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John Wycliffe

John Wycliffe was an English scholastic philosopher, biblical translator, priest, a seminary professor at the University of Oxford. He became an influential dissident within the Roman Catholic priesthood during the 14th century and is considered an important predecessor to Protestantism. Wycliffe attacked the privileged status of the clergy, which had bolstered their powerful role in England, he attacked the luxury and pomp of local parishes and their ceremonies. Wycliffe advocated translation of the Bible into the vernacular. In 1382 he completed a translation directly from the Vulgate into Middle English – a version now known as Wycliffe's Bible, it is probable that he translated the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John. Wycliffe's Bible appears to have been completed by 1384, additional updated versions being done by Wycliffe's assistant John Purvey and others in 1388 and 1395. Wycliffe's followers, known as Lollards, followed his lead in advocating predestination and the notion of caesaropapism, while attacking the veneration of saints, the sacraments, requiem masses, transubstantiation and the existence of the Papacy.

In the 16th century and beyond, the Lollard movement was sometimes regarded as the precursor to the Protestant Reformation. Wycliffe was accordingly characterised as the evening star of scholasticism and as the morning star of the English Reformation. Wycliffe's writings in Latin influenced the philosophy and teaching of the Czech reformer Jan Hus, whose execution in 1415 sparked a revolt and led to the Hussite Wars of 1419–1434. Wycliffe was born in the village of Hipswell near Richmond in the North Riding of Yorkshire, around the 1320s His family was long settled in Yorkshire; the family was quite large, covering considerable territory, principally centred on Wycliffe-on-Tees, about ten miles to the north of Hipswell. Wycliffe received his early education close to his home, it is not known when he first came to Oxford, with which he was so connected until the end of his life, but he is known to have been at Oxford around 1345. Thomas Bradwardine was the archbishop of Canterbury, his book On the Cause of God against the Pelagians, a bold recovery of the Pauline-Augustine doctrine of grace, would shape young Wycliffe's views, as did the Black Death which reached England in the summer of 1348.

From his frequent references to it in life, it appears to have made a deep and abiding impression upon him. According to Robert Vaughn, the effect was to give Wycliffe "Very gloomy views in regard to the condition and prospects of the human race." Wycliffe would have been at Oxford during the St Scholastica Day riot in which sixty-three students and a number of townspeople were killed. Wycliffe completed his arts degree at Merton College as a junior fellow in 1356; that same year he produced The Last Age of the Church. In the light of the virulence of the plague that had subsided only seven years Wycliffe's studies led him to the opinion that the close of the 14th century would mark the end of the world. While other writers viewed the plague as God's judgment on sinful people, Wycliffe saw it as an indictment of an unworthy clergy; the mortality rate among the clergy had been high, those who replaced them were, in his opinion, uneducated or disreputable. He was Master of Balliol College in 1361.

In this same year, he was presented by the college to the parish of Fillingham in Lincolnshire, which he visited during long vacations from Oxford. For this he had to give up the headship of Balliol College, though he could continue to live at Oxford, he is said to have had rooms in the buildings of The Queen's College. In 1362 he was granted a prebend at Aust in Westbury-on-Trym, which he held in addition to the post at Fillingham, his performance led Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, to place him in 1365 at the head of Canterbury Hall, where twelve young men were preparing for the priesthood. In December 1365 Islip appointed Wycliffe as warden but when Islip died the following year his successor, Simon Langham, a man of monastic training, turned the leadership of the college over to a monk. In 1367 Wycliffe appealed to Rome. In 1371 Wycliffe's appeal was decided and the outcome was unfavourable to him; the incident was typical of the ongoing rivalry between monks and secular clergy at Oxford at this time.

In 1368, he gave up his living at Fillingham and took over the rectory of Ludgershall, not far from Oxford, which enabled him to retain his connection with the university. In 1369 Wycliffe obtained a bachelor's degree in theology, his doctorate in 1372. In 1374, he received the crown living of St Mary's Church, Lutterworth in Leicestershire, which he retained until his death. In 1374 his name appears second, after a bishop, on a commission which the English Government sent to Bruges to discuss with the representatives of Gregory XI a number of points in dispute between the king and the pope, he was no longer satisfied with his chair as the means of propagating his ideas, soon after his return from Bruges he began to express them in tracts and longer works. In a book concerned with the government of God and the Ten Commandments, he attacked the temporal rule of the clergy, the collection of annates and simony, he entered the politics of the day with his great work De civili dominio. This called for the royal divestment of all church property.

His ideas on lordship and church wealth caused his first official condemnation in 13

Thiokol (polymer)

Thiokol is a trade mark for various organic polysulfide polymers, Thiokol polymers are used as an elastomer in seals and sealants. The distinction between the polymers first commercialized by the Thiokol Corporation and subsequent polysulfide materials is unclear. A variety of thiokols are recognized, they are prepared by the combination of 2-chloroethanol and sodium polysulfide. The chloroethanol is produced in situ from ethylene hydrogen chloride; the rank x of the polysulfide is an important variable. Crosslinking agents are used, such as 1,2,3-trichloropropane. An idealized polymer is represented by this formula HSnCH2CH2OCH2OCH2CH2SH. Thiol-terminated resins can be cured oxidatively. In 1838, Swiss chemists reported the preparation of hydrophobilic rubbery materials by the alkylation of sodium polysulfide with 1,2-dichloroethane. In 1926 chemists Joseph C. Patrick and Nathan Mnookin further developed this class of materials, which first achieved commercial success as sealants for fuel lines, exploiting the solvent resistance of these materials.

The first production plant was started in 1948 in Maryland. The company Thiokol was founded in 1929 to produce these polymers. In the 1940s, thiol-terminated liquid resins were produced. Curing could be effected oxidatively, e.g. using lead oxides and perborates. Thiokol polymers were used as a binder in a commercial success; the name "Thiokol" derives from the Greek words for sulfur and glue

The World Is Yours (Ian Brown album)

The World is Yours is the fifth solo album by Ian Brown, released on 15 October 2007. In making the album, Brown enlisted the help of The Smiths and Happy Mondays bassists Andy Rourke and Paul Ryder respectively, he sought the services of Paul McCartney to play bass on one of the tracks, but failed as McCartney was too busy at the time. Meanwhile, Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook appeared on the album. Sinead O Connor sings on Illegal Attacks and Some Folks Are Hollow. "Illegal Attacks" was released as the album's first single, on 8 October 2007, was a contentious track, dealing head-on with the political issues of the day. The opening notes of the song are plucked in arpeggios, which are juxtaposed with the confrontational opening line, "What the fuck is this UK?" The song pulses with an ominous, grinding cello, culminates with Ian Brown pleading earnestly for the return of British soldiers to their homeland: "Soldiers, soldiers come home, Soldiers come home", The single was described by NME as another example of Ian Brown's "godlike genius...an unforgettable plea to world leaders to'Cop the fook on.'"The song "On Track" made its debut seven months prior to the release of the actual album on the soundtrack album for Russian 2-part sci-fi movie "Paragraph 78" as an exclusive track.

It was used in the closing titles for the first part of the movie. This version was 20 seconds longer as compared to "The World Is Yours" album version and was a bit lighter as to the orchestral arrangement; the album was released in a 2CD deluxe edition, along with a bonus disc containing orchestral arrangements of all twelve tracks. "The World Is Yours" "On Track" "Sister Rose" "Save Us" "Eternal Flame" "The Feeding of the 5000" "Street Children" "Some Folks Are Hollow" "Goodbye To the Broken" "Me And You Forever" "Illegal Attacks" "The World Is Yours" "The World Is Yours" "On Track" "Sister Rose" "Save Us" "Eternal Flame" "The Feeding of the 5000" "Street Children" "Some Folks Are Hollow " "Goodbye To the Broken" "Me And You Forever" "Illegal Attacks " "The World Is Yours " "The World Is Yours" "On Track" "Sister Rose" "Save Us" "Eternal Flame" "The Feeding of the 5000" "Street Children" "Some Folks Are Hollow" "Goodbye To The Broken" "Me And You Forever" "Illegal Attacks" "Sister Rose" "The World Is Yours"