SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

John V Palaiologos

John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus was a Byzantine emperor, who succeeded his father in 1341 at the age of eight. John V was the son of Emperor Andronikos III and his wife Anna, the daughter of Count Amadeus V of Savoy by his second wife Maria of Brabant, his long reign was marked by the gradual dissolution of imperial power amid numerous civil wars and the continuing ascendancy of the Ottoman Turks. John V came to the throne at age eight, his reign began with an immediate civil war between his designated regent, his father's friend John VI Kantakouzenos, a self-proclaimed council of regency composed of his mother Anna, the patriarch John XIV Kalekas, the megas doux Alexios Apokaukos. During this civil war in 1343 Anna pawned the Byzantine crown jewels for 30,000 Venetian ducats. From 1346 to 1349, the Black Plague devastated Constantinople. Victorious in 1347, John VI Kantakouzenos ruled as co-emperor until his son Matthew Kantakouzenos was attacked by John V in 1352, leading to a second civil war.

John V asked the ruler of Serbia, Stefan Dušan for help, Dušan obliged by sending 4,000 Serbian horsemen to his aid. Matthew Kantakouzenos asked his father for help, 10,000 Ottoman Turks showed up at Demotika in October 1352 and engaged the forces of John V's Serbian allies in an open field battle that resulted in the destruction of the allies and a victory for the more numerous Turks in the service of the Byzantines; the Ottoman Empire thus acquired its first European territory, at Gallipoli. Able to retake Constantinople in 1354, John V tonsured John VI Kantakouzenos. In 1366, John V reached the Hungarian Kingdom, arriving at the Royal city of Buda to meet King Louis I of Hungary. However, the Byzantine emperor offended the king by staying on his horse, while Louis descended and approached him on foot; the Hungarian monarch offered him help on the condition that John join the Catholic church, or at least achieve recognition by the Patriarch of the Pope's supremacy. The Emperor left the court of Buda with empty hands and continued his trip through Europe searching for assistance against the Ottomans.

The Ottomans, allied with the Kantakouzenoi, continued to press John. Suleyman Paşa, the son of the Ottoman sultan, led their forces in Europe and was able to take Adrianople and Philippopolis and to exact tribute from the emperor. John V appealed to the West for help, proposing to Pope Urban V in 1367 to end the schism between the Byzantine and Latin churches by submitting the patriarchate to the supremacy of Rome. In October 1369 John, having travelled through Naples to Rome, formally converted to Catholicism in St Peter's Basilica and recognized the pope as supreme head of the Church, he was not accompanied by the clergy of the Byzantine Church and the move failed to bring about an end to the Schism. Impoverished by war, he was detained as a debtor when he visited Venice in 1369 on his way back from Rome and was captured on his way back through Bulgarian territories. In 1371, he recognized the suzerainty of the Ottoman sultan Murad I. Murad assisted him against his son Andronikos when the latter deposed him in 1376.

In 1390, his grandson John VII usurped the throne, but was overthrown. The same year, John V ordered the strengthening of the Golden Gate in Constantinople, utilizing marble from the decayed churches in and around the city. Upon completion of this construction, Bayezid I demanded that John raze these new works, threatening war and the blinding of his son Manuel, whom he held in captivity. John V filled the Sultan's order but is said to have suffered from this humiliation and died soon thereafter on 16 February 1391. John V was succeeded to the imperial throne by his son Manuel, his younger son Theodore had acceded to the Despotate of Morea in 1383. John V married Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of his co-emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and Irene Asanina, on 28 May 1347, they had at least six children -- four sons and at least two daughters. Their known children include: Andronikos IV Palaiologos; the couple had Princes Gunduz and Omer. Manuel II Palaiologos. List of Byzantine emperors Harris, The End of Byzantium.

New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-300-11786-8 Alexander Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire 324-1453. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952. ISBN 0299809269 Nicol, Donald M.. The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nicol, Donald M.. The Reluctant Emperor: A Biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor and Monk, c. 1295-1383. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Neak Loeung Bridge

Tsubasa Bridge known as Neak Loeung Bridge, links Kandal Province with the town of Neak Loeung, Prey Veng Province in Cambodia, on the travelled Highway 1 between Phnom Penh, Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. This 2.2 km cable-stayed bridge eliminated a ferry crossing and is the longest bridge across the Mekong River in Cambodia, 300 metres longer than its nearest rival, the Koh Kong Bridge. The project includes the main cable-stayed section totalling 640m, two composite girder approach sections of 900m and 675m, approach embankments totalling 3.1 km. The inauguration ceremony to begin construction occurred on February 12, 2011; the bridge opened to traffic in April 2015. It was funded and built by a Japanese government donation and its image appears on the new 500 riel note; the bridge is part of a larger programme of works to improve connectivity along Asian Highway 1 from Thailand to Vietnam

Parkersburg–Belpre Bridge

The Parkersburg–Belpre Bridge is a four-lane cantilever bridge that connects Parkersburg, West Virginia to Belpre, Ohio across the Ohio River. The bridge was completed in 1980; the bridge had been signed U. S. Route 50 until June 13, 2008, when that highway was re-routed to the Blennerhassett Island Bridge a few miles to the west, as part of the completion of the Corridor D project around Parkersburg; the American Discovery Trail uses the bridge to cross the Ohio River. The current bridge replaced a 1916 suspension bridge located just downstream of the present site; the bridge was designed by Hermann Lamb and built by the John A. Roebling's Sons Company of New Jersey; the bridge had a 22-foot-wide deck. The main span was 275 feet and the side spans were 275 feet and 375 feet; the suspension bridge was demolished on March 16, 1980. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in West Virginia List of crossings of the Ohio River Parkersburg-Belpre Bridge at Bridges & Tunnels Photograph of the early stages of construction of the current bridge, December 1976 Photograph of the partial dismantling of the 1916 suspension bridge, February 1980 Description and photographs of the controlled explosive demolition of the 1916 suspension bridge, March 16, 1980, from Controlled Demolition, Inc.

Historic American Engineering Record No. WV-88, "Parkersburg Suspension Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Parkersburg, WV, Belpre, OH", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page Parkersburg Suspension Bridge at Structurae Parkersburg-Belpre Bridge at StructuraeCoordinates: 39°16′15″N 81°33′58″W