John Trumbull was a Revolutionary War veteran and an American artist of the early independence period, notable for his historical paintings of the American Revolutionary War. He has been called "The Painter of the Revolution". Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, one of his four paintings which hang in the United States Capitol Rotunda, was used on the reverse of the commemorative bicentennial two-dollar bill. Trumbull was born in Lebanon, Connecticut, to Jonathan Trumbull and Faith Trumbull, his father served as Governor of Connecticut from 1769 to 1784. Both sides of his family were descended from early Puritan settlers in the state, he had two older brothers, Joseph Trumbull, the first commissary general of the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War, Jonathan Trumbull Jr. who would become the second Speaker of the House of the United States. The young Trumbull entered the 1771 junior class at Harvard College at age fifteen and graduated in 1773. Due to a childhood accident, Trumbull lost use of one eye.
This may have influenced his detailed painting style. As a soldier in the American Revolutionary War, Trumbull rendered a particular service at Boston by sketching plans of the British and American lines and works, he witnessed the Battle of Bunker Hill. He was appointed second aide-de-camp to General George Washington, in June 1776, deputy adjutant-general to General Horatio Gates, he resigned from the army in 1777 after a dispute over the dating of his officer commission. In 1780, with funds depleted, Trumbull turned to art as a profession, he traveled to London, where upon introduction from Benjamin Franklin, Trumbull studied under Benjamin West. At West's suggestion, Trumbull painted small pictures of the War of Independence and miniature portraits, he painted about 250 in his lifetime. On September 23, 1780, British agent Major John André was captured by Continental troops in North America. After news reached Great Britain, outrage flared and Trumbull was arrested, as having been an officer in the Continental Army of similar rank to André.
He was imprisoned for seven months in London's Tothill Fields Bridewell. After being released, Trumbull returned to the United States in a voyage that lasted six months, ending late January 1782, he joined his brother David in supplying the army stationed at New Windsor, New York during the winter of 1782–83. In 1784, following Britain's recognition of the United States independence, Trumbull returned to London for painting study under West, his first major work, The Deputation from the Senate Presenting to Cincinnatus the Command of the Roman Armies, was accepted and displayed by the Royal Academy of Arts in that year. In this work, Trumbull had painted Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus in the likeness of George Washington; the painting is now unlocated. While working in his studio, Trumbull painted Battle of Bunker Hill and Death of General Montgomery in the Attack on Quebec. Both works are now in the Yale University Art Gallery. In July 1786, Trumbull went to Paris, where he made portrait sketches of French officers for the Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.
With the assistance of Thomas Jefferson, serving there as the American minister to France, Trumbull began the early composition of the Declaration of Independence. Over the next 5 years Trumbull painted small portraits of signers, which he would use to piece together the larger painting. If the signer was deceased, a previous portrait would be copied, as was the case with Arthur Middleton, whose head position stands out in the painting. While visiting with each signer or their family, always looking for funding, used the occasion to sell subscriptions to engravings that would be produced from his paintings of the American Revolution. While in Paris, Trumbull is credited with having introduced Jefferson to the Italian painter Maria Cosway. Trumbull's painting of Jefferson, commissioned by Cosway, became known due to a engraving of it by Asher Brown Durand, reproduced. Trumbull's Declaration of Independence painting was purchased by the United States Congress, along with his Surrender of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis, General George Washington Resigning His Commission, all related to the Revolution.
All now hang in rotunda of the United States Capitol. Congress authorized only funds sufficient to purchase these four paintings. Trumbull completed several other paintings related to the Revolution: Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker's Hill; this was once owned by the Boston Athenaeum and is now held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Trumbull encountered hard times. After many years of trying to create income from his painting, he had found a way to sustain himself from his art; this is by far the largest single collection of his works. The collection was housed in a neoclassical art gallery designed by Trumbull on Yale's Old Campus, along with portraits by other artists, his portraits include full lengths of General Washington and George Clinton, now held in New York City Hall. New York bought his full-length paintings of Alexander Hamilton (1805, t
XPilot is a multiplayer video game. It runs on many platforms. Although its 2D graphics have improved over time, they still resemble the style of Thrust. Gameplay includes Capture the Flag, base defense and deathmatches. XPilot uses a client–server architecture, in which a central metaserver receives information from all XPilot servers on the Internet. In 1991, Bjørn Stabell and Ken Schouten computer science undergraduates at the University of Tromsø, began writing XPilot, inspired by the earlier game Thrust, it was developed in C on HP9000 workstations which ran Unix. Soon after its first public release in 1992, Stabell and Schouten began receiving feedback and patches from players all around the world. Other XPilot users contributed source code to the project. By 1996, there were nearly one hundred XPilot servers worldwide. XPilot's code has been forked several times. XPilot5 is a complete rewrite of XPilot in C++. Unlike its predecessor, it comes with sound and is bundled with applications to configure the keyboard, ship shapes and behavior.
The latest stable version of XPilot5 is 5.0.0. In late 2000, another group of developers began a branch of XPilot labeled XPilot NG. Programmed in C, it contains two clients, either SDL/OpenGL-based. Unlike the block-based maps of the original game, XPilot NG provides high frame rates and polygon maps. A new Java based map editor provides better map editing facilities; the latest version of XPilot NG is 4.7.2. In 2009, 7b5 Labs released an XPilot client for Apple's iPhone and iPod touch, it uses touchscreen controls. While these modern versions implement many new features, they are compatible with the original program; the metaserver contains a list of all XPilot maps on the Internet. These maps, created by users, feature several types of gameplay. In deathmatches, points are earned by destroying other robots. Users can increase their firepower by picking up items such as missiles and lasers. Players can defend themselves by gathering cloaks, shields, ECMs and armor. In racing maps, players earn points based on their finishing position.
The objective of team games is to "destroy" the opponent's ball by placing it in the treasure chest. Team games may be run in a different Capture the flag mode. Other modes exist, like trying to survive as long as possible surrounded by cannons, by dodging the bullets, or combinations of different modes. XPilot's in-game chat and multiplayer functionality spawned the formation of a community. Contact between players was facilitated by newsgroups such as alt.games.xpilot and rec.games.computer.xpilot. Since 1991, several annual team tournaments, known "Cups", have been held. After the first HTML and image-rendering web browsers were introduced, members of the community developed the game's online documentation. There is an IRC channel dedicated to XPilot. List of open source games Official homepage XPilot page at Sourceforge XPilot5 homepage Java XPilot Client Artificial Intelligence Programming in XPilot
Thomas George Lewis was a Welsh footballer who played as a centre-forward for Watford in the late 1930s, before joining Southampton for a brief period after World War II. Lewis was born in Troed-y-rhiw in Glamorgan and after playing youth football with his village side and in the nearby town of New Tredegar followed his elder brother Jim to join Watford, he joined Watford as an amateur at 17, before signing his first professional contract in May 1934. Lewis stayed at Vicarage Road until the war, making irregular appearances in the Football League Third Division South, like his brother, at left back before moving to centre forward in 1937–38, his most successful league season was 1938 -- 39. During the war he was an Army P. T. instructor, although he made guest appearances for Chester City. He spent one more season with Watford after the end of the war, in which there was no League football. Lewis played in eight FA Cup matches as Watford reached round four before being eliminated by Birmingham City.
Lewis scored three goals during the cup run, including the equaliser against Nottingham Forest in round three. In July 1946, he joined Second Division Southampton for a "four figure fee". Described as a "well-built centre-forward" with a "never-say-die" attitude, Lewis enjoyed a fine first season at The Dell, despite problems at the start of the season with a hamstring injury, he made his debut on 3 October 1946, taking over from the injured Doug McGibbon, in a 2–4 defeat at Swansea. After a run of five games, in which he only found the net once, he was replaced by the fit again McGibbon, he regained the number 9 shirt in December when McGibbon was sold to Fulham and went on to score 11 goals in the remaining 23 games. In the FA Cup third round match against Bury on 11 January 1947, Lewis scored a hat-trick in a 5–1 victory; this was the "Saints" first FA Cup hat-trick for 50 years, the first-ever in the competition proper. In total he scored 15 goals. Lewis was unable to reproduce this form in the 1947–48 season, failing to score in any of his 15 appearances.
The arrival of Charlie Wayman in November brought Lewis's Saints career to an end. In his two years at Southampton, he scored 15 goals from 45 appearances. Lewis spent the 1947–48 season back in the Third Division South with Brighton & Hove Albion before joining Dartford, where he remained until 1952, when he took up a position as groundsman