Lockeford is an unincorporated community in San Joaquin County, United States. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau has defined Lockeford as a census-designated place; the census definition of the area may not correspond to local understanding of the area with the same name. The population was 3,233 at the 2010 census, up from 3,179 at the 2000 census. Lockeford is registered as California Historical Landmark #365; the town is named after Dean Jewett Locke, with his brother Elmer, settled in the area in 1851. Dean Locke established a ranch and the town in the region, it was Dean Locke's wife Delia who first coined the name "Lockeford" in 1859, referencing the ford that he built across the Mokelumne River. Lockeford is located at 38°9′27″N 121°9′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.4 square miles, 99.45% of it land, 0.55% of it water. The town is served by California State Route 88, one of four routes the crosses over the Sierra Nevada in the region.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Lockeford had a population of 3,233. The population density was 385.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lockeford was 2,526 White, 10 African American, 22 Native American, 64 Asian, 13 Pacific Islander, 413 from other races, 185 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 956 persons; the Census reported that 3,217 people lived in households, 16 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 1,142 households, out of which 401 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 650 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 103 had a female householder with no husband present, 73 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 70 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 5 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 257 households were made up of individuals and 127 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82. There were 826 families; the population was spread out with 829 people under the age of 18, 264 people aged 18 to 24, 743 people aged 25 to 44, 929 people aged 45 to 64, 468 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.8 males. There were 1,221 housing units at an average density of 145.6 per square mile, of which 862 were owner-occupied, 280 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.3%. 2,278 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 939 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,179 people, 1,099 households, 856 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 379.7 people per square mile. There were 1,136 housing units at an average density of 135.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 77.41% White, 0.25% African American, 1.04% Native American, 1.42% Asian, 0.38% Pacific Islander, 16.07% from other races, 3.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.66% of the population. There were 1,099 households out of which 36.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.4% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.1% were non-families.
18.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.26. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $43,750, the median income for a family was $55,750. Males had a median income of $37,759 versus $24,353 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $19,533. About 10.5% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. Weldon B. Cooke, Aviation pioneer Diaries of Delia Locke, wife of Lockeford founder Dean Jewett Locke, from 1855-1879 are available online at the University of the Pacific Library Digital Collections
The Boeing Model 247 was an early United States airliner, considered the first such aircraft to incorporate advances such as all-metal semimonocoque construction, a cantilevered wing and retractable landing gear. Other advanced features included control surface trim tabs, an autopilot and de-icing boots for the wings and tailplane."Ordered off the drawing board", the 247 first flew on February 8, 1933 and entered service that year. Subsequent development in airliner design saw engines and airframes becoming larger and four-engined designs emerged, but no significant changes to this basic formula appeared until cabin pressurization and high altitude cruise were introduced in 1940, with the Boeing 307 Stratoliner. Boeing had eclipsed other aviation manufacturers by introducing a host of aerodynamic and technical features into a commercial airliner; this advanced design, a progression from earlier Monomail and B-9 bomber designs, combined speed and safety. The Boeing 247 was faster than the U.
S. premier fighter aircraft of its day, the Boeing P-12, an open-cockpit biplane. Yet its flight envelope included a rather docile 62 mph landing speed, which precluded the need for flaps, pilots learned that at speeds as low as 10 mph, the 247 could be taxied "tail high" for ease of ground handling; the 247 was the first twin-engined passenger transport able to fly on one engine. With controllable pitch propellers, the 247 could maintain 11,500 feet at maximum gross takeoff weight, its combination of features set the standard for the Douglas DC-1 and other airliners before World War II. Planned as a 14-passenger airliner powered by Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, the preliminary review of the design concept by United Air Lines' pilots had resulted in a redesign to a smaller, less capable design configuration, powered by R-1340 wasp engines. One concern of the pilots was that no airfield in existence, in their view, could safely take an eight-ton aircraft, they objected to the use of Hornet engines, because most pilots were accustomed to the less-powerful Wasps and would find Hornets overpowering.
Pratt & Whitney's chief engineer, George Mead, knew that this thinking was misguided and that within a few years it would seem antiquated. P&W's president, Frederick Rentschler, faced with a tough decision, decided to acquiesce to the airline pilots' unanimous demand; the decision created a rift between Rentschler. Despite the bitter disagreements on design and engines, the 247 was still a remarkable achievement and was Boeing's showcase exhibit at the 1933 Chicago World's Fair; the cockpit windshield of the first 247s was angled forward, instead of the conventional aft sweep. This was the design solution to the problem of lighted control panel instruments reflecting off the windshield at night, but it turned out that the forward-sloping windshield would reflect ground lights instead during landings and it increased drag slightly. By the introduction of the 247D, the windshield was sloped aft in the usual way, the night-glare problem was resolved by installing an extension over the control panel.
Boeing considered safety features building in structural strength as well as incorporating design elements that enhanced customer comfort and well-being, such as the thermostatically-controlled, air conditioned and soundproof cabin. The crew included a pilot and copilot as well as a flight attendant known as a stewardess, who could tend to passenger needs; the main landing gear did not retract. The tailwheel was not retractable. While the Model 247 and 247A had speed-ring engine cowlings and fixed-pitch propellers, the Model 247D incorporated NACA cowlings and variable-pitch propellers; as the 247 emerged from its test and development phase, the company further showcased its capabilities by entering a long-distance air race in 1934, the MacRobertson Air Race from England to Australia. During the 1930s, aircraft designs were proven in air races and other aerial contests. A modified 247D was flown by Colonel Roscoe Turner and Clyde Pangborn; the 247, race number "57," was a production model but all airliner furnishings were removed to accommodate eight additional fuselage fuel tanks.
The MacRobertson Air Race attracted aircraft entries from all over the globe, including prototypes as well as established production types, with the gruelling course considered an excellent proving ground as well as an opportunity to gain worldwide attention. Turner and Pangborn came in second place in the transport section, behind the Boeing 247's eventual rival, the new Douglas DC-2. Being the winner of the 1934 U. S. Collier Trophy for excellence in aviation design, the first 247 production orders were earmarked for William Boeing's airline Boeing Air Transport; the 247 was capable of crossing the United States from east to west eight hours faster than its predecessors, such as the Ford Trimotor and Curtiss Condor. Entering service on May 22, 1933, a Boeing Air Transport 247 set a cross-country record pace of 19 1⁄2 hours on its San Francisco to New York inaugural flight. For the first time airline passengers could fly across the country without changing planes or stopping overnight. Due to the initial demand from U.
S. air carriers, Boeing sold the first 60 247s, an unprecedented $3.5 million order, to its affiliated airline, Boeing Air Transport (part of the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, UA
The T-211 is a light aircraft designed in the US by John Thorp in 1945. It is a low-wing monoplane of conventional design with fixed tricycle undercarriage and a sliding canopy. John Thorp developed the Sky Scooter with lessons learned from the developing the Lockheed Little Dipper project in 1944, it bears some family resemblance to the Piper Cherokee, a design that Thorp contributed to significantly. Thorp constructed eight prototypes, had the design certified by the FAA, but was unable to find a foothold in the Cessna-dominated post-war US market; the T-211 was developed with a 90-horsepower continental upgrade in 1953. The project was therefore shelved until the homebuilding boom saw the rights to the aircraft acquired first by Adams Industries and by Thorp Aero in the 1970s, the latter firm building five examples as the Thorp Arrow or T-211 Aero Sport built in Sturgis Kentucky, but only sold overseas or to part 141 operations due to current liability laws; the kits were manufactured by AD Aerospace in the United Kingdom and Venture Light Aircraft in the United States.
IndUS Aviation began production of the T-211 to the guidelines of Light Sport Aircraft in the mid-2000s. The Thorp T-211 was the first US-designed Special Light Sport Aircraft to receive certification from the Federal Aviation Administration; the light-sport version uses the 120 hp Jabiru 3300 engine, while the type certified version uses a 100 hp Continental O-200 engine and is equipped for both VFR and IFR flying. In 2010 the aircraft was back in production as a kit aircraft by AD Aerospace of Manchester, United Kingdom; this model is powered by a four-cylinder 100 hp Continental O-200 or a six-cylinder 120 hp Jabiru 3300 powerplant. Thorp Sky Skooter 1946 Thorp T-211 1953 Tubular Aircraft Products 1965 - Built 100 parts kits with Continental O-200 powerplants with 11 production models built Thorp Aero 1983 - Purchased rights and tooling IndUS Aviation LSA production in India General characteristics Crew: 1 pilot Capacity: 1 passenger Length: 18 ft 2 in Wingspan: 25 ft 0 in Height: 6 ft 1 in Wing area: 105 ft² Empty weight: 750 lb Max.
Takeoff weight: 1,270 lb * Fuel capacity: 21 gal usable Baggage capacity: 40 lb Powerplant: 1 × Continental O-200-A, 100 hp Performance Maximum speed: 120 mph Range: 375 miles Service ceiling: 12,500 ft Rate of climb: 750 ft/min Wing loading: 12.1 lb/ft² Power/mass: 0.08 hp/lb Related development Thorp T-18Aircraft of comparable role and era Erco Ercoupe Grumman American AA-1 Goyer, Norm. "Custom-Build the Thorp T-211". Custom Planes: 52–57. Archived from the original on 2004-12-05. Retrieved 2008-05-05. IndUS Aviation "Sport Pilot article". Archived from the original on 2006-03-11. FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet for the AD Aerospace T-211
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
Lockheed P-2 Neptune
The Lockheed P-2 Neptune was a maritime patrol and anti-submarine warfare aircraft. It was developed for the US Navy by Lockheed to replace the Lockheed PV-1 Ventura and PV-2 Harpoon, was replaced in turn by the Lockheed P-3 Orion. Designed as a land-based aircraft, the Neptune never made a carrier landing, but a small number were converted and deployed as carrier-launched, stop-gap nuclear bombers that would have to land on shore or ditch; the type was successful in export, saw service with several armed forces. Development of a new land-based patrol bomber began early in World War II, with design work starting at Lockheed's Vega subsidiary as a private venture on 6 December 1941. At first, the new design was considered a low priority compared to other aircraft in development at the time, with Vega developing and producing the PV-2 Harpoon patrol bomber. On 19 February 1943, the U. S. Navy signed a letter of intent for two prototype XP2Vs, confirmed by a formal contract on 4 April 1944 with a further 15 aircraft being ordered 10 days later.
It was not until 1944. A major factor in the design was ease of manufacture and maintenance, this may have been a major factor in the type's long life and worldwide success; the first aircraft flew in May 1945. Production began in 1946, the aircraft was accepted into service in 1947. Potential use as a bomber led to successful launches from aircraft carriers. Beginning with the P2V-5F model, the Neptune became one of the first operational aircraft fitted with both piston and jet engines; the Convair B-36, several Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter, Fairchild C-123 Provider, Avro Shackleton aircraft were so equipped. To save weight and complexity of two separate fuel systems, the Westinghouse J34 jet engines on P2Vs burned the 115–145 Avgas fuel of the piston engines, instead of jet fuel; the jet pods were fitted with intake doors. This prevented windmilling, allowing for economical piston-engine-only long-endurance search and patrol operations. In normal US Navy operations, the jet engines were run at full power to assure takeoff shut down upon reaching a safe altitude.
The jets were started and kept running at flight idle during low-altitude anti-submarine and/or anti-shipping operations as a safety measure should one of the radials develop problems. Normal crew access was via a ladder on the aft bulkhead of the nosewheel well to a hatch on the left side of the wheel well forward to the observer nose, or up through another hatch to the main deck. There was a hatch in the floor of the aft fuselage, near the sonobuoy chutes. Prior to the introduction of the P-3 Orion in the mid-1960s, the Neptune was the primary U. S. land-based anti-submarine patrol aircraft, intended to be operated as the hunter of a'"Hunter-Killer" group, with destroyers employed as killers. Several features aided the P-2 in its hunter role: Sonobuoys could be launched from a station in the aft portion of the fuselage and monitored by radio Some models were equipped with "pointable" twin.50 caliber machine guns in the nose, but most had a forward observation bubble with an observer seat, a feature seen in images.
The AN/ASQ -8 Magnetic Anomaly Detector was fitted in an extended tail. Unmarked charts were not classified. A belly-mounted AN/APS-20 surface-search radar enabled detection of surfaced and snorkeling submarines at considerable distances; as the P-2 was replaced in the US Navy by the P-3A Orion in active Fleet squadrons in the early and mid-1960s, the P-2 continued to remain operational in the Naval Air Reserve through the mid-1970s in its SP-2H version. As active Fleet squadrons transitioned to the P-3B and P-3C in the mid- and late-1960s and early 1970s, the Naval Air Reserve P-2s were replaced by P-3As and P-3Bs and the P-2 exited active U. S. naval service. VP-23 was the last active duty patrol squadron to operate the SP-2H, retiring its last Neptune on 20 February 1970, while the last Naval Reserve patrol squadron to operate the Neptune, VP-94, retired its last SP-2H in 1978. At the end of World War II, the US Navy felt the need to acquire a nuclear strike capability to maintain its political influence.
In the short term, carrier-based aircraft were the best solution. The large Fat Man nuclear munitions at that time were bulky and required a large aircraft to carry them; the US Navy Bureau of Ordnance built 25 outdated but more compact Little Boy nuclear bomb designs to be used in the smaller bomb bay of the P2V Neptune, there was enough fissionable material available by 1948 to build ten complete uranium projectiles and targets, although there were only enough initiators to complete six.. The U. S. Navy improvised a carrier-based nuclear strike aircraft by modifying the P2V Neptune for carrier takeoff using jet assisted takeoff rocket boosters, with initial takeoff tests in 1948. However, the Neptune could not land on a carrier, therefore the crew had to either make their way to a friendly land base after a strike, or ditch in the sea near a U. S. Navy vessel, it was replaced in this emergency role by the North American AJ Savage, the first nuclear strike aircraft, capable of carrier launch and recovery operations.
In 1954 under Project Cherry, the US Central Intelligence Agency obtained five newly built P2V-7 and converted these into P2V-7U/RB-69A variants by Lockheed's Skunk Works at Hangar B5 in Burbank, for the CIA's own priv
Lockheed Little Dipper
The Lockheed Model 33 Little Dipper known as Air Trooper, was an American single-seat monoplane, designed by John Thorp and built by Lockheed at Burbank, California. Flown in 1944 and offered to the Army as a "flying motorcycle", it was evaluated as a potential entry for Lockheed into the civilian market, but the program was cancelled before the second prototype was completed; the design of the Model 33 originated with a private venture for a two-seat light aircraft by John Thorp, a Lockheed engineer. In April 1944, the company agreed to build the aircraft as the Lockheed Model 33. Due to wartime restrictions on materials, the company gained the interest of the United States Army in the aircraft as an "aerial flying motorcycle" to equip a "flying cavalry" under the name Air Trooper; the Army, willing to entertain the concept, authorized Lockheed to build two prototypes of the Model 33. The Model 33 was of ordinary light-aircraft design, with a low-mounted cantilever monoplane wing and conventional empennage.
The Model 33 prototype first flew in August 1944. The handling characteristics of the aircraft were considered satisfactory, but the Army had lost interest in the concept, despite the prototype demonstrating its performance by landing and taking off again in the courtyard of the Pentagon. Lockheed had intended to market the type as an inexpensive light aircraft on the civilian market as the Little Dipper. Thorp, the aircraft's designer, would go on to develop the Thorp T-211 with lessons learned from the Little Dipper project. Data from Francillion 1982General characteristics Crew: One Length: 17 ft 6 in Wingspan: 25 ft 0 in Height: 7 ft 0 in Wing area: 104 sq ft Empty weight: 425 lb Gross weight: 725 lb Powerplant: 1 × Franklin 2A4-49 two-cylinder air-cooled horizontally opposed piston engine, 50 hp Performance Maximum speed: 100 mph. Aircraft of comparable role and era Beecraft Wee Bee Mooney M-18 Mite Piper PA-8 Ercoupe 415 Little Dipper project on YouTube
The Fletcher FD-25 Defender was a light ground-attack aircraft developed in the United States in the early 1950s. Designed by John Thorp, the Defender was a conventional low-wing cantilever monoplane with fixed tailwheel undercarriage. Provision was made for two machine guns in the wings, plus disposable stores carried on underwing pylons. Construction throughout was all-metal, the pilot sat under a wide perspex canopy. Three prototypes were built, two single-seaters and a two-seater, but no orders were placed by the US military. In Japan, Toyo acquired the rights to the design, built around a dozen aircraft, selling seven to Cambodia, four to Vietnam. One example remains extant and in an airworthy condition today, appeared at the EAA AirVenture Oshkosh airshow in 2010; the Fletcher FU-24 top-dressing plane was loosely based on the FD-25 Defender. Built under licence in New Zealand from the mid-1950s, 62 were still on the register in 2011 and used for agricultural and skydiving operations. Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1955–56General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 20 ft 11 in Wingspan: 30 ft 0 in Height: 6 ft 3 in Wing area: 150 sq ft Aspect ratio: 6:1 Airfoil: NACA 65.5-415 Empty weight: 1,228 lb Gross weight: 2,500 lb Fuel capacity: 60 US gal Powerplant: 1 × Continental E-225-8 6-cylinder, air-cooled, horizontally-opposed pistonengine, 225 hp Performance Maximum speed: 187 mph at sea level Cruise speed: 162 mph Range: 630 mi Service ceiling: 16,500 ft Rate of climb: 1,725 ft/min Armament Guns: 2 × wing-mounted.30-in machine guns Rockets: 40 × 2.75 inch rockets or 4 × 5-inch rockets or 20 × 8 cm rockets Bombs: 2 × 250 lb bombs Aircraft of comparable role and era SIAI Marchetti SF.260 American Electric Piranha Soko J-20 Kraguj Notes Bibliography Flivver Plane Totes Guns and Bombs November 1951 Popular Science article on FL-25—rest of article and photos on following page