Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Sir Colville Norbert Young is the Governor-General of Belize, patron of the Scout Association of Belize. He was appointed Governor-General in 1993, taking office on 17 November of that year, was knighted in 1994. Sir Colville studied at Belize's St Michael's College, earned a BA degree in English from the University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, prior to his doctorate in linguistics from the University of York in England. Young was a Fulbright Scholar and is a member of the Caribbean Teachers of English Association and the Society for Caribbean Linguistics. In the 1960s Young was a member of the opposition National Independence Party, he ran as the NIP candidate for the British Honduras Legislative Assembly in the Mesopotamia constituency in 1965 and 1969, but was defeated both times by C. L. B. Rogers, the People's United Party incumbent. Along with future Prime Minister Manuel Esquivel, Young was one of the founding members of the Liberal Party, a short-lived pro-business political party which became a part of the United Democratic Party.
Afterwards Young was interested in seeing Belize's development in academia and education, after returning from England began trying to advance the nation in that regard. In the late 1980s Young became president of the University College of Belize, one of the five parent institutions of the University of Belize, was one of its senior lecturers, he became involved in music, composing all manner of musical pieces from operas to cantatas to others. He published a series of books of and about Belizean literature, including Literature and Education in Belize, Creole Proverbs of Belize, From One Caribbean Corner and Caribbean Corner Calling, the last two containing poems in English and Belize Creole. Of these books, Creole Proverbs is his most recognised. In 1993, just before becoming Governor General, he published a book of short stories called Pataki Full, earning acclaim from the local writing community, his stories have been featured in the Belizean Writers Series in "Snapshots of Belize", a play Riding Haas in the drama anthology Ping Wing Juk Me in the Series.
Young became the Belizean governor-general shortly after the UDP under Esquivel regained power in the 1993 elections. He is the longest-serving governor-general of all time in the Commonwealth. Young is active in maintaining relations with foreign dignitaries and countries, he is active within the larger community in Belize in education and teacher training. In 2017, several fake and unauthorized Facebook profiles were created under the name "Colville Young". Citizens were warned not to interact with the profiles as all communication from the governor is shared by the Government of Belize Press Office. Young is married to Lady Young, née Trapp, has three sons and a daughter, he has three siblings. Young has a stated interest in promoting the development of Belizean music. Young has contributed to efforts in Belizean schools to maintain music as an educational staple. Young’s son, Colville Young Jr. is the director of the Belize National Youth Symphony. Colville Young is working with founders of the Belize Virtuosi Orchestra, Joel Nagel and Peter Illavsky, to raise funds to build a chamber orchestra auditorium in Belize.
Young established the Governor General’s Music in the Schools Programme which works with partner abroad to expand music in schools and access to musical instruments. List of national leaders
St. John's College, Belize
St. John's College has three divisions and a number of central academic centres and activities. Through its divisions, it offers a wide variety of liberal arts and science courses at the secondary, British A-level, United States junior college levels. St. John's College is a Roman Catholic institution in the Jesuit tradition, one of the oldest and most diverse educational institutions in Belize, founded by the Jesuits in 1887; the three divisions are: St. John's College High School, Belize St. John's College Extension St. John's College Junior College Key centres and institutes: The Belize Centre for Art Education and Cultural Understanding Institute for Workforce and Economic Development Belizean Studies Research Centre Counseling Centre St. John's College was founded in 1887 with the establishment of the “Select School” for young men at the Catholic presbytery, Holy Redeemer Cathedral in Belize City; the founder of St. John's College was Fr. Cassian Gillett, S. J. one of four British Jesuit priests, who arrived in Belize in the 1880s.
The school opened with two boarders. According to the 1897 prospectus, the school's mission was “to afford the youth of the Colony, the neighboring Republics, the means of obtaining a solid mental and moral training.” It added that Belize needed “a school of Higher Studies so that our youth would not have to go abroad for preparation for university work.” The school grew quickly. In February 1896, it moved into a newly constructed building on the cathedral grounds, its name changed from the Select School under Fr. William J. Wallace; the enrollment continued to expand and included boarding students from neighboring Central American republics such as Guatemala and Honduras. This steady expansion forced a second move, to seafront land supplied by the government to the south of town. On July 17, 1917, the faculty and students moved into spacious wooden buildings with wide verandahs and windows open to the sea breeze; the campus was called Loyola Park. More construction followed including chapel. By 1929 there were 90 students at the college.
August 1921 saw an outbreak of yellow fever at Loyola Park. Day students returned to their homes for hospitalization. Boarding students were first taken to a small island just off Moho Caye. From there boarders from the rural areas of Belize, Yucatán, Guatemala returned home but those from Honduras were refused admittance in their country, they were quarantined at Sargent's Caye. Two students and two faculty members died. On September 11, 1931 one of the worst hurricanes to hit Belize took 2,500 lives including 11 Jesuits at Loyola Park, where the buildings were leveled and splintered. SJC returned to the cathedral grounds where it remained until 1952, when it moved to its spacious new Landivar campus northwest of town; the new campus is named after the Central American poet and renowned scholar Rafael Landivar, S. J, its 21 buildings include Fordyce Chapel, a large fieldhouse and auditorium that accommodates many diocesan events, 17 classroom buildings—including two designed and built by the American Schools and Hospitals Abroad program.
The spacious campus includes two football fields and is adjacent to National Stadium, built in the 1960s, which hosts international events and has grown into the Marion Jones Sports Complex. St. John's College pioneered adult evening education with the inauguration of its Extension School, in September 1947; the press release for its opening described its purpose: "One of the most valuable educational techniques of our day, co-operative search for truth, gives adult learners an opportunity to meet together, face a problem in common, think it through as a group, solve it if possible." Initial courses were “The Art of Thinking”, “Effective Speaking and Parliamentary Practice”, “Capital and Labor”, “Business Ethics”. The first class of 55 men and 27 women began a program aimed at providing leadership training for people who had finished high school and wanted post-secondary education, unavailable in Belize at the time; the roster of students in those early days included the names of men who went on to lead Belize's independence movement.
In 1957 economics and arithmetic were part of the syllabus. In 1965 under Fr. Jack Stochl, S. J. it began offering high school equivalency courses for young women. The Extension Department is now in its fourth location, still in the center of the city, accessible to the students who work during the day and study at night, it features a computer lab to facilitate courses in accounting. Around 700 students, 70% women, take Extension courses, which requires only a grade school background of applicants. Classes are provided for refugees from the neighbouring countries. Early in 1952, in response to the growing need in Belize for higher levels of academic training, St. John's College expanded its traditional four-year high school program, offering a limited number of post-secondary school courses under the direction of Fr. Robert Raszkowski, S. J; this expanded into what in the British tradition is called Sixth Form, a two-year program leading to Advanced Level Examinations out of Cambridge University in England.
In the mid-1960s, in an effort to provide wider opportunities for further education to graduates of the Sixth Form, St. John's College broadened the program of studies so that it met the requirements of the associate degree awarded by junior and community colleges in the United States, it received membership in the American Association of Junior Colleges. This afforded St. John's College Sixth Form graduates a choice of further studies, they could enter Commonwealth universities, which require
The San Pedro Sun
The San Pedro Sun is a newspaper published continuously since 1991 and serves the community of San Pedro Town located on Ambergris Caye in Belize, Central America. The editors are Ron and Tamara Sniffin, assisted by Mary Gonzalez and Natalie Manuel; the Sun publishes a "Visitor's Guide" each week that features tourism interests in San Pedro and Belize. The Visitor Guide is inserted inside each issue of The San Pedro Sun. Official website OCLC 44227053
Toledo District is the southernmost district in Belize, Punta Gorda is the District capital. It is the least developed region in the country, it features some of the most pristine rainforests, extensive cave networks, coastal lowland plains, offshore cays. Toledo is home to a wide range of cultures: Mopan and Kekchi Maya, the Garifuna, East Indians, Mennonites and descendants of US Confederate settlers; the District has many villages, including Monkey River Town and the Toledo Settlement. It has a number of Maya ruins, including Lubaantun, Nim Li Punit and Pusilha. According to the 2010 census, Toledo District had a population of 30,538 people; the economy of Toledo relies upon agriculture: crops grown include beans and corn, as well as rice, sold to the Big Falls Rice Mill. Cacao is grown organically and sold via the Toledo Cacao Growers Association to Green & Black's for their renowned Maya Gold chocolate, as well as to chocolatiers within Belize; the District's ancient and modern-day links with chocolate are celebrated annually in May at the Toledo Cacao Festival.
Farmers grow additional crops such as coffee, sweet potato, hot chili peppers, avocado and plantain for sale at the market in Punta Gorda, held each Monday, Wednesday and Saturday. Fishermen practice small-scale fishing from their dug-out canoes, as well as diving for lobster and conch during open season; the Port Honduras Marine Reserve just north of Punta Gorda Town is a protected area, Toledo's waters are regarded as the permit capital of Belize. Many traditional fishermen have now trained as fly-fishing guides through the alternative livelihood projects offered by local conservation groups. Tourism is an important, new, industry for Toledo. Once regarded as an area only for the hardy and adventurous, the opening of new tourist accommodation and the development of tours, as well as a growing awareness of the district's high proportion of protected areas, excellent birding and the offshore cayes, have resulted in Toledo being recognized as an important ‘emerging destination’; the Toledo District is served by the newly paved Southern Highway, as well as several bush roads to the many rural villages in the District.
A regular bus service is provided by Punta Gorda-based James Bus Line, shuttling passengers between the other districts Punta Gorda Town is served by several daily commuter flights on Tropic Air and Maya Island Air and small, family run bus services that transport passengers to and from the rural villages. Each year, during the Commonwealth Day weekend, Toledo hosts the Chocolate Festival of Belize; the festival features chocolatiers from across the country as well as chocolate-related arts and crafts. According to the project coordinator for the Toledo Cacao Growers Association Thomas Tillett, the Association has a membership of about 1,100 cacao farmers. Several significant ancient Mayan sites are extant in ruined form in the Toledo District. Nim Li Punit is a Classic Period Mayan site with ballcourts and carved stelae. Lubaantun is a drystone constructed site with ruined pyramids and stone tombs. Cristina Coc, Maya community leader Juan Coy, politician Eden Martinez, politician The Forgotten District, a documentary film about ecotourism in Toledo Official website - with maps and area attractions Toledo District at belize.fm The Toledo Howler - quarterly newspaper published by the BTIA Toledo Chapter How to Cook a Tapir - a Belize memoir, documenting the author's year-long working honeymoon in the Toledo District Treehouse Perspectives - Living High on Little - the story of the Salisbury family's move and new life in Punta Gorda Governmental influence on ecotourism in Toledo - Influence or interference
Orange Walk Town
Orange Walk Town is the fourth largest town in the nation of Belize, with a population of about 13,400. It is the capital of the Orange Walk District. Orange Walk Town is located on the left bank of the New River, 53 miles north of Belize City and 30 miles south of Corozal Town. In the days of the Maya civilization, the area was known as Holpatin; the district is home to the biggest Maya temple of the pre-classic period. The Maya of the area came in contact with the Europeans in the 1530s, after which the two groups fought over land. In 1848, there was a massive influx of Maya and Mestizos from Mexico, fleeing the Caste War of Yucatán; this caused a rapid growth of population. In 1872, it was the site of the Battle of Orange Walk. With the Maya and Mestizos came their many traditions that today abound in the region. One such thing that they brought was the sugar cane, which in the years to come became the basis of Belize's leading industry. Today, this industry continues to thrive in the region, Orange Walk Town is nicknamed "Sugar City".
The local Tower Hill Sugar Factory handles all of the country's sugar cane output. The farming of other crops, tourism play a role in the economy; the region is populated by Mestizos, Yucatec Mayas, Mennonites, Taiwanese and other people from Central America. There is a large Catholic presence. 2010 Population and Housing Census has Orange Walk town's total population as 13,400 residents. Of this 6,642 are males and 6,758 are females; the total number of households is 3,361 and the average household size is 4.0. The locality is served by the Orange Walk Airport. Local bus service to and from Belize City to the south and Corozal City to the north operates every half-hour; the town is served by the Northern Regional Hospital called the Orange Walk Hospital, a second major private hospital named Northern Medical Specialist Plaza. Several clinics and pharmacies serve the town. Orange Walk Town travel guide from Wikivoyage