Charles H. Robbins is an American businessman, he is the chairman and chief executive officer of Cisco Systems, the American manufacturer of networking hardware. Robbins was born in Georgia, he was educated at Rocky Mount High School in North Carolina. In 1987, he received a bachelor's degree in math from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. For five years after graduation, he worked as an application developer for North Carolina National Bank. Robbins next worked for Wellfleet Communications, which merged with SynOptics to become Bay Networks, followed by a short spell at Ascend Communications before joining Cisco in 1997. In May 2015, Cisco announced that the CEO and chairman John Chambers would step down as CEO in July 2015 but remain chairman. Robbins, senior vice president of Worldwide Sales & Operations and a 17-year Cisco veteran, would become CEO. Robbins became CEO of Cisco Systems in July 2015. Robbins is married, with four children, lives in Los Gatos, California. Media related to Chuck Robbins at Wikimedia Commons
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Andrew "Andy" Serwer is an American journalist and editor in chief of Yahoo Finance. He is best known for serving as managing editor of Fortune from 2006 to 2014, he is based in New York City. Serwer grew up in the Washington, D. C. area and is a 1981 graduate of Bowdoin College. He joined Fortune in 1984 as a reporter and was promoted to associate editor. Between 1995 and 1998, Serwer was a senior writer at Fortune. In 1997, he gained attention for writing an online column a novelty, called "Street Life" about the personalities and stories on Wall Street. "Achaea had Homer, the Spanish Civil War had Hemingway, California had the Beach Boys, now our hyperactive stock market has its own poet-singer—Andy Serwer," James Collins wrote in the May 22, 2000, issue of The New Yorker. The column evolved into "Captain's Blog."He has written a number of Fortune cover stories, including profiles of Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates, Oracle co-founder Larry Ellison, Cisco CEO John Chambers. In 2000, NewsBios named Serwer Business Journalist of the Year, calling him "perhaps the nation's top multimedia talent juggling the roles of serious journalist, astute commentator and occasional court jester."
Serwer was a regular contributor on CNN's "American Morning" and served as a co-host of CNN's "In The Money." He has appeared on ABC's Good Morning America, NBC's The Today Show and CBS This Morning and has written for Time, Sports Illustrated, SLAM Magazine. Serwer was named managing editor of Fortune in November 2006. In August 2014, Serwer left the company. Archive of Fortune articles
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley. Cisco develops and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products. Through its numerous acquired subsidiaries, such as OpenDNS, WebEx, Jabber and Jasper, Cisco specializes into specific tech markets, such as Internet of Things, domain security and energy management. Cisco stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average on June 8, 2009, is included in the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ-100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984 by Leonard Bosack and Sandy Lerner, two Stanford University computer scientists, they pioneered the concept of a local area network being used to connect geographically disparate computers over a multiprotocol router system. By the time the company went public in 1990, Cisco had a market capitalization of $224 million.
By the end of the dot-com bubble in the year 2000, Cisco had a more than $500 billion market capitalization. Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984 by Sandy Lerner, a director of computer facilities for the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Lerner partnered with her husband, Leonard Bosack, in charge of the Stanford University computer science department's computers. Cisco's initial product has roots in Stanford University's campus technology. In the early 1980's students and staff at Stanford; the Blue Box used software, written at Stanford by research engineer William Yeager. In 1985, Bosack and Stanford employee Kirk Lougheed began a project to formally network Stanford's campus, they adapted Yeager's software into what became the foundation for Cisco IOS, despite Yeager's claims that he had been denied permission to sell the Blue Box commercially. On July 11, 1986, Bosack and Lougheed were forced to resign from Stanford and the university contemplated filing criminal complaints against Cisco and its founders for the theft of its software, hardware designs, other intellectual properties.
In 1987, Stanford licensed two computer boards to Cisco. In addition to Bosack, Lougheed, Greg Satz, Richard Troiano, completed the early Cisco team; the company's first CEO was Bill Graves, who held the position from 1987 to 1988. In 1988, John Morgridge was appointed CEO; the name "Cisco" was derived from the city name San Francisco, why the company's engineers insisted on using the lower case "cisco" in its early years. The logo is intended to depict the two towers of the Golden Gate Bridge. On February 16, 1990, Cisco Systems went public with a market capitalization of $224 million, was listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. On August 28, 1990, Lerner was fired. Upon hearing the news, her husband Bosack resigned in protest; the couple walked away from Cisco with $170 million, 70% of, committed to their own charity. Although Cisco was not the first company to develop and sell dedicated network nodes, it was one of the first to sell commercially successful routers supporting multiple network protocols.
Classical, CPU-based architecture of early Cisco devices coupled with flexibility of operating system IOS allowed for keeping up with evolving technology needs by means of frequent software upgrades. Some popular models of that time managed to stay in production for a decade unchanged; the company was quick to capture the emerging service provider environment, entering the SP market with product lines such as Cisco 7000 and Cisco 8500. Between 1992 and 1994, Cisco acquired several companies in Ethernet switching, such as Kalpana, Grand Junction and most notably, Mario Mazzola's Crescendo Communications, which together formed the Catalyst business unit. At the time, the company envisioned layer 3 routing and layer 2 switching as complementary functions of different intelligence and architecture—the former was slow and complex, the latter was fast but simple; this philosophy dominated the company's product lines throughout the 1990s. In 1995, John Morgridge was succeeded by John Chambers; the Internet Protocol became adopted in the mid-to-late 1990s.
Cisco introduced products ranging from modem access shelves to core GSR routers, making them a major player in the market. In late March 2000, at the height of the dot-com bubble, Cisco became the most valuable company in the world, with a market capitalization of more than $500 billion; as of July 2014, with a market cap of about US$129 billion, it was still one of the most valuable companies. The perceived complexity of programming routing functions in silicon led to the formation of several startups determined to find new ways to process IP and MPLS packets in hardware and blur boundaries between routing and switching. One of them, Juniper Networks, shipped their first product in 1999 and by 2000 chipped away about 30% from Cisco SP Market share. In response, Cisco developed homegrown ASICs and fast processing cards for GSR routers and Catalyst 6500 switches. In 2004, Cisco started migration to new high-end hardware CRS-1 and software architecture IOS-XR; as part of a rebranding campaign in 2006, Cisco Systems adopted the shortened name "Cisco" and created "The Human Network" advertising campaign.
These efforts were meant to make Cisco a "household" brand—a strategy designed to support the low-end Linksys products and future consumer products. On the more traditional business side, Cisco cont
Franklin Institute Awards
The Franklin Institute Awards is a science and engineering award presented since 1824 by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US. The Franklin Institute Awards comprises the Benjamin Franklin Medals in seven areas of science and engineering, the Bower Awards and Prize for Achievement in Science, the Bower Award for Business Leadership. In 1998, the Benjamin Franklin Medals were created by reorganizing all of the endowed medals presented by The Franklin Institute at that time, into a group medals recognizing seven areas of study: Chemistry and Cognitive Science and Environmental Science, Electrical Engineering, Life Science, Mechanical Engineering, Physics; the first Benjamin Franklin Medals were presented in 1998. Medalists are selected by Committee on Science and the Arts after thorough investigation; the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science and the Bower Award for Business Leadership are the newest awards, established by a $7.5 million bequest from Henry Bower in 1988.
The Annual Bower Prizes are $250,000 USD each. For articles about the seven former awards, see Category:Franklin Institute awards. Recipients are listed in a database on The Franklin Institute website; the Franklin Institute. Winners. Benjamin Franklin Medal winners. YouTube playlist of all Franklin Institute Award Winners
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
Hélder Fragueiro Antunes is a Portuguese-American executive, computer scientist, former racecar driver. A Cisco Systems executive for over twenty years, as well as founder and first Chairman of the OpenFog Consortium, Antunes serves as Chief Executive Officer of Global Data Sentinel, his car racing career in the 1980s and'90s made him one of the preeminent open road racers at the time. Dubbed by PortugalGlobal Magazine as "the perfect example of Portuguese success in the global era", Antunes is involved in Portuguese and Azorean economic and political affairs. Antunes serves as a lobbyist for Portuguese interests in Silicon Valley, through institutions like the AICEP Portugal Global and Rede Prestige Açores, as well as serving as an advisor to the Government of Portugal and the Azores. Hélder Manuel da Terra Fragueiro Marques Antunes was born on 6 July 1963 in Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira Island, Azores, to Armando Manuel Marques Antunes, an avionics and aerospace scientist from Torres Novas, Carolina Bettencourt de Vasconcelos da Terra Fragueiro, a member of the Bettencourt family from Horta, Azores.
Through his mother, Antunes is a descendant of Flemish explorers Willem van der Haegen and Josse van Huerter and related to 19th century Portuguese prime-minister, Ernesto Hintze Ribeiro. Through his father, Antunes is cousin to Miguel Antunes Frasquilho, current Chairman of the Board of TAP Portugal and Portuguese politician, nephew to Manuel Antunes Frasquilho, former President of the Port of Lisbon and the Lisbon Metro. RTP journalist Pedro Bicudo described Antunes's parents as a "very well-known couple throughout the Azores". Antunes spent much of his early life at the Lajes Air Force Base, on Terceira, when much of his family served in the Portuguese Air Force, per family tradition, his family moved to Ponta Delgada, on São Miguel Island, in 1967, when Antunes's father moved to the private sector. Antunes and his family stayed on the island until 1975, when the events following the Carnation Revolution motivated them to emigrate to Rhode Island in the United States. Antunes lived in Rhode Island until 1983, when his family moved to San José, because Antunes' father was offered a position at aerospace and defense giant Lockheed Martin, where he would work on the Hubble Space Telescope project.
Antunes started college at Georgetown University in 1982 but, with his family's move to California and finished matriculation at San José State University. Once in California and his father took over the management and modernization of The Portuguese Tribune, a bilingual California-based newspaper serving the Luso-American diaspora. Antunes started professional auto racing in 1983, shortly after his move to California. By 1987, Antunes had participated multiple times in the Nevada Open Road Challenge and the Silver State Classic, considered by Guinness World Records as the fastest road race in the world. During his early years, Antunes raced Ford Mustangs and Chevrolet Corvettes at tracks such as Sonoma Raceway and Laguna Seca Raceway. Over the years, Antunes placed in the top 3 various times in the Pony Express 100. During his time as an automotive racer, Antunes designed some of the earliest data acquisition systems for racecars, his systems pioneered the integration of a car's computerized engine controls with real-time data acquisition and modeling, including the development of an engine "black box" aimed at converting engine data to be transmitted to a racecar's support team.
Antunes started his career in the Silicon Valley high-tech industry at Grid Systems Corporation as a support engineer, where he first met John Morgridge, CEO and Chairman of Cisco. After Grid Systems, Antunes went to work at Plus Development and two years at CA Technologies, where he led the CA-Superproject. Following CA, Antunes worked as Director of Engineering. Alongside his position at Cisco, Antunes is a General Partner at Pereira Ventures, a Silicon Valley-based venture capital and consulting firm. Portuguese newspaper Expresso stated that Antunes and Perreira wanted to "transform good ideas from entrepreneurs into successful businesses ". Since starting his links between Silicon Valley and Portugal, Antunes had long stated the necessity of a Portuguese lobby in Silicon Valley, stating "Portugal needs to have an entity with its feet well-dipped in Silicon Valley." Antunes stated that, with a lobby, "Portuguese technological businesses could be contracted... through outsourcing." Antunes was able to start a coalition of Portuguese businessmen in Silicon Valley and establish a Portuguese lobby.
Antunes is a general partner at Pereira Ventures, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm, is the Chairman of the Board of Star Division, S. A. a green tech company. In April 2016, Antunes became a member of the board of directors of Veniam, a company specialized in WiFi mesh networks. In 2017, Antunes became a member of the board of directors of GDS Global Data Sentinel. In 2018, Antunes became the Chief Executive Officer of GDS. Antunes joined Cisco Systems in 1998 as Senior Manager of Engineering, focusing on embedding security protocols into Cisco IOS. In 2003, Antunes was promoted to Director of Engineering, Global Solutions, Network Services. Antunes and his team's work on the Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network earned them the 2004 Cisco Pioneer Award. From January 2012 to December 2013, Antunes served as Managing Director of the Cisco IoT Group and directed the Smart Connected Vehicles Initiative, a part of the Connected Industries Group, which seeks to network vehicles and standardize on the underlying networking platform.
Since 2013, Antunes has se