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John Winthrop

John Winthrop was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England following Plymouth Colony. Winthrop led the first large wave of immigrants from England in 1630 and served as governor for 12 of the colony's first 20 years, his writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the governments and religions of neighboring colonies. Winthrop was born into a wealthy merchant family, he became Lord of the Manor at Groton in Suffolk. He was not involved in founding the Massachusetts Bay Company in 1628, but he became involved in 1629 when anti-Puritan King Charles I began a crackdown on Nonconformist religious thought. In October 1629, he was elected governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he led a group of colonists to the New World in April 1630, founding a number of communities on the shores of Massachusetts Bay and the Charles River.

Between 1629 and his death in 1649, he served 18 annual terms as governor or lieutenant-governor and was a force of comparative moderation in the religiously conservative colony, clashing with the more conservative Thomas Dudley and the more liberal Roger Williams and Henry Vane. Winthrop was a respected political figure, his attitude toward governance seems authoritarian to modern sensibilities, he resisted attempts to widen voting and other civil rights beyond a narrow class of religiously approved individuals, opposed attempts to codify a body of laws that the colonial magistrates would be bound by, opposed unconstrained democracy, calling it "the meanest and worst of all forms of government". The authoritarian and religiously conservative nature of Massachusetts rule was influential in the formation of neighboring colonies, which were formed in some instances by individuals and groups opposed to the rule of the Massachusetts elders. Winthrop's son John was one of the founders of the Connecticut Colony, Winthrop himself wrote one of the leading historical accounts of the early colonial period.

His long list of descendants includes famous Americans, his writings continue to influence politicians today. John Winthrop was born on 12 January 1587/8 to Adam and Anne Winthrop in Edwardstone, England, his birth was recorded in the parish register at Groton. His father's family had been successful in the textile business, his father was a lawyer and prosperous landowner with several properties in Suffolk, his mother's family was well-to-do, with properties in Suffolk and Essex. When Winthrop was young, his father became a director at Cambridge. Winthrop's uncle John emigrated to Ireland, the Winthrop family took up residence at Groton Manor. Winthrop was first tutored at home by John Chaplin and was assumed to have attended grammar school at Bury St. Edmunds, he was regularly exposed to religious discussions between his father and clergymen, thus came to a deep understanding of theology at an early age. He was admitted to Trinity College in December 1602, matriculating at the university a few months later.

Among the students with whom he would have interacted were John Cotton and John Wheelwright, two men who had important roles in New England. He was a close childhood and university friend of William Spring a Puritan Member of Parliament with whom he corresponded for the rest of his life; the teenage Winthrop admitted in his diary of the time to "lusts … so masterly as no good could fasten upon me." Biographer Francis Bremer suggests that Winthrop's need to control his baser impulses may have prompted him to leave school early and marry at an unusually early age. In 1604, Winthrop journeyed to Great Stambridge in Essex with a friend, they stayed at the home of a family friend, Winthrop was favorably impressed with their daughter Mary Forth. He left Trinity College to marry her on April 1605 at Great Stambridge. Mary bore him five children; the oldest of their children was John Winthrop, the Younger, who became a governor and magistrate of Connecticut Colony. Their last two children, both girls, died not long after birth, Mary died in 1615 from complications of the last birth.

The couple spent most of their time at Great Stambridge. In 1613, Adam Winthrop transferred the family holdings in Groton to Winthrop, who became Lord of the Manor at Groton; as Lord of the Manor, Winthrop was involved in the management of the estate, overseeing the agricultural activities and the manor house. He followed his father in practicing law in London, which would have brought him into contact with the city's business elite, he was appointed to the county commission of the peace, a position that gave him a wider exposure among other lawyers and landowners and a platform to advance what he saw as God's kingdom. The commission's responsibilities included overseeing countywide issues, including road and bridge maintenance and the issuance of licenses; some of its members were empowered to act as local judges for minor offenses, although Winthrop was only able to exercise this authority in cases affecting his estate. The full commission met quarterly, Winthrop forged a number of important connections through its activities.

Winthrop documented his religious life, keeping a journal beginning 1605 in which he described his religious experiences and feelings. In it, he described his failures to keep "divers vows" and sought to reform his failings by God's grace, praying that God would "give me a new heart, joy in his spirit, he was somewhat distressed that his wife did not share the intensit

Nipponosaurus

Nipponosaurus is a lambeosaurine hadrosaur from sediments of the Yezo Group, Sakhalin Island in Russia, part of Japan at the time of naming. The type and only species is N. sachalinensis, known only from a single juvenile specimen discovered in 1934 and named in 1936, by Takumi Nagao, with further material of the same individual found in 1937. Since the taxon has been ignored, its validity has been doubted, with synonymy with other Asian hadrosaurs or status as a nomen dubium being suggested. Redescriptions from 2004 and 2017, have supported recognition as a distinct species. Dating the only specimen has been difficult, but based on associated mollusc taxa, the species lived sometime in the upper Santonian or lower Campanian, around 80 million years ago; the immature holotype specimen measures four meters in length. When it was described, it was considered to be an adult, because of its co-ossified sacral vertebra. Future authors doubted this citing its small size. In the 2004 redescription, it was examined more and several characteristics were found that identified it as an juvenile individual.

In 2017, another team re-evaluated the specimen, determined through investigating the fossils at a microscopic level that this was correct, although they doubted the significance of some of the characters identified in the former study. Though the quality of bone preservation is poor, the holotype skeleton is estimated to be 60% complete, it consists of a left maxilla and dentary, various isolated skull elements, thirteen cervical vertebrae, six dorsal vertebrae, two sacral vertebrae, a series of 35 caudal vertebrae, a left scapula, lower portions of both humeri, most elements of the lower forelimbs, an ischium, left ilium, most of the hindlimbs. The holotype was discovered in November 1934 during the construction of a hospital for the Kawakami colliery of the Mitsui Mining Company on Karafuto Prefecture, it was disarticulated. N. sachalensis was named and described in 1936 by Professor Takumi Nagao of the Imperial University of Hokkaido. The generic name refers to the Japanese name of Japan.

The specific name refers to Sakhalin. Although being complete at the time of discovery, the specimen was missing much of the skull and limbs. A second expedition was organised in the summer of 1937, in which limb material pertaining to the holotype was recovered; the next year, Nagao authored a second article on the species describing these additional remains. Nipponosaurus was described as a member of the Trachodontidae; the family is now known as the Hadrosauridae. Among its relatives, Nagao thought it was closest to the taxa Cheneosaurus and Tetragonosaurus suggesting that his species might prove to be congeneric with one of them. However, these were determined to be juvenile forms of Hypacrosaurus and Lambeosaurus, not distinct species. For the remainder of the 20th century, the taxon was scarcely mentioned. While they were still considered valid species, the relationship with the supposed "cheneosaurs" Cheneosaurus and Procheneosaurus was accepted. A humerus from a pit near Hashima Island, Japan was assigned to Nipponosaurus, variously referred to as Trachodon, in 1967.

No further studies have acknowledged the specimen, the referral has been ignored, with the species still considered to be represented by a single specimen. In 1977, a review of Asian dinosaur palaeontology mentioned it as a possible close relative of Mandschurosaurus without comment. In 1989, a study noted that features of its metacarpals could indicate a basal position within the Hadrosauridae. Near the turn of the century, in 1994, a review of Japanese dinosaurs noted the incomplete nature of many Asian hadrosaurs could mean some of them, including Nipponosaurus, maybe in fact be representatives of the same species. More extensive research has been conducted in the 21st century. In 2004, the species was redescribed, with focus on its growth stage, they concluded it was a valid taxon, that the holotype was immature. More a 2017 study provided further descriptions of the specimen, conducted a microscopic examination on sections of the left femur, a rib, an isolated chevron, which re-affirmed the age of the holotype.

Some authors have deemed the species a nomen dubium, questioning its supposed diagnostic characteristics in light of its presumed immature status. The validity of the taxon has therefore been controversial; the 2004 redescription denied this. In their description of Sahaliyania and Wulagasaurus, Pascal Godefroit and colleagues reported based on direct observation of the type specimen that all of these supposed unique traits were found in other hadrosaurids; the lack of certain portions of the skull key to evaluating its systematic position was cited as a reason to doubt the validity of the genus, the problematic nature of the skull had indeed been noted before. A 2017 study once again questioned the validity of the proposed diagnostic characters. A cladistic analysis in 2004 placed Nipponosaurus sachalinensis close to the well-known North American Hypacrosaurus altispinus within the Lambeosaurinae, they suggested it might be congeneric with the species

Eupatorium

Eupatorium is a genus of flowering plants in the aster family, containing from 36 to 60 species depending on the classification system. Most are herbaceous perennials growing to 0.5–3 m tall. A few are shrubs; the genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most are called bonesets, thoroughworts or snakeroots in North America; the genus is named for king of Pontus. Eupatorium has at times been held to contain as many as 800 species, but many of these have been moved to other genera, including Ageratina, Condylidium, Critonia, Eutrochium, Flyriella, Koanophyllon and Tamaulipa; the classification of the tribe Eupatorieae, including species placed in Eupatorium in the present or past, is an area of ongoing research, so further changes are likely. What seems certain by now is that there is a monophyletic group containing Eupatorium and the Joe-pye weeds, others. Eupatorium are grown in particular in Asia. A number of popular ornamental plants included in Eupatorium have been moved to other genera, such as Bartlettina and Conoclinium.

Tobacco leaf curl virus is a pathogen affecting plants of this genus. The foliage is eaten including those of Orthonama obstipata; the common names for the plants are all based on the previous usage of one species, Eupatorium perfoliatum, as an herbal medicine. Despite its name, boneset is not used to treat broken bones, instead the common name derives from the herb's use to treat dengue fever, called breakbone fever because of the pain that it caused; the name thoroughwort comes from Eupatorium perfoliatum, refers to the perfoliate leaves, in which the stem appears to pierce the leaf. Boneset, although poisonous to humans and grazing livestock, has been used in folk medicine, for instance to excrete excess uric acid which causes gout. Caution is advised when using boneset, since it contains toxic compounds that can cause liver damage. Side effects include muscular tremors and constipation. Eupatorium album L.– white thoroughwort Eupatorium altissimum L. – tall thoroughwort Eupatorium anomalum Nash – Florida thoroughwort apomictic hybrid derivative of Eupatorium mohrii and Eupatorium rotundifolium Eupatorium capillifolium Small – dog-fennel Eupatorium compositifolium Walter – Yankeeweed Eupatorium godfreyanum Cronquist, apomictic hybrid derivative of Eupatorium rotundifolium and Eupatorium sessilifolium Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. – hyssop-leaved thoroughwort Eupatorium lancifolium Small – lance-leaved thoroughwort Eupatorium leptophyllum DC. – false fennel Eupatorium leucolepis Torrey & A.

Gray – justiceweed Eupatorium linearifolium Walter – Eupatorium maritimum E. E. Schill. – apomictic hybrid derivative of Eupatorium mohrii and Eupatorium serotinum Eupatorium mikanioides Chapman – semaphore thoroughwort Eupatorium mohrii Greene – Mohr's thoroughwort Eupatorium novae-angliae V. I. Sullivan ex A. Haines & Sorrie apomictic hybrid derivative of Eupatorium paludicola and Eupatorium perfoliatum Eupatorium paludicola E. E. Schill. & LeBlond – swamp thoroughwort, until 2007 classified as part of Eupatorium leucolepis Eupatorium perfoliatum L. – common boneset Eupatorium petaloideum Britton – showy white thoroughwort considered to be part of Eupatorium album Eupatorium pilosum Walter – rough boneset considered to be part of Eupatorium rotundifolium Eupatorium resinosum Torrey ex DC. – pine barren boneset Eupatorium rotundifolium L. – round-leaved thoroughwort Eupatorium semiserratum DC. – smallflower thoroughwort Eupatorium serotinum L. – late boneset, late thoroughwort Eupatorium sessilifolium L. – upland boneset Eupatorium sullivaniae E.

E. Schill. – apomictic hybrid derivative of Eupatorium album and Eupatorium lancifolium Eupatorium cannabinum L. – hemp-agrimony Eupatorium amabile Kitam. Eupatorium benguetense C. Robinson Eupatorium camiguinense Merr. Eupatorium chinense L. Eupatorium formosanum Hayata Eupatorium fortunei Turcz. – fujibakama, pei lan Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. Eupatorium lindleyanum DC. Eupatorium luchuense Nakai Eupatorium makinoi T. Kawahara & T. Yahara Eupatorium nodiflorum DC. Eupatorium quaternum DC. Eupatorium sambucifolium Elmer Eupatorium shimadai Kitam. Eupatorium squamosum D. Don Eupatorium tashiroi Hayata Eupatorium toppingianum Elmer Eupatorium variabile Makino Eupatorium yakushimaense Masam. & Kitam Eupatorium adamantium Gardner Eupatorium amygdalinum Eupatorium ayapana – aya-pana, water hemp Eupatorium bracteatum Gardn. Eupatorium coelestinum – mistflower Eupatorium collinum Eupatorium itatiayense Hieron. Eupatorium gayanum Eupatorium laevigatum DC. Eupatorium ligustrinum Eupatorium maculatum Joe-Pye weed Eupatorium maximiliani Schrad.

Ex DC. Eupatorium megalophyllum Eupatorium officinale Eupatorium pacificum Eupatorium purpureum Eupatorium pyrifolium DC. E