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John Taylor Gilman

John Taylor Gilman was a farmer and statesman from Exeter, New Hampshire. He represented New Hampshire in the Continental Congress in 1782–1783 and was Governor of New Hampshire for 14 years, from 1794 to 1805, from 1813 to 1816. Gilman was born in the Province of New Hampshire, his family had settled in Exeter since its earliest days. He lived in the Ladd-Gilman House, now a part of the American Independence Museum, he received a limited education before he entered into the family shipbuilding and mercantile businesses. Aged 22, he read aloud a Dunlap Broadside brought to New Hampshire on July 16, 1776 to the city of Exeter; the American Independence Museum commemorates his brave act every year at their American Independence Festival, where a role-player reads the Declaration in its entirety to festival-goers. Gilman was one of the Minutemen of 1775 and a selectman in 1777 and 1778. Gilman served as a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1779 and 1781 and was a delegate to the Convention of the States in Hartford, Connecticut, in October 1780.

He served as a member of the Continental Congress in 1782 and 1783. He was the New Hampshire Treasurer in 1791 and moderator in 1791–1794, 1806, 1807, 1809–1811, 1817, 1818, 1820–1825. Gilman served as Governor of New Hampshire between 1794 and 1805 and was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1805, he was again a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1810 and 1811 and again an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1812. He was elected governor and served from 1813 to 1816 and declined to be a candidate for renomination for governor in 1816, he was an ex officio trustee of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, trustee by election. He was president of the board of trustees of Phillips Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, 1795–1827, donor of the oldest property, the'Yard,' upon which the older buildings stand. Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. Gilman was married to the daughter of Major General Nathaniel Folsom of Exeter, he died in Exeter on September 1, 1828.

He is the first governor of New Hampshire not to have a place in the state named after him. The town of Gilmanton, settled by 24 members of the extended Gilman clan, was named for the family as a whole and not for the Governor. Gilman's Congressional Biography Gilman, John Taylor, 1753–1828, Guide to Research Collections


FKM is a family of fluoroelastomer materials defined by the ASTM International standard D1418. It is equivalent to FPM by ISO/DIN 1629 standard. All FKMs contain vinylidene fluoride as a monomer. Developed by DuPont, FKMs are today produced by Daikin Chemical, 3M's Dyneon, Solvay Specialty Polymers, HaloPolymer and several Chinese manufacturers. Viton® is now manufactured by Chemours. Fluoroelastomers are more expensive than neoprene or nitrile rubber elastomers, they provide chemical resistance. FKMs can be divided into different classes on the basis of either their chemical composition, their fluorine content or their crosslinking mechanism. On the basis of their chemical composition FKMs can be divided into the following types: Type 1 FKMs are composed of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene. Copolymers are the standard type of FKMs showing a good overall performance, their fluorine content is 66 weight percent. Type 2 FKMs are composed of VDF, HFP, tetrafluoroethylene. Terpolymers have a higher fluorine content compared to copolymers, which results in better chemical and heat resistance.

Compression set and low temperature flexibility may be affected negatively. Type 3 FKMs are composed of VDF, TFE, perfluoromethylvinylether; the addition of PMVE provides better low temperature flexibility compared to copolymers and terpolymers. The fluorine content of type 3 FKMs ranges from 62 to 68 weight percent. Type 4 FKMs are composed of propylene, TFE, VDF. While base resistance is increased in type 4 FKMs, their swelling properties in hydrocarbons, are worsened, they have a fluorine content of about 67 weight percent. Type 5 FKMs are composed of VDF, HFP, TFE, PMVE, Ethylene. Type 5 FKM is known for high temperature hydrogen sulfide resistance. A useful overview of different types of FKM-compounds is listed here. There are three established crosslinking mechanisms used in the curing process of FKMs. Diamine crosslinking using a blocked diamine. In the presence of basic media VDF is vulnerable to dehydrofluorination which enables the addition of the diamine to the polymer chain. Magnesium oxide is used to neutralize the resulting hydrofluoric acid and rearrange into magnesium fluoride and water.

Although used today, diamine curing provides superior rubber-to-metal bonding properties as compared with other crosslinking mechanisms. The diamine's capability to be hydrated makes the diamine crosslink vulnerable in aqueous media. Ionic crosslinking was the next step in curing FKMs; this is today the most common crosslinking chemistry used for FKMs. It provides superior heat resistance, improved hydrolytic stability and better compression set than diamine curing. In contrast to diamine curing the ionic mechanism is not an addition mechanism but an aromatic nucleophilic substitution. Dihydroxy aromatic compounds are used as the crosslinking agent and quaternary phosphonium salts are used to accelerate the curing process. Peroxide crosslinking was developed for type 3 FKMs containing PMVE as diamine and bisphenolic crosslinking systems can lead to cleavage in a polymer backbone containing PMVE. While diamine and bisphenolic crosslinking are ionic reactions, peroxide crosslinking is a free radical mechanism.

Though peroxide crosslinks are not as thermally stable as bisphenolic crosslinks, they are the system of choice in aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes. 1. Chemical Process and Petroleum Refining: This sealing product is used in mechanical seals, reactors, compressor housings, valves and other equipment. Used as a seat, stem packing and gasket. 2, analysis and process instruments: separators, cylindrical fittings, gaskets, etc. 3. Semiconductor manufacturing 4. Food and pharmaceutical 5. Aviation and aerospace Other Fluoroelastomers include: FFKM - perfluoro-elastomers FEPM - tetrafluoro ethylene/propylene rubbers 2. Fluorine-Containing Elastomers


ANNA 1B was a United States satellite launched on October 31, 1962 from Cape Canaveral, on a Thor rocket. ANNA 1B's predecessor failed to reach orbit. ANNA 1B was a US Navy geodetic satellite launched from Cape Canaveral by a Thor Able Star rocket; the mission profile involved ANNA serving as a reference for making precise geodetic surveys, allowing measurement of the force and direction of the gravitational field of the Earth, locating the middle of land masses and establishing surface positions. ANNA 1B was spherically shaped with a weight of 161 kg, it was powered by a band of solar cells located around its equator supported by nickel-cadmium batteries. A communications antenna was wrapped around the spiral surface of the satellite; the ship's instrumentation included optical systems, radio location, Doppler radar. The optical system consisted of a high intensity beacon which transmits a series of five flashes with a period of 5.6 seconds. This allowed the system to measure land masses by satellite photographs.

The Doppler radar system could be programmed from the ground control station. The optical system provided Doppler radar positioning with an accuracy of 20 meters or less. Bramschere, Robert G. "A Survey of Launch Vehicle Failures". Spaceflight 22: 351. NASA/MOTS OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS OF THE ANNA IB SATELLITE

Sam Powell-Pepper

Samuel Powell-Pepper is a professional Australian rules footballer playing for the Port Adelaide Football Club in the Australian Football League. He plays in a midfield role. Powell-Pepper was born into a family with an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mother and an English father, he attended Mount Lawley Senior High School before switching to Wesley College on a scholarship. In 2016, Powell-Pepper made his senior debut for the East Perth Football Club during round 20 of the 2016 WAFL season going on to play all the remaining games for the year. Powell-Pepper was drafted by the Port Adelaide Football Club with their second selection and eighteenth overall in the 2016 national draft, he made his AFL debut in Port Adelaide's twenty-eight point win against Sydney in the opening round of the 2017 season at the Sydney Cricket Ground. He was named that round's AFL Rising Star nominee after kicking two goals in the match, the first with his first kick in AFL football. In a game against Melbourne, he recorded 17 tackles, beating the club's previous record, 16.

Statistics are correct to the end of round 23, 2017 Sam Powell-Pepper's profile on the official website of the Port Adelaide Football Club Sam Powell-Pepper's playing statistics from AFL Tables

Abolition of Income Tax and Usury Party

The Abolition of Income Tax and Usury Party was a South African political party founded in 1994. Its principal objective was monetary reform, which it wished to achieve by the establishment of a state bank, which would issue all South Africans credit free of interest; this would, the party believed, enable the abolition of personal income tax, a reduction in value added tax and a substantial expansion of social upliftment programmes. Commercial banks and private banks, which provide the nation's money supply at interest by means of fractional reserves, would become full reserve banks; the party has, contested one national and three local government elections. The party's former leader, Stephen Goodson, who has since co-founded the Ubuntu Party, is a former director of the South African Reserve Bank. Goodson has stated that the Holocaust was “a huge lie” as "the principle is to extract enormous sums of money from the Germans as compensation", blaming international bankers. Goodson authored a book titled Bonaparte & Hitler Versus the International Bankers where he maintained World War II was provoked by the economic success of Germany, he has criticised the political actions of Jewish bankers which were posted on anti-Semitic websites.

As a result, the South African Israel Public Affairs Committee called for the Reserve Bank to fire him for his pro-Nazi statements

Sierra Leone National Premier League

Sierra Leone National Premier League is the top professional football league in Sierra Leone. It was founded in 1967; the league is sponsored by one of the major Sierra Leonean banks. East End Lions and Mighty Blackpool are most successful clubs; the National Premier League is controlled by the Sierra Leone Football Association. The season runs from March to July; the current champions of the premier league are the Diamond Stars of Kono, who became the first club outside Freetown to win the Premier League, after winning the 2012 Premier League season. Fourteen clubs compete in the league, playing each other twice, once away. At the end of the season the bottom two clubs are relegated to the Sierra Leone National First Division, the second highest football league in Sierra Leone; the top two teams qualify for the CAF Champions League, while the third place team or the winner of the Sierra Leonean FA Cup will qualify for the CAF Confederation Cup. If the winner of the Sierra Leonean FA Cup has qualify for the CAF Champions League, the Confederations Cup spot will go to the third place team in the table.

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