In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terrace house or townhouse is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings share side walls. They are known in some areas as row houses or row homes. Terrace housing can be found throughout the world, though it is in abundance in Europe and Latin America, extensive examples can be found in Australia and North America; the Place des Vosges in Paris is one of the early examples of the style. Sometimes associated with the working class and reproduction terraces have become part of the process of gentrification in certain inner-city areas. Though earlier Gothic ecclesiastical examples, such as Vicars' Close, are known, the practice of building new domestic homes uniformly to the property line began in the 16th century following Dutch and Belgian models and became known in English as "row" houses. For example, in "Yarmouth Rows", Great Yarmouth, the building fronts uniformly ran right to the property line.
The term terrace was borrowed from garden terraces by British architects of the late Georgian period to describe streets of houses whose uniform fronts and uniform height created an ensemble, more stylish than a "row". Townhouses are two- to three-storey structures that share a wall with a neighbouring unit; as opposed to apartment buildings, townhouses do not have neighbouring units below them. They are similar in concept to row houses or terraced houses except they are divided into smaller groupings of homes; the first and last of the houses is called an end terrace and is a different layout from the houses in the middle, sometimes called mid-terrace. In Australia, the term "terrace house" refers exclusively to Victorian and Edwardian era terraces or replicas always found in the older, inner city areas of the major cities. Terraced housing was introduced to Australia from England in the nineteenth century, basing their architecture on those in the UK, France and Italy. Large numbers of terraced houses were built in the inner suburbs of large Australian cities Sydney and Melbourne between the 1850s and the 1890s.
Detached housing became the popular style of housing in Australia following Federation in 1901. The most common building material used was brick covered with cement render and painted. Many terraces were built in the "Filigree" style, a style distinguished through heavy use of cast iron ornament, it has a level paved area in front known as terrace on the balconies and sometimes depicting native Australian flora. In the 1950s, many urban renewal programs were aimed at eradicating them in favour of modern development. In recent decades these inner-city areas and their terraced houses have been gentrified; the suburbs in which terrace houses are found are sought after in Australia due to their proximity to the Central Business Districts of the major cities. They are therefore sometimes quite expensive though they are not the preferred accommodation style; the lack of windows on the side, the small gardens, the relative darkness of the rooms is at odds with the design principles for modern Australian homes.
The lack of off-street parking that most have is an issue for the majority of Australians. In Finland, an agrarian country where urbanism was a late phenomenon, the rivitalo has not been seen as a urban house type. What is regarded as the first terraced house to be built, Ribbingshof, in the new Helsinki suburb of Kulosaari was designed by renowned architect Armas Lindgren, was inspired by ideas from the English Garden City movement and Hampstead Garden Suburb, was seen as a low density residential area. A leafy suburban street of terraced houses was that of Hollantilaisentie in the suburb of Munkkiniemi, designed by architect Eliel Saarinen, they were envisioned as workers' housing, as part of a grand new urban scheme for the entirety of north-west Helsinki, but from the outset became a fashionable middle-class residential area. Terraced housing in Finland is associated with suburban middle-class living, such as the Tapiola garden city, from the 1950s. Terraced housing has long been a popular form in France.
The Place des Vosges was one of the earliest examples of the arrangement. In Parisian squares, central blocks were given discreet prominence. Terraced building including housing was used during Haussmann's renovation of Paris between 1852 and 1870 creating whole streetscapes consisting of terraced rows; the first streets of houses with uniform fronts were built by the Huguenot entrepreneur Nicholas Barbon in the rebuilding after the Great Fire of London. Fashionable terraces appeared in London's Grosvenor Square from 1727 onwards and in Bath's Queen Square from 1729 onwards; the Scottish architect Robert Adam is credited with the development of the house itself. Early terraces were built by the two John Woods in Bath and under the direction of John Nash in Regent's Park, London; the term soon became commonplace. It is far from being the case; this is true in London, where some of the wealthiest people in the country owned them in locations such as Belgrave Square and Carlton House Terrace. These townhouses, in the British sense, were the London residence
Liu Shiduan was the founder and leader of the Big Swords Society, a martial arts society whose main task was to protect the property of landowners in Caozhou prefecture in late Qing China. Well educated during his youth, Liu owned about 100 mu of land in a village called Shaobing Liuzhuang. In his thirties, he learned a kung-fu technique of invulnerability called the "Armor of the Golden Bell" from a visiting martial artist and soon started teaching it to his own disciples, they formed the Big Swords Society in the early 1890s, sometime before 1895. Although the local government was fearful of the heterodox nature of the Golden Bell rituals, it tolerated the Big Swords because they assisted in repressing a wave of banditry in 1895 and 1896. In early 1896, however and the Big Swords got embroiled in conflicts with local Catholic communities. Liu did not participate but in June 1896 he dispatched one of his lieutenants to northern Jiangsu to help the Pang lineage in their struggle for land against a clan that had joined the Catholic Church for protection.
With their ranks swollen by locals who were not members of the Society, Big Swords discipline broke down as they burned the houses of local converts and looted shops that did not belong to Christians. When the local government, led by judicial commissioner Yuxian, moved in to suppress the movement, Liu was arrested and beheaded; because they practiced rituals of invulnerability and because of their anti-Christian activities, Liu's Big Swords are considered precursors of the Boxer Uprising that unfolded in north China from 1899 to 1901. Liu Shiduan was born in Shan County in Caozhou. According to his descendants, he was 43 when he died in 1896, so he may have been born in 1853 or 1854, he lived in a village called Shaobing Liuzhuang. From 7 to 20 sui Liu attended school. Liu owned more than 100 mu of land – 50 times more than was needed in that area for one person to survive – and was chief of the most influential family in his village. After failing the examination, he lived on his estates, where he entertained guests and became known for his generosity to other locals.
When Liu was in his thirties, he learned combat skills from a martial artist surnamed Zhao who had come from the west from the neighboring province of Zhili. Zhao taught Liu the "Armor of the Golden Bell", an invulnerability technique that the rebels of the Eight Trigrams had used in 1813; this technique was a form of kung-fu or "hard" qigong breathing exercise which its adepts claimed could protect them against blades and bullets as if a large bell was covering their body. Practitioners chanted secret incantations – "a son does not tell his father. In the early 1890s, Liu started to teach the Golden Bell to his own disciples, his students were rich peasants and small landowners who planned to use their martial training to defend their properties from the well-armed bandits who roved southwestern Shandong at the time. The group first called itself "Armor of the Golden Bell", but was soon renamed the Big Swords Society; as founder, Liu Shiduan became the Big Swords' main leader. His disciples Cao Deli and Peng Guilin, who like him were landowners, were the Society's heads in their own villages.
The departure of Shandong's local troops for the front of the Sino–Japanese War in 1894 led to a sharp increase in banditry at the junction of southwestern Shandong and northern Jiangsu. Officials disliked the "heterodox technique" of the Armor of the Golden Bell, but distinguished between lawless bandits and the Big Swords, who defended social order; as the local government issued proclamations ordering the Society to disperse, Liu's Big Swords assisted Caozhou prefect Yuxian in putting down the bandits. In 1895, they turned them over to the authorities. Liu Shiduan himself captured a notorious bandit leader called "Rice-Grain Yue the Second", earning praise from the local officials. Buoyed by government support, the Big Sword Society now grew fast. In spring 1896, it held four days of festivities for Liu Shiduan's birthday in a local temple; the celebrations were "an enormous public relations success" and confirmed the Big Swords' popularity. By the society counted between 20,000 and 30,000 members in Shandong, but in neighboring Henan and Jiangsu.
Liu Shiduan was still the official leader, but the Big Swords were not linked by a tight chain of command. Just as the Big Sword Society was growing, Christian missionaries Catholic, were taking advantage of the weakness of the Qing government to expand their activities in Shandong. There were clashes between the Big Swords and Catholic communities, sometimes because bandits had converted to Christianity for protection. Both groups struggled over religious meaning – the Catholics doubting the efficacy of the Big Swords' invulnerability rituals, the Big Swords resenting the Catholics' rejection of the local gods – but over more concrete interests like power and property. In February 1896, Liu Shiduan and his main lieutenant Cao Deli were involved in a minor conflict that started when a local man tried to collect debts from a Christian convert; that man sought the help of the Big Swords, who were happy to assist him, but the commander of the local garrison intercepted Liu's forces before they had time to confront the Catholics.
By however, "both sides were spoiling for a fight". In 1896, a dispute for lan
Kenichi Ohmae is a Japanese organizational theorist, management consultant, Former Professor and Dean of UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs, author, known for developing the 3C's Model. Born in 1943 in Kitakyūshū, Ohmae earned a BS in chemistry in 1966 from Waseda University, an MS in nuclear physics in 1968 from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, a doctorate in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. After graduation, Ohmae subsequently worked as a senior design engineer for Hitachi from 1970 to 1972. From 1972 to 1995 he worked for Company; as a senior partner he ran the company's Japan operations for a number of years. He co-founded its strategic management practice, served companies in a wide spectrum of industries, including industrial and consumer electronics, telecommunications and chemicals. In 1995 he lost to Yukio Aoshima. In 1997 he went to the United States, where he was appointed Dean and Professor of UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs. In 1997 to 1998, he became a Guest professor of Stanford Graduate School of MBA Program.
In 2011, he became a Project director for Team "H2O", coordinated in preparing the report "What should we learn from the severe accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant?" and submitted it to Goshi Hosono, the Minister of Environment & Minister for the Restoration of Nuclear Accident. In 2012, he became a member of The "Nuclear Reform Monitoring Committee" of Tokyo Electric Power Company. Ohmae introduced the Japanese management methods to a broad Western audience, a the Toyota practice of just-in-time production, he outlined the differences between Japanese and Western companies, in particular: the long strategic planning horizon of Japanese companies the short planning horizon based on shareholder value thinking of Western companiesThrough his numerous publications, he coined many terms that are still in use today. In the 1980s, he described globalization as prominent phenomenon in the world economy. Ohmae has written a number of books, including The Mind of the Strategist The End of the Nation State The Borderless World Triad Power Quotations related to Kenichi Ohmae at Wikiquote KENICHI OHMAE Official Web Kenichi Ohmae Official Website Kenichi Ohmae Graduate School of business MBA via distance education
The Samsung Galaxy E7 is a midrange Android smartphone produced by Samsung Electronics. It was released in January 2015. Samsung Galaxy E7 has a 13 Megapixel rear camera with LED flash and a 5 Megapixel front facing camera; the Samsung Galaxy E7 has never been launched in Europe, as well as they don't have plans to launch in Australia or New Zealand. The phone is powered by Qualcomm's Snapdragon 410 chipset which includes a 1.2 GHz processor, Adreno 306 GPU and 2GB RAM, with 16GB of internal storage. It has a Lithium-ion battery with a capacity of 2950 mAh; the Samsung Galaxy E7 has a 5.5-inch HD Super AMOLED display and includes a 13 MP rear camera and 5 MP front camera. It comes with two Nano-SIM slots, with one of them serving as a microSD slot; this phone was released with Android 4.4.4 "KitKat". It is upgradable to Android 5.1.1 "Lollipop". Android Samsung Samsung Galaxy Samsung Galaxy A7 Samsung Galaxy A8 Samsung Galaxy E5
The National Monuments of Colombia are the set of properties, nature reserves, archaeological sites, historic districts, urban areas and property that, for values of authenticity, originality and artistic techniques, are representative of Colombia and constitute core elements of its history and culture. The cultural heritage of Colombia includes material and immaterial assets "which are an expression of the Colombian nationality", in accordance with Law No. 1185. As of December 2011, 1079 National Monuments have been declared. A further sixteen candidate sites have been identified for future declaration; the regulation and safeguarding of tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the nation is under the control of the Ministry of Culture through the National Heritage Council. The National Monuments of Colombia list contains 8 monuments that have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the following: For the complete list of national monuments, see List of National Monuments of Colombia.