In baseball, a complete game is the act of a pitcher pitching an entire game without the benefit of a relief pitcher. A pitcher who meets this criterion will be credited with a complete game regardless of the number of innings played - pitchers who throw an entire official game, shortened by rain will still be credited with a complete game, while starting pitchers who are relieved in extra innings after throwing nine or more innings will not be credited with a complete game. A starting pitcher, replaced by a pinch hitter in the final half inning of a game will still be credited with a complete game; the frequency of complete games has evolved since the early days of baseball. The complete game was an expectation in the early 20th century and pitchers completed all of the games they started. In modern baseball, the feat is much more rare and no pitcher has reached 30 complete games in a season since 1975. In the early 20th century, it was common for most good Major League Baseball pitchers to pitch a complete game every start, barring injury or ejection.
Pitchers were expected to complete games. Over the course of the 20th century, complete games became less common, to the point where a good modern pitcher achieves only 1 or 2 complete games per season. To put this in perspective, as as the 1980s, 10–15 complete games a year by a star pitcher was not unheard of, in 1980, Oakland Athletics pitcher Rick Langford threw 22 consecutive complete games. Years earlier, Robin Roberts of the Philadelphia Phillies threw 28 consecutive complete games, spanning the 1952 and 1953 seasons; this change has been brought about by strict adherence to pitch counts as a basis for removing a pitcher though he may appear to be pitching well, new pitching philosophies in general. Many have come to believe that the risk of arm injuries becomes far more prevalent after a pitcher has thrown 100 to 120 pitches in a single game. Though Hall-of-Famer Nolan Ryan once threw well over 200 pitches in a single game, it is now rare for a manager to allow a pitcher to throw more than 120 pitches in a start.
Former pitcher Carl Erskine noted the increase in ex-pitchers on coaching staffs since the 1950s, whom he considered better evaluators of a pitchers' ability to pitch late into games. Given this, sabermetricians regard Cy Young's total of 749 complete games as the career baseball record that will never be broken. Further supporting the belief is that only three pitchers made at least 749 starts in their careers. James Shields threw 11 complete games in the 2011 season for the Tampa Bay Rays, becoming the first pitcher to reach double digits in a single season since CC Sabathia threw 10 complete games for the Cleveland Indians and Milwaukee Brewers in 2008; the last pitcher to throw as many as 15 complete games in a single season was Curt Schilling, who accomplished that feat for the Philadelphia Phillies in 1998. The last pitcher to throw 20 complete games in a single season was Fernando Valenzuela, who did so for the Los Angeles Dodgers in 1986; the last pitcher to throw 25 complete games in a season was Rick Langford, who had 28 for the Oakland Athletics in 1980.
The last pitcher to throw 30 complete games in a season was Catfish Hunter, who did so for the New York Yankees in 1975. Cy Young – 749 Pud Galvin – 646 Tim Keefe – 554 Walter Johnson – 531 Kid Nichols – 531 Bobby Mathews – 525 Mickey Welch – 525 Charley Radbourn – 489 John Clarkson – 485 Tony Mullane – 468 Jim McCormick – 466 Gus Weyhing – 448 Grover Cleveland Alexander – 437 Christy Mathewson – 434 Jack Powell – 422 Eddie Plank – 410 Will White – 394 Amos Rusie – 392 Vic Willis – 388 Tommy Bond – 386All pitchers above are right-handed, except for Eddie Plank. All played most or all of their careers before the start of the modern live-ball era of baseball, which began during the 1920 season and was established in 1921. Among pitchers whose entire careers were in the live-ball era, the all-time leader in complete games is Warren Spahn, whose total of 382 places him 21st all-time. Through August 27, 2018, the top 10 active players who lead MLB in career complete games were: Will White – 75 Charley Radbourn – 73 Pud Galvin – 72 Guy Hecker – 72 Jim McCormick – 72 Pud Galvin – 71 John Clarkson –68 John Clarkson – 68 Tim Keefe – 68 Bill Hutchinson – 67 Jim Devlin – 66 Matt Kilroy – 66 Matt Kilroy –66 Charley Radbourn – 66 Toad Ramsey – 66 Pud Galvin – 65 Bill Hutchinson – 65 Jim McCormick –65 Silver King – 64 Tony Mullane – 64 Mickey Welch – 64 Will White – 64 - All pitchers right-handed except Matt Kilroy and Toad Ramsey.
The record for complete games in a live-ball season is 33, set at the dawn of the era by Grover Cleveland Alexander in 1920 and Burleigh Grimes in 1923, by Dizzy Trout in 1944, when baseball's player pool was diluted due to World War II. Jack Taylor completed 187 consecutive games he started between 1901 and 1906. Leon Cadore and Joe Oeschger share the record for the longest complete game, achieved when they pitched against each other in a 26-inning marathon that ended in a 1–1 tie on May 1, 1920. Baseball Prospectus Team of Experts. Baseball Between the Numbers: Is Wrong. New York, New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00547-5. Retrieved March 5, 2011. List
The Chevrolet Corvette, known as the Vette or Chevy Corvette, is a front engine, rear drive, two-door, two-passenger sports car manufactured and marketed by Chevrolet across more than sixty years of production and seven design generations. As Chevrolet's halo vehicle, the Corvette is noted for its performance and distinctive plastic — either fiberglass or composite — bodywork. In 1953, when GM executives were looking to name the new Chevrolet sports car, assistant director for the Public Relations department Myron Scott suggested Corvette after the small maneuverable warship — and the name was approved; the first model, a convertible, was introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept and was followed ten years in the 1963 second generation, in coupe and convertible styles. Manufactured in Flint, Michigan as well as St. Louis, the Corvette has been manufactured since 1981 in Bowling Green, Kentucky; the Corvette has since become known as "America's Sports Car." Automotive News said that after'starring' in the early 1960s television show Route 66, the Corvette became synonymous with freedom and adventure," becoming both "the most successful concept car in history and the most popular sports car in history.
The first generation of Corvette was introduced late in the 1953 model year. Designed as a show car for the 1953 Motorama display at the New York Auto Show, it generated enough interest to induce GM to make a production version to sell to the public. First production was on June 30, 1953; this generation was referred to as the "solid-axle" models. Three hundred hand-built polo white Corvette convertibles were produced for the 1953 model year; the 1954 model year vehicles could be ordered in Sportsman Red, Black, or Polo White. The 1955 model offered a 265 cu in V8 engine as an option. With a large inventory of unsold 1954 models, GM limited production to 700 for 1955. With the new V8, the 0–60 mph time improved by 1.5 seconds. A new body was introduced for the 1956 model featuring side coves. An optional "Ramjet" fuel injection system was made available in the middle of the 1957 model year, it was one of the first mass-produced engines in history to reach 1 bhp per cubic inch and Chevrolet's advertising agency used a "one hp per cubic inch" slogan for advertising the 283 bhp 283 cu in Small-Block engine.
Other options included power windows, hydraulically operated power convertible top, heavy duty brakes and suspension, four speed manual transmission. Delco Radio transistorized signal-seeking "hybrid" car radio, which used both vacuum tubes and transistors in its radio's circuitry; the 1958 Corvette received a body and interior freshening which included a longer front end with quad headlamps, bumper exiting exhaust tips, a new steering wheel, a dashboard with all gauges mounted directly in front of the driver. Exclusive to the 1958 model were twin trunk spears; the 1959–60 model years had few changes except a decreased amount of body chrome and more powerful engine offerings. In 1961, the rear of the car was redesigned with the addition of a "duck tail" with four round lights; the light treatment would continue for all following model year Corvettes until 2014. In 1962, the Chevrolet 283 cu in Small-Block was enlarged to 327 cu in. In standard form it produced 250 bhp. For an extra 12% over list price, the fuel-injected version produced 360 bhp, making it the fastest of the C1 generation.
1962 was the last year for the wrap around windshield, solid rear axle, convertible-only body style. The trunk lid and exposed headlamps did not reappear for many decades; the second generation Corvette, which introduced Sting Ray to the model, continued with fiberglass body panels, overall, was smaller than the first generation. The C2 was referred to as mid-years; the car was designed by Larry Shinoda with major inspiration from a previous concept design called the "Q Corvette,", created by Peter Brock and Chuck Pohlmann under the styling direction of Bill Mitchell. Earlier, Mitchell had sponsored a car known as the "Mitchell Sting Ray" in 1959 because Chevrolet no longer participated in factory racing; this vehicle had the largest impact on the styling of this generation, although it had no top and did not give away what the final version of the C2 would look like. The third inspiration was a Mako Shark Mitchell. Production started for the 1963 model year and ended in 1967. Introducing a new name, "Sting Ray", the 1963 model was the first year for a Corvette coupé and it featured a distinctive tapering rear deck with, for 1963 only, a split rear window.
The Sting Ray featured hidden headlamps, non-functional hood vents, an independent rear suspension. Corvette chief engineer Zora Arkus-Duntov never liked the split rear window because it blocked rear vision, but Mitchell thought it to be a key part of the entire design. Maximum power for 1963 was 360 bhp and was raised to 375 bhp in 1964. Options included electronic ignition, the breakerless magnetic pulse-triggered Delcotronic first offered on some 1963 Pontiac models. On 1964 models the decorative hood vents were eliminated and Duntov, the Corvette's chief engineer, got his way with the split rear window changed to a full width window. Four-wheel disc brakes were introduced in 1965, as was a "big block" engine option: the 396 cu in V8. Side exhaust pipes were
History of the Brooklyn Dodgers
The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League baseball team, active in the National League from 1884 until 1957, after which the club moved to Los Angeles, where it continues its history as the Los Angeles Dodgers. The team moved west at the same time as its longtime rivals, the New York Giants in the National League, relocated to San Francisco in northern California as the San Francisco Giants; the team's name derived from the reputed skill of Brooklyn residents at evading the city's trolley streetcar network. The Dodgers played in two stadiums in South Brooklyn, each named Washington Park, at Eastern Park in the neighborhood of Brownsville before moving to Ebbets Field in the neighborhood of Flatbush in 1913; the team is noted for signing Jackie Robinson in 1947 as the first black player in the modern major leagues. The first convention of the National Association of Base Ball Players were from Brooklyn, including the Atlantic and Excelsior clubs that combined to dominate play for most of the 1860s.
Brooklyn helped make baseball commercial, as the locale of the first paid admission games, a series of three all star contests matching New York and Brooklyn in 1858. Brooklyn featured the first two enclosed baseball grounds, the Union Grounds and the Capitoline Grounds. Despite the early success of Brooklyn clubs in the National Association of Base Ball Players, which were amateur until 1869, they fielded weak teams in the succeeding National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, the first professional league formed in 1871; the Excelsiors no longer challenged for the amateur championship after the Civil War and never entered the professional NAPBBP. The Eckfords and Atlantics thereby lost their best players; the National League replaced the NAPBBP in 1876 and granted exclusive territories to its eight members, excluding the Atlantics in favor of the New York Mutuals who had shared home grounds with the Atlantics. When the Mutuals were expelled by the league, the Hartford Dark Blues club moved in, changed its name to The Brooklyn Hartfords and played its home games at Union Grounds in 1877 before disbanding.
The team known as the Dodgers was formed as the Brooklyn Grays in 1883 by real estate magnate and baseball enthusiast Charles Byrne, who convinced his brother-in-law Joseph Doyle and casino operator Ferdinand Abell to start the team with him. Byrne arranged to build a grandstand on a lot bounded by Third Street, Fourth Avenue, Fifth Street, Fifth Avenue, named it Washington Park in honor of first president George Washington; the Grays played in the minor level Inter-State Association of Professional Baseball Clubs that first season. Doyle became the first team manager, they drew 6,431 fans to their first home game on May 12, 1883 against the Trenton, New Jersey team; the Grays won the league title after the Camden Merritt club in New Jersey disbanded on July 20 and Brooklyn picked up some of its better players. The Grays were invited to join the two year old professional circuit, the American Association to compete with the eight year old NL for the 1884 season. After winning the American Association league championship in 1889, the Grays moved to the competing older National League and won the 1890 NL Championship, being the only Major League team to win consecutive championships in both professional "base ball" leagues.
They lost the 1889 championship tournament to the New York Giants and tied the 1890 championship with the Louisville Colonels. Their success during this period was attributed to their having absorbed skilled players from the defunct New York Metropolitans and Brooklyn Ward's Wonders. In 1899, most of the original old Baltimore Orioles NL stars from the legendary Maryland club which earlier won three consecutive championships in 1894-1895-1896, moved to the Grays along with famed Orioles manager Ned Hanlon who became the club's new manager in New York / Brooklyn under majority owner Charles Ebbets, who had by now accumulated an 80% share of the club; the new combined team was dubbed the "Brooklyn Superbas" by the press and would become the champions of the National League in 1899 and again in 1900. The team name, Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers, was coined in 1895; the nickname was still new enough in September 1895 that a newspaper could report that "'Trolley Dodgers' is the new name which eastern baseball cranks have given the Brooklyn club."
In 1895, Brooklyn played at Eastern Park, bounded by Eastern Parkway, Powell Street, Sutter Avenue, Van Sinderen Street, where they had moved early in the 1891 season when the second Washington Park burned down. Some sources erroneously report that the name "Trolley Dodgers" referred to pedestrians avoiding fast cars on street car tracks that bordered Eastern Park on two sides. However, Eastern Park was not bordered by street-level trolley lines that had to be "dodged" by pedestrians; the name "Trolley Dodgers" implied the dangers posed by trolley cars in Brooklyn which in 1892, began the switch from horse-power to electrical power, which made them much faster, were hence regarded as more dangerous. The name was shortened to Brooklyn Dodgers; the "Trolley Dodgers" name was adopted by the team for the 1911 and 1912 seasons, the "Dodgers" name was used in 1913. Other team names used by the franchise that came to be called "the Dodgers" were the Atlantics, Bridegrooms or Grooms (1888
In baseball statistics, a hit called a base hit, is credited to a batter when the batter safely reaches first base after hitting the ball into fair territory, without the benefit of an error or a fielder's choice. To achieve a hit, the batter must reach first base before any fielder can either tag him with the ball, throw to another player protecting the base before the batter reaches it, or tag first base while carrying the ball; the hit is scored the moment. If a batter reaches first base because of offensive interference by a preceding runner, he is credited with a hit. A hit for one base is called a single, for two bases a double, for three bases a triple. A home run is scored as a hit. Doubles and home runs are called extra base hits. An "infield hit" is a hit. Infield hits are uncommon by nature, most earned by speedy runners. A no-hitter is a game. Throwing a no-hitter is rare and considered an extraordinary accomplishment for a pitcher or pitching staff. In most cases in the professional game, no-hitters are accomplished by a single pitcher who throws a complete game.
A pitcher who throws a no-hitter could still allow runners to reach base safely, by way of walks, hit batsmen, or batter reaching base due to interference or obstruction. If the pitcher allows no runners to reach base in any manner whatsoever, the no-hitter is a perfect game. In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits; the result was skyrocketing batting averages, including some near.500. The experiment was abandoned the following season. There is controversy regarding; the number of legitimate walks and at-bats are known for all players that year, so computing averages using the same method as in other years is straightforward. In 1968, Major League Baseball formed a Special Baseball Records Committee to resolve this issues; the Committee ruled. In 2000, Major League Baseball reversed its decision, ruling that the statistics which were recognized in each year's official records should stand in cases where they were proven incorrect. Most current sources list O'Neill's 1887 average as.435.
He would retain his American Association batting championship. However, the variance between methods results in differing recognition for the 1887 National League batting champion. Cap Anson would be recognized, with his.421 average, if walks are included, but Sam Thompson would be the champion at.372 if they are not. The official rulebook of Major League Baseball states in Rule 10.05: The official scorer shall credit a batter with a base hit when: the batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that settles on the ground, that touches a fence before being touched by a fielder or that clears a fence. The batter reaches first base safely on a fair ball that takes an unnatural bounce so that a fielder cannot handle it with ordinary effort, or that touches the pitcher's plate or any base before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder cannot handle the ball with ordinary effort. Rule 10.05 Comment: In applying Rule 10.05, the official scorer shall always give the batter the benefit of the doubt.
A safe course for the official scorer to follow is to score a hit when exceptionally good fielding of a ball fails to result in a putout. The official scorer shall not credit a base hit when a: runner is forced out by a batted ball, or would have been forced out except for a fielding error; the official scorer shall charge the batter with an at-bat but not a hit. The official scorer shall charge the batter with an at-bat but not a hit.
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
Curtis Montague Schilling is an American former Major League Baseball right-handed pitcher, former video game developer, former baseball color analyst. He helped lead the Philadelphia Phillies to the World Series in 1993, won championships in 2001 with the Arizona Diamondbacks and in 2004 and 2007 with the Boston Red Sox. Schilling retired with a career postseason record of 11–2, his.846 postseason winning percentage is a major-league record among pitchers with at least ten decisions. He is a member of the 3,000-strikeout club and has the highest strikeout-to-walk ratio of any of its members, he is tied for third for the most 300-strikeout seasons. Of post 19th century pitchers, Schilling has the second highest JAWS of any pitcher not in the Hall of Fame. After retiring, he founded Green Monster Games, renamed 38 Studios; the company released Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning in February 2012. Three months Schilling laid off his entire staff amid severe financial troubles; as a radio-personality Schilling was signed by the Howie Carr radio network to do a Saturday morning politics and sports show.
An outspoken conservative, Schilling joined Breitbart in 2016. Schilling graduated from Shadow Mountain High School in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1985, before attending Yavapai College in Prescott, Arizona. Schilling began his professional career in the Boston Red Sox farm system as a second-round pick in what would be the final January draft in MLB, he began his professional career with the Elmira Pioneers a Red Sox affiliate. After two and a half years in the minor leagues and Brady Anderson were traded to the Baltimore Orioles in 1988 for Mike Boddicker, he debuted in the Major League with the Orioles, spent one year with the Houston Astros. Schilling was traded to the Philadelphia Phillies, in exchange for Jason Grimsley, on April 2, 1992. After having struggled with the Red Sox and Astros, Schilling was given the chance to pitch and start with the Philadelphia Phillies on a regular basis and flourished as the ace of the Phillies staff, leading the team in wins, ERA, strikeouts and shutouts in his first season with them in 1992.
During the Phillies' pennant run in 1993, Schilling went 16 -- 7 with 186 strikeouts. Schilling led the Phillies to an upset against the two-time defending National League champion Atlanta Braves in the National League Championship Series. Although he received no decisions during his two appearances in the six-game series, Schilling's 1.69 ERA and 19 strikeouts were enough to earn him the 1993 NLCS Most Valuable Player Award. The Phillies went on to face the defending world champion Toronto Blue Jays in the World Series. After losing Game 1, he pitched brilliantly in his next start. With the Phillies facing elimination the day after losing a bizarre 15–14 contest at home in Veterans Stadium, Schilling pitched a five-hit shutout that the Phillies won, 2–0. Schilling was named to the NL All-Star team in 1997, 1998, 1999 and started the 1999 game. In 1997, he finished 14th in NL MVP voting and fourth in NL Cy Young voting. During this season he set the Phillies single season strikeout record with 319, surpassing the previous record of 310 strikeouts set by Steve Carlton whom had held the record since 1972.
Schilling either led or tied for the Phillies leader in wins, complete games, shutouts and ERA among starters each season from 1997 to 1999, averaging 16 wins per season over those three years despite the team never finishing the season with a winning record. Unhappy with the team's performance, he requested a trade to a contender in 2000 and was subsequently dealt to the Arizona Diamondbacks, his 101 career victories ranks sixth all-time for Phillies pitchers, 20th in ERA, 23rd in games appeared in, sixth in games started, 34th in complete games, 13th in shutouts, fourth in strikeouts, eighth in innings pitched. Schilling was traded to the Diamondbacks on July 26, 2000, for first baseman Travis Lee and pitchers Vicente Padilla, Omar Daal, Nelson Figueroa. With Arizona, he went 22 -- 6 with a 2.98 ERA in 2001, leading the majors in innings pitched. He went 4–0 with a 1.12 ERA in the playoffs. In the 2001 World Series, the Diamondbacks beat the New York Yankees in seven games. Schilling was 1-0 in that World Series with a 1.69 ERA and 26 strikeouts in 21 innings, though he allowed a go-ahead home run in the 8th inning of Game Seven.
He shared the 2001 World Series MVP Award with teammate Randy Johnson. Schilling and Johnson shared Sports Illustrated magazine's 2001 "Sportsmen of the Year" award. During the World Series Schilling received two other honors, as he was presented that year's Roberto Clemente and Branch Rickey Awards, the first Arizona Diamondback so honored for either award. In 2002, he went 23–7 with a 3.23 ERA. He struck out 316 batters while walking 33 in 259.1 innings. On April 7, 2002, Schilling threw a one-hit shutout striking out 17 against the Milwaukee Brewers. Both years he finished second in the Cy Young Award voting to Johnson. Schilling finished the 2003 season with an 8–9 record and a 2.95 ERA in 168 innings while striking out 194 batters. In November 2003, the Diamondbacks traded Schilling to the Boston Red Sox in exchange for Jorge de la Rosa, Casey Fossum, Mike Goss, Brandon Lyon; the trade to Boston reunited Schilling with Terry Francona, his manager during his final four years with the Philadelphia Phillies.
On September 16, 2004, Schilling won his 20th game of 2004 for the Red Sox, becoming the fifth Boston pitcher to win 20 or more ga
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League champion team and the National League champion team. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy; as the series is played during the fall season in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic. Prior to 1969, the team with the best regular season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced to the World Series; as of 2018, the World Series has been contested 114 times, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 48. The 2018 World Series took place between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox from October 23–28, with the Red Sox winning in five games to earn their ninth title; this was the first World Series meeting between these two teams since 1916. Having lost to the Houston Astros in the 2017 World Series, the Dodgers became the 11th team to lose the World Series in consecutive seasons.
In the American League, the New York Yankees have played in 40 World Series and won 27, the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics have played in 14 and won 9, the Boston Red Sox have played in 13 and won 9, including the first World Series. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals have appeared in 19 and won 11, the New York/San Francisco Giants have played in 19 and won 8, the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in 20 and won 6, the Cincinnati Reds have appeared in 9 and won 5; as of 2018, no team has won consecutive World Series championships since the New York Yankees in 1998, 1999, 2000—the longest such drought in Major League Baseball history. Until the formation of the American Association in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the National League represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played.
From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand; the number of games played ranged from as few as three in 1884, to a high of fifteen in 1887. Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in each team having won three games with one tie game; the series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed; the 19th-century competitions are, not recognized as part of World Series history by Major League Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era.
Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league; the league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series, played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the American League was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy.
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs. One of them matched the two pennant winners, Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans of the AL, it had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the band of Royal Rooters; the Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals. The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. At that point there was no gover