John Tyler

John Tyler was the tenth president of the United States from 1841 to 1845 after serving as the tenth vice president in 1841. Tyler ascended to the presidency after Harrison's death in April 1841, only a month after the start of the new administration, he was a stalwart supporter and advocate of states' rights, he adopted nationalist policies as president only when they did not infringe on the powers of the states. His unexpected rise to the presidency posed a threat to the presidential ambitions of Henry Clay and other politicians, left Tyler estranged from both major political parties. Tyler was born to a prominent Virginia family and became a national figure at a time of political upheaval. In the 1820s, the nation's only political party was the Democratic-Republican Party, it split into factions. Tyler was a Democrat, but he opposed Andrew Jackson during the Nullification Crisis, seeing Jackson's actions as infringing on states' rights, he criticized Jackson's expansion of executive power during the Bank War.

This led Tyler to ally with the Whig Party. He served as a Virginia state legislator, governor, U. S. representative, U. S. senator. He was put on the 1840 presidential ticket to attract states' rights Southerners to a Whig coalition to defeat Martin Van Buren's re-election bid. President Harrison died just one month after taking office, Tyler became the first vice president to succeed to the presidency without election, he served longer than any president in U. S. history not elected to the office. To forestall constitutional uncertainty, Tyler took the oath of office, moved into the White House, assumed full presidential powers—a precedent that governed future successions and was codified in the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Tyler signed into law some of the Whig-controlled Congress's bills, but he was a strict constructionist and vetoed the party's bills to create a national bank and raise the tariff rates, he believed that the president should set policy rather than Congress, he sought to bypass the Whig establishment, most notably senator Henry Clay of Kentucky.

Most of Tyler's Cabinet resigned soon into his term, the Whigs dubbed him His Accidency and expelled him from the party. Tyler was the first president to see his veto of legislation overridden by Congress, he faced a stalemate on domestic policy, although he had several foreign-policy achievements, including the Webster–Ashburton Treaty with Britain and the Treaty of Wanghia with Qing China. The Republic of Texas separated from Mexico in 1836. Tyler was a firm believer in manifest destiny and saw its annexation as providing an economic advantage to the United States, so he worked diligently to make it happen, he sought election to a full term as president, but he failed to gain the support of either Whigs or Democrats and withdrew in support of Democrat James K. Polk, who favored the annexation of Texas. Polk won the election, Tyler signed a bill to annex Texas three days before leaving office, Polk completed the process; when the American Civil War began in 1861, Tyler sided with the Confederacy and won election to the Confederate House of Representatives shortly before his death.

Some scholars have praised Tyler's political resolve, but his presidency is held in low regard by historians. He is considered an obscure president, with little presence in American cultural memory. John Tyler was born on March 29, 1790; the Tyler family traced its lineage to colonial Williamsburg in the 17th century. John Tyler Sr. known as Judge Tyler, was a friend and college roommate of Thomas Jefferson and served in the Virginia House of Delegates alongside Benjamin Harrison V, father of William. The elder Tyler served four years as Speaker of the House of Delegates before becoming a state court judge, he subsequently served as governor and as a judge on the U. S. District Court at Richmond, his wife, Mary Marot, was the daughter of Robert Booth Armistead. She died of a stroke. With two brothers and five sisters, Tyler was reared on Greenway Plantation, a 1,200-acre estate with a six-room manor house his father had built; the Tylers' forty slaves grew various crops, including wheat and tobacco.

Judge Tyler paid high wages for tutors. Tyler was of frail health and prone to diarrhea throughout life. At the age of twelve, he entered the preparatory branch of the elite College of William and Mary, continuing the Tyler family's tradition of attending the college. Tyler graduated from the school's collegiate branch at age seventeen. Among the books that formed his economic views was Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, he acquired a lifelong love of Shakespeare, his political opinions were shaped by Bishop James Madison, the college's president and namesake of the future president. After graduation Tyler read the law with his father, a state judge at the time, with Edmund Randolph, former United States Attorney General. Tyler was erroneously admitted to the Virginia bar at the premature age of 19—the admitting judge neglected to ask his age. By this time his father was serving as Governor of Virginia, the young Tyler started a practice in Richmond, the state capital. In 1813 he purchased Woodburn plantation, resided there until 1821.

In 1811, at age 21, Tyler was elected to represent Charles City Co

Keith Leftwich

Keith Clayton Leftwich, was a State Representative and State Senator for Oklahoma. Born to John V. and Paulyne Leftwich at Tinker Air Force Base Hospital, Leftwich graduated from Choctaw High School in 1972. One of his accomplishments there was receiving the William Randolph Hearst Award for High School Seniors; as a student at the University of Oklahoma, he was the recipient of the Nora Wells Award for Outstanding Junior Man and served in Student Congress. He graduated from Oklahoma City University with a degree in liberal arts, he started his public political career in 1978 by running for a State Representative seat in South Oklahoma City, losing in the Democratic runoff election to Charles Gray, who won the general election. In 1982, when Gray decided not to run for re-election, Leftwich ran and won the primary and general elections. During the three terms that he served, he was chair of the Committee of Government Operations, as well as chair of the interim Committee of Legislative Procedures.

One of his interests while in the Oklahoma State House of Representative was reform of the corrections system. He decided to forgo re-election in 1988 in order to run for State Corporation Commissioner, but lost in the runoff to Charles Morgan. After his career in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, Leftwich was executive vice-president of the Del City Chamber of Commerce. In 1990, he ran for District 44 seat of the Oklahoma State Senate, in which he won the primary and defeated the Republican incumbent State Sen. Kay Dudley. During his career in the State Senate, he served as Chairman for the transportation committee, as well as general government and a transportation subcommittee on appropriations, he Later was elected by the Democratic Caucus to serve as majority whip. Although Leftwich was mentioned as a candidate for the Democratic Party nomination for Governor of Oklahoma in the 2002 election, he declined to enter the race and supported Brad Henry. In January 2002, he held a press conference.

However, he was re-elected that year. Following his death from cancer, his widow Debbe Leftwich won the special election on December 9, 2003 to succeed him. On March 25, 2004, the library at Oklahoma City Community College was dedicated as the Keith Leftwich Memorial Library. A portion of Interstate 240 between Interstate 35 and Interstate 44 was dedicated as the Keith Leftwich Memorial Loop

Battle of El Maguey

The Battle of El Maguey was a battle of the War of Mexican Independence that occurred on 2 May 1811 at El Maguey, in the State of Aguascalientes. The battle was fought between the royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown, commanded by General Miguel Emparan, the Mexican rebels fighting for independence from the Spanish Empire, commanded by Ignacio López Rayón; the battle resulted in a victory for the Spanish royalists. In early May 1811, the Spanish Brigadier General, Miguel Emparan, at the head of 3,000 men with the colonels Pedro García Conde and the Count of House Rule as his second in commands, pursued the army of Ignacio López Rayón through the state of Aguascalientes; the Spanish caught up with the Mexican rebels in the area around the ranch of El Maguey on 3 May. Rayón sent his infantry and supplies to the town of La Piedad de Cavadas, but remained in his position at El Maguey with 14 pieces of artillery and a cavalry picket to fight a rearguard action against the overwhelming advancing Spanish forces.

The stand was meant to give his infantry time to escape their pursuers so they could make an organized retreat from the Spanish. General Emparan gave the two armies maneuvered for position around the ranch. Rayón took advantage of the confusion caused by the smoke and dust in the air and fled the action whilst Emparan continued his advance. In the end, the royalists were able to take possession of all the rebel cannon left behind on the battlefield