John Sturges

John Eliot Sturges was an American film director. His movies include Bad Day at Black Rock, Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, The Magnificent Seven, The Great Escape, Ice Station Zebra. In 2013, The Magnificent Seven was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant", he was not related to director Preston Sturges. Sturges started his career in Hollywood as an editor in 1932. During World War II, he directed documentaries and training films for the United States Army Air Forces. Sturges's mainstream directorial career began in 1946 with The Man Who Dared, the first of many B movies, he made imaginative use of the widescreen CinemaScope format by placing Spencer Tracy alone against a vast desert panorama in the suspense film Bad Day at Black Rock, for which he received a Best Director Oscar nomination in 1955. Over the course of his career, Sturges developed a reputation for elevated character-based drama within the confines of genre filmmaking.

He was awarded the Golden Boot Award in 1992 for his lifetime contribution to Westerns. He once met Akira Kurosawa. Sturges considered this the proudest moment of his professional career; the Magnificent Seven was an inductee in the 2013 National Film Registry list. Sturges commented that its popularity is due in part as a springboard for several young actors, transporting the locale from Japan to Mexico, putting a twist into the career of Yul Brynner, having part of its score used as the Marlboro cigarette commercial theme. Escape Artist: The Life and Films of John Sturges, by Glenn Lovell, former film critic for the San Jose Mercury News, was published by University of Wisconsin Press in 2008. Nominee Best Director — Academy Awards Nominee Palme d'OrCannes Film Festival Nominee Best Director — Directors Guild of America Nominee Best Director — Directors Guild of America Winner Best Foreign Language FilmBlue Ribbon Awards Nominee Best PictureHugo Awards Nominee Grand Prix — Moscow International Film Festival Winner "Golden Eddie" Filmmaker of the Year — American Cinema Editors Winner Golden Boot Award Lovell, Escape Artist.

The Life and Films of John Sturges, University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 978-0-299-22830-9 Gesprengte Ketten: The Great Escape, Behind the Scenes, Photographs of cameraman Walter Riml, Editor Helma Türk and Christian Riml, House Publishing 2013, English/German John Sturges on IMDb John Sturges at Find a Grave

Porvenir massacre (1918)

The Porvenir massacre was an incident on January 28, 1918 outside the village of Porvenir in Presidio County, Texas, in which Texas Rangers, U. S. Cavalry soldiers, local ranchers killed 15 unarmed Mexican villagers, both men and boys; the Texas Rangers Company B was sent to the area to stop banditry after the Brite Ranch raid. Despite having no evidence that the Porvenir villagers were involved in recent thefts or the killings of ranchers, the Rangers separated fifteen men and boys from the rest of the village and shot them on a nearby hill; as the Mexican Revolution had an increasing effect on Americans living near the border, anti-Mexican sentiment became more prevalent in the 1910s. Revolutionaries attacked farms, irrigation systems, railroads. After Pancho Villa's Villistas led raids into the United States, most notably in the Battle of Columbus in 1916, federal and local authorities took greater action to stop raids in the border region. Many Texas Rangers, including Company B, were ordered to secure the areas near the border and to stop raids by bandits and Anglo-Americans trying to provoke conflict with Mexico.

Another factor that increased anti-Mexican sentiment was the emergence of the Plan de San Diego in 1915. The Plan de San Diego was a manifesto made by two Texas Mexicans in an attempt to create an uprising against Anglo-American settlers in the lands acquired by the US after the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. Although unsuccessful, this plan spurred fears of more violence in the border states, in addition to banditry and the encroaching Mexican civil war; the Brite Ranch raid took place on Christmas December 25, 1917, in Presidio County. The mail hack driver was hanged in the store, his throat was slit, his two Mexican passengers were shot and killed, the ranch foreman was injured. The bandits stole thousands of dollars of horses and goods from the store before they fled toward Mexico; the U. S. Cavalry responded by chasing the suspected Villistas into Mexico. On January 26, 1918, Texas Rangers Company B, under the command of Captain James Monroe Fox and searched the homes of villagers in Porvenir after suspecting involvement in the Brite Ranch raid a month before.

During the search, the Rangers found only two weapons: a pistol belonging to an Anglo-American man in the village, a Winchester rifle belonging to a Tejano villager. Both weapons were confiscated, three Tejano men were arrested and taken and detained at the Ranger camp; the men were released the next day. Shortly after two of the men returned to Porvenir, the Rangers reentered the village in the early hours of January 28, taking everyone out of their homes. In addition to the ten Rangers, eight U. S. Army Cavalry, four local Anglo-American ranchers were present at the village. A total of fifteen males, two boys and the remainder men, all ethnic Mexicans, were separated from the women, other children, Anglo-Americans in the village; the Texas Rangers and ranchers led the men and boys outside the village to a nearby hill leaving the U. S. Army Cavalry soldiers closer to the village. Shortly after, the party of Rangers and ranchers killed all fifteen men and boys, they left the bodies of the dead. The next day, the son of one of the men killed, 13-year old Juan Flores, went with Anglo-American schoolteacher Henry Warren to the site and discovered the massacre.

The remaining 140 villagers abandoned Porvenir. Many moved across the border to Pilares, where they buried the deceased; the uninhabited village was razed by U. S. Army soldiers in the days following the massacre; the list of victims was documented by Porvenir schoolteacher Henry Warren. Manuel Moralez, 47, who possessed a deed to 1,600 acres. Sixth child was born that night. Román Nieves, 48, who possessed a deed to 320 acres Longino Flores, 44, father of Juan Flores Alberto García, 35 Eutimio Gonzales, 37 Macedonio Huertas, 30 Tiburcio Jaques, 50 Ambrosio Hernández, 21 Antonio Castanedo, 72 Pedro Herrera, 25 Viviano Herrera, 23 Severiano Herrera, 15 Pedro Jiménez, 25 Serapio Jiménez, 25 Juan Jiménez, 16The men killed were survived by forty-two children; the incident was not reported to Ranger command for nearly a month. Captain Fox of the Rangers reported that the 15 Mexican villagers had ambushed the Rangers, that stolen property from the Brite Ranch was found on the bodies of the villagers.

Captain Anderson of the U. S. Cavalry and Henry Warren gave a differing account of the massacre, stating the Rangers and ranchers had executed the men, that the U. S. Cavalry was not involved in the killings, it is unknown whether retaliatory action against Anglo-Americans by Mexicans occurred following the Porvenir Massacre. One instance of possible retaliation was the Neville Ranch raid. On March 25, two months after the Porvenir Massacre, a rancher and a female Mexican servant were killed by raiders at nearby Neville Ranch; the servant was raped and mutilated. As not much was stolen during the raid, it was suspected that the Neville Ranch killings were retaliation by Villistas for the Porvenir Massacre. An investigation was headed by Captain William M Hanson; the investigation used affidavits from several widows of the victims, all having Henry Warren as their attorney. Along with a statement from Warren claiming the dead were all farmers, none bandits, the investigation concluded that Company B was to be tried for the killings.

None of the Rangers was found guilty by a grand jury, but five were dismissed by Texas Governor William P. Hobby; the remainder, including Captain Fox, were reassigned. Company B was disbanded; the investigation concluded that the U. S. Cavalry were not dire

Swarup Singh Karki

Swarup Singh Karki or Swaroop Singh Karki, was a Nepali politician, military commander and minister. He was popular for his singing court conspiracies, he was selected as Dewan in the reign of King Pratap Singh Shah and a significant politician in the regent rule of Queen Rajendra of Nepal. He was one of the most influential court politician in the rule of King Pratap Singh and Queen Rajendralaxmi others being his rival Bahadur Shah of Nepal and Vamsharaj Pande. Vamsharaj was his perceived career rival, his life and career ended when Prince Bahadur Shah was appointed as regent in 1785. He was born in 1808 B. S, he belonged to Chaudandi state of Sen Kings in the Eastern Nepal. He was employed under King Karna Sen of Chaudandi, he took asylum under Prithvi Narayan Shah after the conquest of Kathmandu and Patan by Gorkha due to disagreement with the Kirati chief. He was appointed as Sardar by the King Prithvi Narayan Shah on the recommendation of Crown Prince Pratap Singh Shah and was sent to the Battle of Bhaktapur in 1769 A.

D. He was known as a good singer who persuaded Crown Prince Pratap Singh Shah and sidelined with non-Gorkhali courtiers such as Pandit Vrajnath Poudyal of Syangja Rising and Crown Prince's Newar concubine Maiju Rani in the Tantric practices of the Crown Prince. Tribhuwan University History Association and Instruction Committee asserts Kaji Parashuram Thapa in the group headed by Brajnath and Swarup; the non-Gorkhali group remained in Kathmandu for running administration and old hereditary courtiers from Tharghars remained at Nuwakot for military conquests with King Prithvi Narayan Shah. The traditional Tharghar courtiers favored Prince Bahadur Shah over Pratap Singh Shah; when Crown Prince Pratap Singh Shah ascended the throne in January 1775, Swarup and his group became the most influential persons in the court. In order to prevent Prince Bahadur Shah from being a Chautariya, Swarup marched with army to Nuwakot to confine Prince Bahadur, mourning the death of his father former King Prithvi Narayan Shah.

He confined Bahadur Shah and Prince Dal Mardan Shah with consent from newly reigning King Pratap Singh Shah, considered to have no distinction of right and wrong. In the annual Pajani of that year, Swarup Singh was promoted to the position of Kaji along with Abhiman Singh Basnyat, Amar Singh Thapa and Parashuram Thapa. In Falgun 1832 B. S. he succeeded in exiling Bahadur Shah, Dal Mardan Shah and Guru Gajraj Mishra on three heinous charges. The reign of King Pratap Singh was characterized by the constant rivalry between Swarup and Vamsharaj Pande, a member of the leading Pande family of Gorkha; the document dated Bikram Samvat 1833 Bhadra Vadi 3 Roj 6, shows that he had carried the title of Dewan along with Vamsharaj Pande. He led the Nepali/Nepalese army to an attack on Bhubaneshwar and Kabilas area in the Saptari region and conquered those places; the deposed When the senior courtier Abhiman Singh Basnyat conquered Someshwar in Chitwan, Swarup, in order to get credit, reached there after the success.

This angered Abhiman Singh and Vamsharaj Pande, son of former Kaji of Gorkha Kalu Pande, who reported the plot to King Pratap Singh. He was exiled on that ground from the Kingdom of Nepal on 1834 B. S, it was the last moments of reign of King Pratap in 1777 A. D. After he was expelled by King Pratap, he fled to Palpa and took side with the Sen Kings of Palpa, his native state Chaudandi, King of Parbat, he was considered a fugitive and rebel in the Kingdom of Nepal. Chaudandi King Karna Sen's widow had adopted the son of Palpa King Mukunda Sen, Prince Dhwajbir Sen through the consignment of Swaroop. Swaroop Singh was assigned to take Prince Dhwajbir to Calcutta to summon British military support against expanding Kingdom of Nepal. Chaubisi confederacy attacked Gorkha Kingdom on Sirhanchowk Gadhi at north and established their own position on 2 January 1782 A. D. Commander Garud Dhoj Pant of Tanahun Kingdom launched attack on Gorkhali side with combined army of Lamjung and Parbat and included soldiers from Kaski and Pyuthan.

Queen Rajendra Lakshmi Devi wanted ultimate destruction of trade route of Lamjung. Thus, Swaroop Singh and his rival Vamsharaj was called back from their exile in Bettiah to launch an attack on the Lamjung Kingdom, his entrance in the royal court of Nepal was opposed by courtiers. A reconciliation was done with him and Vamsharaj. Swarup appointed Daljit Shah as Chautariya in 1841 B. S. and took the support of Kaji Bhim Khawas. Vamsharaj Pande was beheaded on the conspiracy of Queen Rajendra Laxmi with his support. In the special tribunal meeting at Bhandarkhal garden, east of Kathmandu Durbar, Swaroop Singh held Vamsharaj liable for letting the King of Parbat, Kirtibam Malla to run away in the battle a year ago, he had a fiery conversation with Vamsharaj before Vamsharaj was declared guilty and was subsequently executed by beheading on the tribunal. Historian Rishikesh Shah and Ganga Karmacharya claim that he was executed on March 1785. Bhadra Ratna Bajracharya and Tulsi Ram Vaidya claim that he was executed on 21 April 1785.

On 2 July 1785, his stiff opponent Prince Regent Bahadur Shah of Nepal was arrested and on the eleventh day of imprisonment on 13 July, his only supporter Queen Rajendra Laxmi died. Onwards, Bahadur Shah took over the regency of his nephew King Rana Bahadur Shah and on the first moments of his regency ordered Swaroop Singh, in Pokhara to be beheaded there on the charges of treason, he had gone to Kaski to join Daljit Shah's military campaign of Kaski fearing retaliation of the old courtiers due to his conspiracy against Vamsharaj. He was executed on 24th Shr