Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Leicester Viney Vernon
Leicester Viney Vernon was a British Conservative Party politician from Berkshire. He was Leicester Viney Smith. Elected as Member of Parliament for Chatham in Kent a by-election in June 1853, after the result of the 1852 general election in the constituency were overturned on petition. Vernon's by-election victory was itself the subject of a petition, which he did not defend, but the petition was subsequently withdrawn. At the next general election, in 1857, he stood instead in Berkshire, he was returned to the House of Commons after a two-year absence at the 1859 general election, when Berkshire's 3 MPs were elected unopposed. He died the following year, aged 61. From his uncle Robert Vernon he inherited Ardington House, in Berkshire. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Leicester Vernon WorldCat page
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Robert Loyd-Lindsay, 1st Baron Wantage
Brigadier General Robert James Loyd-Lindsay, 1st Baron Wantage, was a British soldier, philanthropist, benefactor to Wantage, first chairman and co-founder of the British National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War, for which he crucially obtained the patronage of Queen Victoria. Loyd-Lindsay was born in 1832, the second son of Lieutenant General Sir James Lindsay, 1st Baronet and Anne, daughter of Sir Coutts Trotter, 1st Baronet, his elder brother Coutts Lindsay succeeded his maternal grandfather as second Baronet in 1837. In 1858, he married The Honorable Harriet Sarah Jones-Loyd, the only surviving child and heiress of Samuel Jones-Loyd, 1st and last Baron Overstone, one of the richest men in the country, who endowed the couple with a considerable fortune and the Lockinge Estate near Wantage as a wedding present. Lindsay fought as a captain in the Scots Guards during the Crimean War, he was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions on 20 September 1854 at the Battle of the Alma and 5 November at the Battle of Inkerman.
The London Gazette described his actions as follows: When the formation of the line of the Regiment was disordered at Alma, Captain Lindsay stood firm with the Colours, by his example and energy tended to restore order. At Inkerman, at a most trying moment, he, with a few men, charged a party of Russians, driving them back, running one through the body himself.—London Gazette On 9 November 1858 Lindsay was appointed as Equerry to HRH The Prince of Wales and served as such before resigning on 7 February 1859. The brief period as Equerry was due to his engagement and impending marriage to The Honorable Harriet Sarah Jones Loyd; the couple were known as Loyd-Lindsay. Loyd-Lindsay was involved in the volunteer movement, serving as Colonel of the Royal Berkshire Volunteers, subsequently Brigadier-General of the Home Counties Brigade, he was one of the first recipients of the Volunteer Officers' Decoration. He was Lieutenant Colonel of the Honourable Artillery Company from 13 November 1866 to 17 August 1881.
Loyd-Lindsay sat as Conservative Party Member of Parliament for Berkshire from 1865 until 1885 and served under Lord Beaconsfield as Financial Secretary to the War Office between 1877 and 1880. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1881. In 1885, he was elevated to the peerage of Lockinge in the County of Berkshire, he served as Lord Lieutenant of Berkshire from 1886 until his death. Having been initiated as a freemason and raised in Malta en route to the Crimea in 1854, he became Provincial Grand Master of Berkshire from 1898 until his death in 1901, he was appointed the first Chairman of the Council of the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom on 25 November 1890. On the 15th of July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War broke out. Shortly afterwards, John Furley met with Loyd-Lindsay to ask him if he would help set up a British Red Cross society in the United Kingdom. Furley had been in touch with the International Committee of the Red Cross in Geneva over the desirability of founding a British national Red Cross society, he knew that Lindsay believed in the new Red Cross movement.
A letter from Loyd-Lindsay was published in The Times on the 22nd of July calling for a national society in the United Kingdom, pledging £1000 of his own money to the new initiative. On the 4th of August, he chaired a public meeting at Willis's Rooms in London which resolved that "a National Society be formed in this country for aiding sick and wounded soldiers in time of war, that the said Society be formed upon the Rules laid down by the Geneva Conventions". Loyd-Lindsay continued to serve as chairman of the newly founded National Society for Aid to the Sick and Wounded in War until his death, he had a close relationship with Abingdon School where he was on the governing body until his death in 1901. He donated money to the school in addition to presenting prizes at events. After his death Lady Wantage continued the connection and Lord Wantage still has a room named after him at the school today. Lord and Lady Wantage lived at Lockinge House at East Lockinge in Berkshire, he died on 10 June 1901, aged 69.
On his death, Florence Nightingale, a close personal friend since the Crimea wrote: Lord Wantage is a great loss but he had been a great gain. And what he has gained for us can never be lost, it is my experience. A man who had everything that this world could give him, but who worked as hard, to the last, as the poorest able man and all for others for the common good. A man whose life makes a great difference for all. All are better than if he had not lived, this betterment is for always it does not die with him; that is the true estimate of a great life. God bless him and we will bless him, and we will bless God for having made him. Lady Wantage erected a monument to Lord Wantage on the Ridgeway. There are various inscriptions on the faces of the monument with the one on the North East side, being in Latin and is similar to that inscribed on the Iona Cross on Gibbet Hill, Surrey, namely: IN OBITU PAX POST OBITUM SALUS POST TENEBRAS LUX IN LUCE SPESWhich translates as: “Peace in passing away. Salvation after death.
Light after darkness. Hope in light." As he had no children the title died with him. In 1908 Lady Wantage opened Wantage Hall, the first Hall of Residence in the University of Reading, in honour of Lord Wantage, she died in August 1920. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Robert Loyd-Lindsay Location of grave and VC medal Royal Be
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Reddam House, Berkshire
Reddam House Berkshire is a co-educational, independent school in Wokingham, in the English county of Berkshire. Reddam House provides education for girls between the ages of 3 months and 18 years; the school is set in 125 acres of wood and parkland, is housed in a Victorian mansion Bearwood. The current Principal is Mrs T A M Howard; the school has around 500 students. The school offers day places as well as termly boarding for all ages. Reddam House was founded in 1827 as the Merchant Seamans' Orphanage in the City of London, its purpose was to educate children whose fathers were lost at sea. In 1862 the school moved into new buildings in Snaresbrook, with the support of the Prince Consort, Prince Albert and John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, a British Prime Minister; the school earned the designation "Royal" from Edward VII 1902 and the name was changed to the Royal Merchant Navy School by George V. In 1921, the school moved to Sindlesham near Wokingham, Berkshire into its present home in a Victorian mansion, Bearwood House.
In 1961, the school began to accept fee-paying students, whereupon it changed its name to Bearwood College. In 1995 the school became co-educational. In 2007 the preparatory school opened. In 2010 the school was given notice to quit the property following legal action and the allegation that the school was in arrears of rent; the school was renamed Reddam House, Berkshire. In 1816, John Walter, owner of The Times newspaper, purchased the 5,000-acre estate on which the school is now located, his son John Walter, employed architect Robert Kerr to build a mansion in the grounds as his country seat. Erected 1865–74, it is one of the largest Victorian country houses in England. Nikolaus Pevsner described it as "the climax, in its brazen way one of the major Victorian monuments of England"; the bricks used in the building were made from clay extracted from what is now California Country Park, once part of the estate. A dam was constructed around the site and was flooded to form the 47-acre Longmoor Lake.
Reddam House's facilities include a theatre, swimming pool and playing fields. These are used by a wide range including the annual Opera at Bearwood; the Victorian mansion is used for weddings and other public events. The mansion has appeared in a number of television series, including Lord Mountbatten: The Last Viceroy and as the club'Brydges', in the 2012 mini-series, Restless; the house featured in the second episode of the second series of ITV's Endeavour titled'Nocturne', in episodes of Midsomer Murders. Reddam House Group was founded in 2000 by Graeme Crawford in South Africa; the group's motto is Tutem te rebore reddam. The motto has its origins in Scottish history, when the first Monarch of Crawford saved King David the First of Scotland from certain death by a stag during a hunting expedition; the Monarch’s Coat-of-Arms included the stag’s head as a symbol of his bravery. On marrying his wife, the Monarch included the fleur-de-lis in his Coat-of-Arms. College website Profile on the ISC website Royal Berkshire history: Bearwood House Bearwood College Reviews on Independentschools.com
Edward Strutt, 1st Baron Belper
Edward Strutt, 1st Baron Belper PC FRS, was a British Liberal Party politician. He served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1852 to 1854 under Lord Aberdeen. Born at St Helen's House Derby, Strutt was the only son of William Strutt, of St Helen's House and the grandson of Jedediah Strutt, his mother was daughter of Thomas Evans. He was educated at Trinity College, where he was President of the Cambridge Union in 1821. Strutt graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in 1823. Strutt entered the British House of Commons in 1830, sitting as Member of Parliament for Derby until 1848, when he was unseated on petition, he represented Arundel from 1851 to 1852 and Nottingham from 1852 to 1856. He was Chief Commissioner of Railways between 1846 and 1848 and served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1853 to 1854 in Lord Aberdeen's coalition government, he was sworn of the Privy Council in 1846 and in 1856 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Belper, of Belper, in the County of Derby. Strutt held the honorary posts of High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire in 1850 and Lord Lieutenant of Nottinghamshire between 1864 and 1880, having been a Deputy Lieutenant.
In 1860 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and between 1871 and 1879, he was President of University College, London. Lord Belper married Amelia Harriet Otter, daughter of the Right Reverend William Otter, Bishop of Chichester, on 28 March 1837, they had several children. They were the parents of 2nd Baron Belper. Children from the marriage were: Hon. Caroline Strutt married Sir Kenelm Edward Digby, son of Rev. Hon. Kenelm Henry Digby and Caroline Sheppard, on 30 August 1870. Hon. Ellen Strutt married George Murray Smith the Younger on 22 October 1885. Hon. Sophia Strutt married Sir Henry Denis Le Marchant, 2nd Baronet. Son of Sir Denis Le Marchant, 1st Baronet, on 7 September 1869. William Strutt died in Germany. Henry Strutt, 2nd Baron Belper Hon. Arthur Strutt married Alice Mary Elizabeth March Phillipps de Lisle, daughter of Ambrose Lisle March Phillipps De Lisle and Laura Maria Clifford, on 22 April 1873, he built his family seat, Kingston Hall and moved in 1846. Lord Belper died at Eaton Square, London, in June 1880, aged 78, was succeeded in the barony by his second but eldest surviving son, Henry.
A stained glass window was erected in the north side of the chancel in St. Mary's Church, Nottingham in his memory. Lady Belper died in December 1890. 1801–1830: Mr Edward Strutt 1830–1846: Mr Edward Strutt MP 1846–1848: The Right Honourable Edward Strutt MP 1848–1851: The Right Honourable Edward Strutt 1851–1856: The Right Honourable Edward Strutt MP 1856–1860: The Right Honourable The Lord Belper PC 1860–1880: The Right Honourable The Lord Belper PC FRS Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Edward Strutt