the general election which, as was customary at the time, took place on the accession of the new monarch. Supported by the King, Bute manoeuvred himself into power by first allying himself with Newcastle against Pitt over the latter's desire to declare war on Spain.
Once thwarted in his designs against Spain by Bute and Newcastle, Pitt resigned his post as Secretary of State for the Southern Department. Next, Bute forced Newcastle's resignation as Prime Minister when he found himself in a small minority within the government over the level of funding and direction of the Seven Years' War. Re-elected as a Scottish representative peer in 1760, Bute was appointed the de facto Prime Minister after the resignations of Pitt and Newcastle, thus ending a long period of Whig dominance. Bute's premiership was notable for the negotiation of the Treaty of Paris which concluded the Seven Years' War. In so doing, Bute had to soften his previous stance in relation to concessions given to France in that he agreed that the important fisheries in Newfoundland be returned to France without Britain's possession of Guadeloupe in return. After peace was concluded and the King decided that Britain's military expenditure should not exceed its prewar levels, but they thought a large presence was necessary in America to deal with the French and Spanish threat.
They therefore charged the colonists for the increased military levels, thus catalysing the resistance to taxes which led to the American Revolution. Bute introduced a cider tax of four shillings per hogshead in 1763 to help finance the Seven Years' War. King George began to see through Bute and turned against him after being criticised for an official speech which the press recognised as Bute's own work; the journalist John Wilkes published a newspaper, The North Briton, in which both Bute and the Dowager Princess of Wales were savagely satirised. Bute resigned as prime minister shortly afterwards, although he remained in the House of Lords as a Scottish representative peer until 1780, he remained friendly with the Dowager Princess of Wales, but her attempts to reconcile him with George III proved futile. For the remainder of his life, Bute remained at his estate in Hampshire, where he built himself a mansion called High Cliff near Christchurch. From there he became a major literary and artistic patron.
Adrian Maguire, born 29 April 1971 in Kilmessan, County Meath, Ireland, is a racehorse trainer and former jockey. Maguire began his career in Irish pony racing at the age of nine, in which he rode more than 200 winners. In 1990 he rode his first winner under rules, at Sligo, before his first victory in the United Kingdom a year later. In the 1993–1994 season he rode 194 winners but lost the jockeys' championship by a margin of three to Richard Dunwoody. Maguire won a total of 1,024 races in the UK and has been described as "the greatest jump jockey never to end up as ", he announced his retirement from race riding on 28 October 2002, at the age of 31, following a fall at Warwick in March in which he broke his neck and was lucky to avoid paralysis. Maguire became a racehorse trainer and is based in Lombardstown, County Cork. Maguire's nephew, Jason Maguire, is a National Hunt jockey and won the 2011 Grand National on Ballabriggs
The 2x2 Project is a collaboration of epidemiologists, health science communicators and writers that publishes public health news and analysis. The project is sponsored by the Columbia University's Department of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health; the 2x2 Project went live on September 10, 2012 using the slogan, "Health Beyond the Headlines." The principle behind the 2x2 project's creation is that public health information should be accessible to everyone, not just researchers who read scientific literature. Its goal is to share health news and information in clear, compelling language that engages the public. Contributors and fellows write stories discussing issues varying from AIDS activism to brain trauma in professional football players; the project publishes a weekly roundup of the "best and worst" health news from around the web, ranking reports on a scale from'Fail' to'FTW'. The Editor in Chief is Dana March, an Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health.
According to their website, the 2x2 Project wants to bring epidemiology, the science of public health focused on the promotion of population health through disease prevention, out of the ivory tower: "Our goal through the 2×2 Project is to engage a broader audience—including thought leaders and policy makers from outside the discipline—who can help translate scientific findings into practice." One of the website's editors, social epidemiologist Abdul El-Sayed, received media attention from ABC News Radio when he wrote an open letter to NBA player LeBron James saying his promotion of Coca-Cola and McDonald's in commercials that were targeted toward his young fans was contributing to the problem of childhood obesity. El-Sayed calculated that James was responsible for selling more than a billion spoons of sugar and illustrated his point using a digitally altered image of the athlete as an obese man. "What if LeBron James drank all of the Sprite he wants our kids to drink?" the caption read. El-Sayed told ABC news at the time that Beyoncé should reconsider her deal to become a spokesperson for Pepsi.
The 2x2 Project contributes to other online media, including Huffington Post and Sustainability, a website on sustainable development, other non-profit and online media. A weekly feature of the project includes a series on the relationship of pop culture and public health. Through a crowd sourced selection of music, the 2x2 project examines the impact of both intentional and unintentional public health messaging found in our favourite pop songs; the 2x2 Project offers fellowships to students interested in hands-on communication of health information. The annual Communication in Health and Epidemiology Fellowship provides education in both theory and practice through formal training in health communication in the form of didactic lectures and networking events along with formal work experience. Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University The 2x2 Project Department of Epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health Sense and Sustainability