Ronald M. George
Ronald Marc George is the retired 27th Chief Justice of California, where he headed the Supreme Court of California and the Judicial Council of California. Governor Pete Wilson appointed George as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1991 and elevated George to Chief Justice in 1996. George grew up in Beverly Hills, the son of a Hungarian immigrant mother and French immigrant father. A 1957 graduate of Beverly Hills High School, George earned his A. B. from Princeton University in 1961 and his J. D. from Stanford Law School in 1964. Upon graduating from Stanford, George was a Deputy California Attorney General from 1965–1972; as a Deputy Attorney General, he argued unsuccessfully on behalf of the State of California before the United States Supreme Court in Chimel v. California in 1969; the following year, he again represented California before the U. S. Supreme Court, this time defending the death penalty in McGautha v. California. In 1971, he represented California as an amicus curiae in support of the successful argument of the State of Illinois in Kirby v. Illinois.
In 1972, his final year as a Deputy Attorney General, George unsuccessfully argued in favor of the death penalty before the California Supreme Court in California v. Anderson but was successful in defending the conviction of Sirhan Sirhan in the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, a U. S. Senator and 1968 presidential candidate; the ruling in California v. Anderson resulted in the dismissal of California as moot. Governor Ronald Reagan appointed George as a Judge of the Los Angeles Municipal Court on April 20, 1972. George was elected to a full six-year term on November 2, 1976. Governor Jerry Brown appointed him to the Los Angeles County Superior Court on December 23, 1977; as a Superior Court judge, George presided over the trial of Hillside Strangler Angelo Buono in 1981–1983. George presided over the trial of Marvin Gay Sr. for the slaying of Gay's son, the singer Marvin Gaye. George was lauded for his unusual decision to deny the motion by Los Angeles County District Attorney's office to dismiss all 10 counts of murder against Buono.
However, his unusual decision was speculated to be a result of his earlier decision to separate crucial counts of rape and sodomy, which in themselves would serve as evidence against the defendant, from the murder charges. The prosecutors felt the evidence against Buono was so weak that it did not justify an attempt to win at trial. Judges second-guess the prosecutors' judgment on such a matter. However, George's review of the evidence in the case caused him to feel so that the prosecutors were in error that he did that. George reassigned the case to the California Attorney General's office, that office convicted Buono on nine of the 10 counts. Thus, it was recognized that the judge, through his action to deny the earlier motion to dismiss, had prevented a serial killer from going free. Oddly, Los Angeles County District Attorney John Van de Kamp had been elected California Attorney General in the middle of the lengthy trial, so a Van de Kamp-led District Attorney's office attempted to dismiss the unwinnable case only to have a Van de Kamp-led Attorney General's office win nine convictions in the case.
Governor George Deukmejian appointed him to the California Second District Court of Appeal on July 23, 1987. George was confirmed and sworn in on August 27, 1987, was elected to a full twelve-year term on November 6, 1990. Governor Pete Wilson appointed Justice Ron George to the California Supreme Court on July 29, 1991. George was confirmed and sworn in as an Associate Justice on September 3, 1991. California voters elected him to a full twelve-year term on November 8, 1994. Wilson appointed George as the 27th Chief Justice of California on March 28, 1996. George was confirmed and sworn into office on May 1, 1996, he was elected to a full twelve-year term on November 1998, with 75.5 % percent of the vote. George was floated as a candidate for justice of the United States Supreme Court as a conservative acceptable to Democrats, such as when Democratic United States Senator Barbara Boxer suggested George as a potential nominee for the seat on the Court vacated by Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement.
Boxer described both George and his fellow California Supreme Court Justice Kathryn Werdegar, as Republicans who "reflect the spirit of Sandra Day O'Connor's tenure—independent and nonideological."In 2008, Justice George authored the opinion in the Supreme Court's 4-3 ruling in In re Marriage Cases legalizing same-sex marriage in California. Citing the court's 1948 decision legalizing interracial marriages, George's opinion found that sexual orientation is a protected class like race and gender, meaning that attempts to ban same-sex marriage would be subject to strict scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause of the California Constitution, it was the first state high court in the country to do so. Voters would overturn the decision less than six months by passing Proposition 8 in the November 2008 elections. However, Proposition 8 would itself be overturned by a federal court in Perry v. Schwarzenegger, thus In Re Marriage Cases was reinstated as valid constitutional law in California. On July 14, 2010, Justice George announced he would not seek to be re-elected in 2010 and would therefore retire at the end of his term: January 2, 2011.
He was succeeded by Tani Cantil-Sakauye. In 2013, after his retirement, he published a book of memoirs, Chief: the quest for justice in California, about his term on the Supreme Cou
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure. Forensic scientists collect and analyze scientific evidence during the course of an investigation. While some forensic scientists travel to the scene of the crime to collect the evidence themselves, others occupy a laboratory role, performing analysis on objects brought to them by other individuals. In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense. While any field could technically be forensic, certain sections have developed over time to encompass the majority of forensically related cases. Forensic science is a combination of two different Latin words: science; the former, relates to a discussion or examination performed in public. Because trials in the ancient world were held in public, it carries a strong judicial connotation.
The second is science, derived from the Latin word for ‘knowledge’ and is today tied to the scientific method, a systematic way of acquiring knowledge. Taken together forensic science can be seen as the use of the scientific methods and processes in crime solving; the word forensic comes from the Latin term forensis, meaning "of or before the forum". The history of the term originates from Roman times, during which a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their sides of the story; the case would be decided in favor of the individual with delivery. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word forensic – as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation. In modern use, the term forensics in the place of forensic science can be considered correct, as the term forensic is a synonym for legal or related to courts. However, the term is now so associated with the scientific field that many dictionaries include the meaning that equates the word forensics with forensic science.
The ancient world lacked standardized forensic practices, which aided criminals in escaping punishment. Criminal investigations and trials relied on forced confessions and witness testimony. However, ancient sources do contain several accounts of techniques that foreshadow concepts in forensic science that were developed centuries later; the first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu, written in China by Song Ci in 1248, a director of justice and supervision, during the Song dynasty. Gunhegarancha Kardankal authored by Dr. Vasudha Apte in Marathi provides information about 130 different methods of forensic investigations in detail. Song Ci ruled regulation about autopsy report for court, how to protect the evidence in the examining process, the reason why workers must show examination to public impartiality, he concluded methods on how to make antiseptic and to reappear the hidden injury from dead bodies and bones. At that time, the book had given methods to distinguish pretending suicide.
In one of Song Ci's accounts, the case of a person murdered with a sickle was solved by an investigator who instructed everyone to bring his sickle to one location. Flies, attracted by the smell of blood gathered on a single sickle. In light of this, the murderer confessed. For example, the book described how to distinguish between a drowning and strangulation, along with other evidence from examining corpses on determining if a death was caused by murder, suicide or an accident. Methods from around the world involved saliva and examination of the mouth and tongue to determine innocence or guilt, as a precursor to the Polygraph test. In ancient India, some suspects were made to spit it back out. In ancient China, those accused of a crime would have rice powder placed in their mouths. In ancient middle-eastern cultures, the accused were made to lick hot metal rods briefly, it is thought that these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth.
In 16th-century Europe, medical practitioners in army and university settings began to gather information on the cause and manner of death. Ambroise Paré, a French army surgeon, systematically studied the effects of violent death on internal organs. Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease. In the late 18th century, writings on these topics began to appear; these included A Treatise on Forensic Medicine and Public Health by the French physician Francois Immanuele Fodéré and The Complete System of Police Medicine by the German medical expert Johann Peter Frank. As the rational values of the Enlightenment era increasingly
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Angelo Buono Jr.
Angelo Anthony Buono Jr. was an American serial killer and rapist, who together with his cousin Kenneth Bianchi were known as the Hillside Stranglers, were convicted of killing ten young women in Los Angeles, California between October 1977 and February 1978. Angelo Buono was born on October 5, 1934, in Rochester, New York to first generation Italian emigrants from San Buono. Buono had developed an extensive criminal history, ranging from failure to pay child support, grand theft auto and rape. In 1975, when Buono was 41 years-old, he came into contact with Kenneth Bianchi. A self-described "ladies man", Buono persuaded Bianchi to join him in prostituting two women he had been holding as virtual prisoners. In October 1977, Buono and Bianchi began killing women, cruising around Los Angeles, California in Buono's car and using fake badges, persuaded women they were undercover police officers, they would order the victims into Buono's car, which they claimed was an unmarked police car, drive to Buono's home to torture and murder them.
The women and girls ranged in age from 12 to 28. The victims were: Yolanda Washington, age 19 – October 17, 1977 Judith Lynn Miller, age 15 – October 31, 1977 Lissa Kastin, age 21 – November 6, 1977 Jane King, age 28 – November 10, 1977 Dolores Cepeda, age 12 – November 13, 1977 Sonja Johnson, age 14 – November 13, 1977 Kristina Weckler, age 20 – November 20, 1977 Lauren Wagner, age 18 – November 29, 1977 Kimberely Martin, age 17 – December 9, 1977 Cindy Lee Hudspeth, age 20 – February 16, 1978Both Buono and Bianchi would sexually abuse their victims before strangling them, they experimented with other methods of killing, such as lethal injection, electric shock, carbon monoxide poisoning. While committing the murders, Bianchi applied for a job with the Los Angeles Police Department and had been taken for several rides with police officers while they were searching for the Hillside Stranglers. Shortly after they botched their would-be eleventh murder, Bianchi revealed to Buono he had participated in LAPD police ride-alongs, that he was being questioned about the Hillside Strangler case.
Buono threatened to kill Bianchi if he did not move to Bellingham, Washington. In May 1978, Bianchi moved to Bellingham; the legal case against Buono was based upon Bianchi's testimony. Deciding that Bianchi was an unreliable and uncooperative witness, the case's original prosecutors from District Attorney John Van de Kamp's office moved to dismiss all charges against Buono and set him free; the presiding judge, Ronald M. George, refused to release Buono and reassigned the case to California Attorney General George Deukmejian's office. Buono's trial would become the longest in American legal history, lasting from November 1981 until November 1983. During the trial, Bianchi, in exchange for a lighter sentence, testified against Buono; the jury convicted Buono on nine counts of murder and sentenced him to life imprisonment, with Judge George commenting that he felt a death sentence would have been the appropriate punishment. In 1986, Buono married Christine Kizuka, a mother of three and a supervisor at the California State Employment Development Department.
His body was cremated. In 2007, Buono's grandson, Christopher Buono, committed suicide shortly after shooting his grandmother, Mary Castillo, in the head. Castillo was at one time married to Buono, had five children with him, including Chris' father. Chris Buono was unaware of his grandfather's true identity until 2005. In the 1989 film The Case of the Hillside Stranglers, Buono was portrayed by actor Dennis Farina. In the 2004 film The Hillside Strangler, Buono was portrayed by actor Nicholas Turturro and in Rampage: The Hillside Strangler Murders, he was played by Tomas Arana. Crime Library's story on the Hillside Stranglers
Stanford Law School
Stanford Law School is a professional graduate school of Stanford University, located in Silicon Valley near Palo Alto, California. Established in 1893, Stanford Law has been ranked one of the top three law schools in the country, with Yale Law School and Harvard Law School, every year since 1992. Since 2016, Stanford Law has been ranked 2nd. Stanford Law is regarded as one of the most prestigious law schools in the world. Stanford Law School employs more than 90 full-time and part-time faculty members and enrolls over 550 students who are working toward their Doctor of Jurisprudence degree. Stanford Law confers four advanced legal degrees: a Master of Laws, a Master of Studies in Law, a Master of the Science of Law, a Doctor of the Science of Law; each fall, Stanford Law enrolls a J. D. class of 180 students, giving Stanford the smallest student body of any law school ranked in the top fourteen. Stanford maintains eleven full-time legal clinics, including the nation's first and most active Supreme Court litigation clinic, offers 27 formal joint degree programs.
Stanford Law alumni include several of the first women to occupy Chief Justice or Associate Justice posts on supreme courts: current Chief Justice of New Zealand Sian Elias, retired U. S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, the late Associate Justice of the Hawaii Supreme Court Rhoda V. Lewis, the late Chief Justice of Washington Barbara Durham. Other justices of supreme courts who graduated from Stanford Law include the late Chief Justice of the United States William Rehnquist, retired Chief Justice of California Ronald M. George, retired California Supreme Court Justice Carlos R. Moreno, the late California Supreme Court Justice Frank K. Richardson. Stanford first offered a curriculum in legal studies in 1893, when the university hired its first two law professors: former U. S. president Benjamin Harrison and Nathan Abbott. Abbott assembled a small faculty over the next few years; the law department enrolled undergraduate majors at this time and included a large number of students who might not have been welcome at more traditional law schools at the time, including women and students of color Hispanic and Japanese students.
In 1900, the department moved from its original location in Encina Hall to the northeast side of the Inner Quadrangle. These larger facilities included Stanford’s first law library. Beginning to focus more on professional training, the school implemented its first three-year curriculum and became one of 27 charter members of the Association of American Law Schools. In 1901, the school awarded the Bachelor of Laws. Starting in 1908, the law department began its transition into an professional school when Stanford's Board of Trustees passed a resolution to change its name from Law Department to Law School. Eight years Frederic Campbell Woodward became the first dean of the law school, in 1923, the law school received accreditation from the American Bar Association. In 1924, Stanford's law program transitioned into a modern professional school when it began requiring a bachelor's degree for admission; the 1940s and 1950s brought considerable change to the law school. After World War II caused the law school's enrollment to drop to fewer than 30 students, the school expanded once the war ended in 1945.
A move to a new location in the Outer Quadrangle, as well as the 1948 opening of the law school dormitory Crothers Hall, allowed the school to grow, while the 1948 inaugural publication of the Stanford Law Review helped to augment the law school's national reputation. The decision that Stanford should remain a small law school with a limited enrollment emerged during this period. For the third time in its history, the law school relocated in the 1970s, this time to its current location in the Crown Quadrangle. In the 1960s and 1970s, the law school aimed to diversify its student body. During this period, students established a large number of new and progressive student organizations, including the Women of Stanford Law, the Stanford Chicano Law Student Association, the Environmental Law Society, the Stanford Public Interest Foundation. Additionally, in 1966, the school sought to academically diversify its student body by collaborating with the Stanford Business School to create its first joint-degree program.
A year earlier, in 1965, the law school enrolled its first black student, Sallyanne Payton'68, in 1972, the school hired its first female law professor, Barbara Babcock, its first professor of color, William Gould. In 1968, Stanford appointed Thelton Henderson, future judge of the U. S. District Court for the Northern District of California, as the first assistant dean for minority admissions. Henderson expanded minority enrollment from a single student to a fifth of the student body. Stanford Law's commitment to diversity continues today, The Princeton Review ranks Stanford Law as one of the ten best law schools for minority students. Earning national recognition in the 1980s and 1990s, the law school embarked on innovating its curriculum. Stanford offered new courses focusing on law and technology, environmental law, intellectual property law, international law, allowing students to specialize in emerging legal fields. In 1984, it launched the East Palo Alto Community Law Project. By the 21st century, a new focus on interdisciplinary education emerged.
In 2009, it transitioned from a semester system to
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be