Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex. In some cultures, transvestism is practiced for religious, traditional, or ceremonial reasons; the term is applied to women. Though the term was coined as late as the 1910s, the phenomenon is not new, it was referred to in the Hebrew Bible. The word has undergone several changes of meaning since it was first coined and is still used in a variety of senses. Today, the term transvestite is considered outdated and derogatory, with the term cross-dresser used as a more appropriate replacement; this is because the term transvestite was used to diagnose medical disorders, including mental health disorders, transvestism was viewed as a disorder, but the term cross-dresser was coined by the transgender community. In some cases, the term transvestite is seen as more appropriate for use by members of the transgender community instead of by those outside of the transgender community, some have reclaimed the word.
Magnus Hirschfeld coined the word transvestite in 1910 to refer to the sexual interest in cross-dressing. He used it to describe persons who voluntarily wore clothes of the opposite sex. Hirschfeld's group of transvestites consisted of both males and females, with heterosexual, homosexual and asexual orientations. Hirschfeld himself was not happy with the term: He believed that clothing was only an outward symbol chosen on the basis of various internal psychological situations. In fact, Hirschfeld helped people to achieve the first name changes and performed the first reported sexual reassignment surgery. Hirschfeld's transvestites therefore were, in today's terms, not only transvestites, but a variety of people from the transgender spectrum. Hirschfeld noticed that sexual arousal was associated with transvestism. In more recent terminology, this is sometimes called transvestic fetishism. Hirschfeld clearly distinguished between transvestism as an expression of a person's "contra-sexual" feelings and fetishistic behavior if the latter involved wearing clothes of the other sex.
One of the fiercest activists to come out of the Stonewall Riots was Sylvia Rivera, who set up Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries. In a 1971 essay, "Transvestites: Your Half Sisters and Half Brothers of the Revolution", Rivera wrote, "Transvestites are homosexual men and women who dress in clothes of the opposite sex."After all the changes that took place during the 1970s, a large group was left without a word to describe themselves: heterosexual males who wear traditionally feminine clothing. This group was not happy with the term "transvestism", therefore took on the term "cross-dresser". Cross-dressers are men who wear female clothing and both admire and imitate women, but self-identify as different from both gay men and transsexuals, deny having fetishistic intentions; when cross-dressing occurs for erotic purposes over a period of at least six months and causes significant distress or impairment, the behavior is considered a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the psychiatric diagnosis "transvestic fetishism" is applied.
In some cultures, transvestism is practiced for traditional or ceremonial reasons. For example, in India some male devotees of the Hindu god Krishna in Mathura and Vrindavan, dress in female attire to pose as his consort, the goddess Radha, as an act of devotion. In Italy, the Neapolitan femminielli wear wedding dresses, called the matrimonio dei femminielli, a procession takes place through the streets, a tradition that has pagan origins. Drag List of transgender-related topics Transgender Transsexualism Travesti Dual-role transvestism Ackroyd, Peter. Dressing up, transvestism and drag: the history of an obsession. Simon and Schuster, 1979. ISBN 0671250914 Mancini, Elena. A Brighter Shade of Pink: Magnus Hirschfeld. ProQuest, 2007. ISBN 0549700552 Ambrosio, Giovanna. Transvestism, Transsexualism in the Psychoanalytic Dimension. Karnac Books, 2011. ISBN 178049307X Gravois, Valory. Cherry Single: A Transvestite Comes of Age Alchemist/Light Publishing, 1997, ISBN 0-9600650-5-9 Thanem Torkild, Wallenberg Louise.
"Just doing gender? Transvestism and the power of underdoing gender in everyday life and work". Organization. 23: 250–271. Doi:10.1177/1350508414547559. The dictionary definition of transvestite at Wiktionary Transvestism at Britannica Online Encyclopædia
A dominatrix, is a woman who takes the dominant role in BDSM activities. A dominatrix might be of any sexual orientation, but her orientation does not limit the genders of her submissive partners; the role of a dominatrix may not involve physical pain toward the submissive. A dominatrix is a paid professional as the term dominatrix is little-used within the non-professional BDSM scene; the term domme is a coined pseudo-French female variation of the slang dom. The use of domme, dom, or dominant by any woman in a dominant role is chosen by personal preference and the conventions of the local BDSM scene; the term mistress or dominant mistress is sometimes used. Female dominance, female domination or femdom refer to BDSM activities in which the dominant partner is female; as fetish culture is becoming more prevalent in Western media, depictions of dominatrices in film and television have become more common. Dominatrix is the feminine form of the Latin dominator, a ruler or lord, was used in a non-sexual sense.
Its use in English dates back to at least 1561. Its earliest recorded use in the prevalent modern sense, as a female dominant in S&M, dates to 1961, it was coined to describe a woman who provides punishment-for-pay as one of the case studies within Bruce Roger's pulp paperback The Bizarre Lovemakers. The term was taken up shortly after by the Myron Kosloff title Dominatrix in 1968, entered more popular mainstream knowledge following the 1976 film Dominatrix Without Mercy. Although the term dominatrix was not used, the classic example in literature of the female dominant-male submissive relationship is portrayed in the 1870 novella Venus in Furs by Austrian writer Leopold von Sacher-Masoch; the term masochism was derived from the author's name by Richard von Krafft-Ebing in the latter's 1886 forensic study Psychopathia Sexualis. The history of the dominatrix is argued to date back to rituals of the Goddess Inanna, in ancient Mesopotamia. Ancient cuneiform texts consisting of "Hymns to Inanna" have been cited as examples of the archetype of powerful, sexual female displaying dominating behaviors and forcing Gods and men into submission to her.
Archaeologist and historian Anne O. Nomis notes that Inanna's rituals included cross-dressing of cult personnel, rituals "imbued with pain and ecstasy, bringing about initiation and journeys of altered consciousness; as far back as the 1590s, flagellation within an erotic setting is recorded. The profession features in erotic prints of the era, such as the British Museum mezzotint "The Cully Flaug'd", in accounts of forbidden books which record the flogging schools and the activities practised. Within the 18th century, female "Birch Disciplinarians" advertised their services in a book masked as a collection of lectures or theatrical plays, entitled "Fashionable Lectures"; this included the names of 57 women, some actresses and courtesans, who catered to birch discipline fantasies, keeping a room with rods and cat o' nine tails, charging their clients a Guinea for a "lecture". The 19th century is characterised by what historian Anne O. Nomis characterises as the "Golden Age of the Governess".
No fewer than twenty establishments were documented as having existed by the 1840s, supported by flagellation practices and known as "Houses of Discipline" distinct from brothels. Amongst the well-known "dominatrix governesses" were Mrs Chalmers, Mrs Noyeau, the late Mrs Jones of Hertford Street and London Street, the late Mrs Theresa Berkley, Bessy Burgess of York Square and Mrs Pyree of Burton Cres; the most famous of these Governess "female flagellants" was Theresa Berkley, who operated her establishment on Charlotte Street in the central London district of Marylebone. She is recorded to have used implements such as whips and birches, to chastise and punish her male clients, as well as the Berkley Horse, a specially designed flogging machine, a pulley suspension system for lifting them off the floor; such historical use of corporal punishment and suspension, in a setting of domination roleplay, connects closely to the practices of modern-day professional dominatrices. The "bizarre style" of leather catsuits, tail whips, latex rubber only came about in the 20th century within commercial fetish photography, taken up by dominatrices.
Within the mid-20th century, dominatrices operated in a discreet and underground manner, which has made them difficult to trace within the historical record. A few photographs still exist of the women who ran their domination businesses in London, New York, The Hague and Hamburg's Herbertstraße, predominantly in sepia and black-and-white photographs, scans from magazine articles, copied and re-copied. Amongst these were Miss Doreen of London, acquainted with John Sutcliffe of AtomAge fame, whose clients included Britain's top politicians and businessmen. In New York, the dominatrix Anne Laurence was known within the underground circle of acquaintances during the 1950s, with Monique Von Cleef arriving in the early 1960s, hitting national headlines when her home was raided by police detectives on 22 December 1965. Von Cleef went on to set up her "House of Pain" in The Hague in the 1970s, which became one of the world capitals for dominatrices with visiting lawyers, ambas
Jared Francis Harris is a British actor, best known for his roles as Lane Pryce in the television drama series Mad Men, David Robert Jones in the science fiction series Fringe, King George VI in the historical series The Crown, Anderson Dawes on the science fiction series The Expanse and captain Francis Crozier in the AMC series The Terror. He has had significant supporting roles in films such as Mr Deeds, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows and Allied. Harris was born in Hammersmith, one of three sons of the Irish actor Richard Harris and his first wife, Welsh actress Elizabeth Rees-Williams, his younger brother is actor Jamie Harris, his older brother is director Damian Harris, his maternal grandfather was politician David Rees-Williams, 1st Baron Ogmore. Harris was educated at Ladycross, a former preparatory boarding independent school in the coastal town of Seaford in East Sussex, as were his brothers Jamie and Damian, he says, "They were famous for discipline, with cold showers every morning", that "You were never known by your first name there.
You were either called by your last name. Since there were three of us, Damian was'Harris Ma' for major. I was'Harris Mi' for minor, Jamie was'Harris Minimus,' being the youngest and the smallest", he went to Downside School, a Catholic boarding independent school in the village of Stratton-on-the-Fosse in Somerset, in South West England, followed by Duke University in the city of Durham, North Carolina, in the United States, where he earned a BFA degree in 1983. Harris began his film career as director of named Darkmoor, an unfinished feature-length film for Duke University's Freewater Films, his first film appearance as an actor was in The Rachel Papers. He played the role of the aged Will Robinson in the movie adaptation of the television series Lost in Space. Harris played Dr. Charles Ashford in Resident Evil: Apocalypse, Benmont Tench in Jim Jarmusch's Dead Man, Kenneth Branagh's character's doppelgänger in How to Kill Your Neighbor's Dog. Other notable roles include King Henry VIII in the 2003 film adaptation of the novel The Other Boleyn Girl.
He portrayed Andy Warhol in I Shot Andy Warhol and John Lennon in the television movie Two of Us. He played Vladimir in the black comedy drama film Happiness and directed by Todd Solondz, he played the gruff Captain Anderson in the BBC2 adaptation of To the Ends of the Earth. One of his more recent film roles was Ulysses S. Grant in the Steven Spielberg-directed Lincoln, he played Lane Pryce in Mad Men from 2009 until 2012 and returned to the series to direct the 11th episode of season 7, which aired in 2015. He portrayed King George VI in the first season of The Crown, he played Captain Francis Crozier in the 2018 series The Terror, based on the Dan Simmons novel of the same name that provided a fictional account of the fate of Franklin's lost expedition. In November 2018, Harris was one of the first recipients of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society's Louie Kamookak Medal, awarded "for making Canada's geography better known to Canadians and to the world", for his portrayal of Captain Crozier.
Harris said that he was "gratified" that the series inspired curiosity about the real expedition, remarking, "It’s sort of fitting that history will recall that it was the RCGS that first recognized The Terror, that we as the recipients walked in the footsteps of Louie Kamookak."In March 2019, Harris joined Jared Leto in Sony’s ‘Spider-Man’ spinoff ‘Morbius’. Harris married Jacqueline Goldenberg in 1989. On 16 July 2005, Harris married actress Emilia Fox, daughter of actors Edward Fox and Joanna David, filed for divorce in January 2009. Harris married Allegra Riggio, a lighting designer and TV host, on 9 November 2013. Jared Harris on IMDb Jared Harris at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
Eugene "Gene" Bilbrew was an African-American cartoonist and fetish artist and was among the most prolific illustrators of fetish oriented pulp fiction book covers. In addition to signing his work with his own name, he produced art under a range of pseudonyms, including ENEG, Van Rod, Bondy. Bilbrew was born in Los Angeles in 1923 and showed an early talent for drawing and performed with the Basin Street Boys as a singer, he began his career at the Los Angeles Sentinel, an African-American newspaper, where he illustrated the comic strip series The Bronze Bomber that he coauthored with Bill Alexander. The Bronze Bomber was the first black superhero, he wrote the series Hercules in Health Magazine. Throughout his life, he took freelance assignments within the African American community producing modernized cover art for Victorian-era lottery numbers books such as the Gypsy Witch Dream Book and Old Aunt Dinah's Dream Book for the Wholesale Sales Corp. Around 1951 Bilbrew became an assistant to the hugely influential comics artist Will Eisner, on The Spirit, where Bilbrew took over the back-up series Clifford—a little-kid humour page—after its originator Jules Feiffer was drafted into the army.
Bilbrew's Clifford was syndicated as a weekly comic strip by General Features from 1951 to 1952. Bilbrew's notability began in the early 1950s, when through the suggestion of Eric Stanton, he enlisted as a fetish artist to produce work for Irving Klaw, he produced many illustrations for Leonard Burtman, publisher of Exotique, a fetish magazine between 1955 and 1959. While his career waned with the coming of relaxed censorship laws of the 1960s, his substance abuse worsened in the early 1970s. According to Eric Stanton, Gene Bilbrew died of an overdose in the back of a Times Square adult bookstore in May, 1974. Eric Stanton & the History of the Bizarre Underground by Richard Pérez Seves. Atglen, Schiffer Publishing, 2018. ISBN 978-0764355424 Irving Klaw John Willie Eric Stanton Charles Guyette Bettie Page Fetish art Fetish artist Exotique Mitchell, Tony. "Eric Stanton and the History of the Bizarre Underground". The Fetishistas. Retrieved December 4, 2018. Http://www.rebsart.com/Bios/bilbrew.asp http://fetish.pornparks.com/bilbrew/ http://dulltooldimbulb.blogspot.com/2009/03/eugene-bilbrew-african-american-artist.html http://hyperallergic.com/172180/a-long-lost-artist-of-the-1950s-sexual-underground/ https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/mar/04/cult-of-the-spankers-pulp-fiction-times-square-smut
High heels are a type of shoe in which the heel, compared with the toe, is higher off the ground. These shoes go beyond protecting the foot from the ground or improving efficiency of walking. High heels make the wearer taller, accentuating the length of the leg overall. There are many types of high heels, which come in different styles and materials, can be found all over the world, they have significant cultural and fashionable meanings attached to them, which have been shaped by historical contexts over the past 1,000 years. High heels have a rich history, dating as far back as the tenth century; the Persian cavalry, for example, wore a kind of boot with heels in order to ensure their feet stayed in the stirrups. Furthermore, research indicates that heels kept arrow-shooting riders, who stood up on galloping horses, safely on the horse; this trend has translated into the popular 21st-century cowboy boot. Owning horses was expensive and time-consuming, so to wear heels implied the wearer had significant wealth.
This practical and effective use of the heel has set the standard for most horse-back riding shoes throughout history and into the present day. In the 12th century, in India, heels become visible again; the image of a statue from the Ramappa Temple proves this, showing an Indian woman's foot clad in a raised shoe. During the Medieval period, both men and women wore platform shoes in order to raise themselves out of the trash and excrement filled streets. In 1430, chopines were 30 inches high, at times. Venetian law limited the height to three inches—but this regulation was ignored. A 17th-century law in Massachusetts announced that women would be subjected to the same treatment as witches if they lured men into marriage via the use of high-heeled shoes. Modern high heels were brought to Europe by emissaries of Shāh Abbās I of Persia in the early 17th century. Men wore them to imply their upper-class status. Royalty such as King Louis XIV wore heels to impart status; as the shoes caught on, other members of society began donning high heels, elite members ordered their heels to be made higher to distinguish themselves from lower classes.
Authorities began regulating the length of a high heel's point according to social rank. Klaus Carl includes these lengths in his book Shoes: "½ inch for commoners, 1 inch for the bourgeois, 1 and ½ inches for knights, 2 inches for nobles, 2 and ½ inches for princes."” As women took to appropriating this style, the heels’ width changed in another fundamental way. Men wore thick heels; when Enlightenment ideals such as science and logic took hold of many European societies, men stopped wearing heels. After the French Revolution in the late 1780s, heels and superficiality all became intertwined. In this way, heels became much more associated with a woman's supposed sense of impracticality and extravagance; the design of the high French heels from the late 1600s to around the 1720s placed body weight on the ball of the foot, were decorated with lace or braided fabric. From the 1730s-1740s, wide heels with an upturned toe and a buckle fastening became popular; the 1750s and 1760s introduced a skinnier, higher heel.
The 1790s added combinations of color. Additionally, throughout all of these decades, there was no difference between the right and left shoe. In Britain in 1770, an act was introduced into the parliament which would have applied the same penalties as witchcraft to the use of high heels and other cosmetic devices. Heels went out of fashion starting around 1810, in 1860 they returned at about two and a half inches; the Pinet heel and the Cromwell heel were both introduced during this time. Their production was increased with the invention and eventual mass production of the sewing machine around the 1850s. With sewing machines, yields increased as machines could and cheaply "position the heel, stitc the upper, attac the upper to the sole." This is a prime example of how the popularity of heels interacts with the culture and technology of the time. With the 1900s bringing two devastating world wars, many countries set wartime regulations for rationing all aspects of life; this included materials used for making heels, such as silk, rubber, or leather.
Another one of the numerous outcomes of these wars was an increase in international relations, a more proliferate sharing of fashion through photography and films, which helped spread high heel fashion as well. Examples of this were the brown and white pumps with cutouts or ankle straps combined with an open toe, their practicality yet professional look appealed to the fast-paced lifestyle of many women. Alternatively, World War II led to the popularization of pin-up girl posters, which men would hang in their bunks while at war. All of these girls were pictured wearing high heels, leading to an increase in the relationship between high heels and female sexuality; the tall, skinny stiletto heel was invented in 1950, strengthening the relationship between women and appearance. There was a weakening of the stiletto style during both the late 1960s / early 1970s and 1990s when block heels were more prominent, followed by a revival in the 2000s; the intricate and complex history of high heels has led to a variety of cultural thoughts and lens through which people view them today.
Firstly, it is exclusively gendered in the sense that few men wear high heels in present times. Secondly, magazines like Pla
A corset is a garment worn to hold and train the torso into a desired shape, traditionally a smaller waist or larger bottom, for aesthetic or medical purposes, to improve posture, or support the breasts. Both men and women are known to wear corsets, though this item was for many years an integral part of women's wardrobes. Since the late 20th century, the fashion industry has borrowed the term "corset" to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of traditional corsets without acting as them. While these modern corsets and corset tops feature lacing or boning, imitate an historical style of corsets, they have little, if any, effect on the shape of the wearer's body. Genuine corsets are made by a corsetmaker and are fitted to the individual wearer; the word corset is derived from the Old French word corps and the diminutive of body, which itself derives from corpus. The craft of corset construction is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them.. Someone who makes corsets is a corsetier or corsetière, or sometimes a corsetmaker.
In 1828, the word corset came into general use in the English language. The word was used in The Ladies Magazine to describe a "quilted waistcoat" that the French called un corset, it was used to differentiate the lighter corset from the heavier stays of the period. The most common and well-known use of corsets is to slim the body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women, this most emphasizes a curvy figure by reducing the waist and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. However, in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular straight-up-and-down shape, which involved minimizing the bust and hips. For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However, there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 – and until the late 1840s in some instances – when a wasp-waisted figure was desirable for men. An "overbust corset" encloses the torso. An "underbust corset" extends down toward the hips. A "longline corset" -- either overbust or underbust -- extends past the hip bone.
A longline corset is ideal for those who want increased stability, have longer torsos, or want to smooth out their hips. A "standard" length corset will stop short of the iliac crest and is ideal for those who want increased flexibility or have a shorter torso; some corsets, in rare instances, reach the knees. A shorter kind of corset that covers the waist area, is called a waist cincher. A corset may include garters to hold up stockings. Traditionally, a corset supports the visible dress and spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the crinoline and bustle. At times, a corset cover is used to protect outer clothes from the corset and to smooth the lines of the corset; the original corset cover was worn under the corset to provide a layer between the body. Corsets were not worn next to the skin due to difficulties with laundering these items during the 19th century, as they had steel boning and metal eyelets that would rust; the corset cover was in the form of a light chemise, made from cotton lawn or silk.
Modern corset wearers may wear corset liners for many of the same reasons. Those who lace their corsets use the liners to prevent burn on their skin from the laces. People with spinal problems, such as scoliosis, or with internal injuries, may be fitted with a back brace, similar to a corset. However, a back brace is not the same thing as a corset; this is made of plastic and or metal. A brace is used to push the curves so that they don't progress, sometimes they lower the curves. Braces are used in children and adolescents, as they have a higher chance of the curves getting worse. Artist Andy Warhol was shot in 1968 and never recovered. Aside from fashion and medical uses, corsets are used in sexual fetishism, most notably in BDSM activities. In BDSM, a submissive may be required to wear a corset, which would be laced tightly and restrict the wearer to some degree. A dominant may wear a corset black, but for different reasons, such as aesthetics. A specially designed corset, in which the breasts and vulva are exposed, can be worn during vanilla sex or BDSM activities.
Corsets are constructed of a flexible material stiffened with boning inserted into channels in the cloth or leather. In the 18th and early 19th century, thin strips of baleen were favoured for the boning. Plastic is now the most used material for lightweight, faux corsets and the majority of poor-quality corsets. Spring and/or spiral steel is preferred for stronger and better quality corsets. Other materials used for boning have included ivory and cane. Corsets are held together by lacing at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset. Depending on the desired effect and time period, corsets can be laced from the top down, from the bottom up, or both up from the bottom and down from the top, using two laces that meet in the middle. In the