Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed Duke, was an American actor, Oscar winner and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient. He was among the top box office draws for three decades. Wayne grew up in Southern California, he lost a football scholarship to the University of Southern California as a result of a bodysurfing accident, began working for the Fox Film Corporation. He appeared in small parts, but his first leading role came in Raoul Walsh's Western The Big Trail, an early widescreen film epic, a box-office failure. Leading roles followed in numerous B movies during the 1930s, most of them Westerns, without becoming a major name, it was John Ford's Stagecoach that made him a mainstream star, he starred in 142 motion pictures altogether. According to one biographer, "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's frontier heritage."Wayne's other roles in Westerns include a cattleman driving his herd on the Chisholm Trail in Red River, a Civil War veteran whose niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches in The Searchers, a troubled rancher competing with a lawyer for a woman's hand in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, a cantankerous one-eyed marshal in True Grit, for which he received the Academy Award for Best Actor.
He is remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man, Rio Bravo with Dean Martin, The Longest Day. In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist, he appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, made his last public appearance at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979. Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 26, 1907, at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa; the local paper, Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907, that Wayne weighed 13 lbs. at birth. His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert. Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison, was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison. Wayne's mother, the former Mary "Molly" Alberta Brown, was from Nebraska. Wayne had Scottish and Irish ancestry, he was raised Presbyterian. Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, in 1916 to Glendale at 404 Isabel Street, where his father worked as a pharmacist.
He attended Glendale Union High School where he performed well in both academics. Wayne was part of its debating team, he was the President of the Latin Society and contributed to the school's newspaper sports column. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke" because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke, he preferred "Duke" to "Marion", the nickname stuck. Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale; as a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man. He was active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, he played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team. Wayne applied to the U. S. Naval was not accepted. Instead, he attended the University of Southern California, he was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities. Wayne played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career, he lost his athletic scholarship, without funds, had to leave the university.
As a favor to coach Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra. Wayne credited his walk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, good friends with Tom Mix. Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent. Wayne appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard, The Dropkick, Salute and Columbia's Maker of Men. While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as "Duke Morrison" only once, in Words and Music. Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail. For his screen name, Walsh suggested "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad" Anthony Wayne. Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding "too Italian".
Walsh suggested "John Wayne". Sheehan agreed, the name was set. Wayne was not present for the discussion, his pay was raised to $105 a week. The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35 mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film process, using an innovative camera and lenses. Many in the audience who saw it in Grandeur cheered. However, only a handful of theaters were equipped to show the film in its widescreen process, the effort was wasted. Despite being regarded by modern critics, the film was consi
In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission Computer Inquiries were a trio of interrelated FCC Inquiries focused on problems posed by the convergence of regulated telephony with unregulated computing services. These Computer Inquiries created rules and requirements designed to prevent cross subsidization and anti-competitive behavior from companies such as Bell Operating Companies to enter the enhanced services market. In the 1960s, The Federal Communications Commission awoke to the reality of powerful computers running communications networks, communications networks over which humans interacted with powerful computers. In 1966, the FCC was interested in the difference between computers that facilitate communications and computers with which people communicate; the Commission had to make a decision on whether both of these types of computers should be regulated as a basic phone service. "The task before the Commission was the nature and extent of the regulatory jurisdiction to be applied to data processing services.
To answer these questions, the Commission launched the first Computer Inquiry. In the 1960s the FCC faced a problem with existing regulated communication networks, such as AT&T who offered basic communication service. Companies such as AT&T had found a way to add computers to the ends of these existing networks by layering protocols on top of the network to achieve data processing; these enhancements if left unregulated threatened growth of these services. In 1970, the FCC made its first attempt at dividing the computer world into two categories: computers that ran communication networks and computers at the end of telephone lines that people interacted. "The division was technological, focused on computer processing, attempting to divide the difference between circuit or message switching and data processing." This division by the Commission were either called "pure communications" or "pure data processing." If a message is sent from one location to another and it does not change, the FCC defined it as Pure Communication.
On the other hand, if a changes or processing happen at the end of phone line the FCC defined it as Pure Data Processing. In pure data processing the computer processes the information and determines if it is a circuit or message-switching. In pure data processing the computer processes the information by using storing, sorting, merging or calculating data functions based on how the computer is programmed; some computer processing, use both pure communication and pure data processing. The FCC was not too sure how to handle these situations and created a third category known as hybrids. Hybrid cases were considered a gray area and the FCC planned to resolve these gray services on case-by-case basis; the FCC determined if there is more communications it was communications. Hybrid cases became Computer Inquires I's undoing as it did not define pure and data communications. Pure communications and pure data processing have different characteristics that led to different policy results; the markets that the technology existed on assisted.
"The pure data processing market was viewed as an innovative, competitive market with low barriers to entry and little chance of monopolization." The FCC established that no additional regulation or safeguards where required for the pure data processing market. The pure communications market on the other hand was being managed by an incumbent monopoly; the FCC had four concerns about the incumbent telephone companies which were: "the sale of data processing services by carriers should not hurt the provision of common carrier services, the costs of such data processing services should not be passed on to telephone rate payers, revenues derived from common carrier services should not be used to cross subsidize data processing services, the furnishing of such data processing services by carriers should not hurt the competitive computer market." With concerns relating to communication facility, the FCC developed its "Maximum Separation" safeguards. The FCC made it so that if carrier wanted to enter the unregulated data processing market they could only do so by going through a separate subsidiary.
The separate subsidiary needed to have a separate data processing corporation, accounting books, personnel and facilities. The carrier could not use the separate subsidiary to promote their data processing services, use network computers for non-network purposes, or use network computers during peak hours to provision data processing services. In 1976, the FCC was astounded by the number of hybrid cases that used both "pure communication" and "pure data processing" thus leading to the launch of the Second Computer Inquiry. After Computer I took effect, new technological developments in the telecommunications and computer industries exposed flaws in its definitional structure approach to evaluating the "hybrid category". Dumb terminals had become smart, the cost of computer processing units dropped, logical networks overlaying physical networks, microcomputers made their appearance that set the stage for the scrapping of Computer Inquiry I; the Commission's situation was "more complicated" and led to the birth of the basic versus enhanced services dichotomy.
This established a division between “common carrier transmission services from those computer services which depend on common carrier services in the transmission of information.” If a carrier offers a pure transmission over a path, transparent in terms
Nevada, a state in the western region of the United States of America, hosts a large number of Native Americans who have traditionally lived in the Great Basin, a large geographic feature of Nevada. There are four Native American languages that are spoken by recognized tribes of Nevada, three of which fall under the Uto-Aztecan languages classification while the other is an isolate. A minority language is spoken in Nevada. There are four Native American languages spoken in Nevada. Population estimates are based on figures from Ethnologue and U. S. Census data, as given in sub-pages below; the four languages are shown in the table below: Mojave language is spoken on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation, split between Arizona and Nevada, in order of decreasing land area present in each respective state. Mojave is a Yuman language. Native Americans in the United States Indigenous peoples of the Great Basin Indigenous languages of the Americas Uto-Aztecan languages Washo language