The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Interstate 65 in Indiana
Interstate 65 in the U. S. state of Indiana traverses from the south-southeastern Falls City area bordering Louisville, through the centrally located capital city of Indianapolis, to the northwestern Calumet Region of the Hoosier State, part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The Indiana portion of I-65 begins in Jeffersonville after crossing the Ohio River and travels north, passing just west of Columbus prior to reaching the Indianapolis metro area. Upon reaching Indianapolis, the route alignment of I-65 begins to run more to the northwest and subsequently passes Lafayette on that city's east and north sides. Northwest of there, in west-central Jasper County, the route again curves more northward as it approaches the Calumet Region. Shortly after passing a major junction with I-80 and I-94, I-65 reaches its northern national terminus in Gary at I-90, carried on the Indiana East–West Toll Road. I-65 covers 261.27 miles in the state of Indiana. This is one of the principal interstate highways that cross the state, more intersect at the city of Indianapolis, that has given the state the nickname of "Crossroads of America".
I-65 enters. I-65 travels past Clark State Forest before reaching Seymour to the north. I-65 intersects with U. S. Highway 50 providing access to Seymour to the west. US 31 runs parallel to the Interstate. North of Seymour, I-65 passes through Columbus. Just north of Columbus, I-65 runs near an Indiana National Guard training base; the Interstate continues north into Indianapolis. I-65 crosses the I-465 loop before reaching Indianapolis; the section of I-65 in Downtown Indianapolis overlaps I-70. The junctions are referred to as the "North Split" and the "South Split", forming a section of Interstate locally known as the "Inner Loop" or "Spaghetti Bowl" due to the visual complexity of the overlapping freeways. In 1999, the 25-mile segment of I-65 between the two I-465 interchanges was renamed the Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds Highway. At mile marker 116, I-65 passes Crown Hill Cemetery, burial site and memorial of President Benjamin Harrison. I-65 leaves the I-465 loop on the northwest side of Indianapolis.
The highway travels past Eagle Creek Park and it passes the terminus of I-865 and picks up US 52. The segment of I-65 north of Indianapolis heads in the direction of Illinois. US 52 runs concurrently until the north side of Lebanon. From this point US 52 runs parallel to I-65. At about the halfway point to the end of I-65 and Indianapolis, I-65 passes through Lafayette. I-65 passes next to Prophetstown State Park. North of Lafayette, I-65 passes through the open flatlands of northwest Indiana. Protruding from the fields are some of the hundreds of wind turbines of the Benton County Wind Farm and Fowler Ridge Wind Farm. At mile 199.4 is the time zone boundary between Central Time and Eastern Time. As with all time zone changes on highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation, this change in time zone is not marked with any roadside signage. Upon crossing into Lake County, over the Kankakee River, the highway is known as the Casimir Pulaski Memorial Highway, it is known as this from that point to its northern terminus.
The northern terminus of I-65 is only 1⁄8 mile north of I-90. Like all Interstate Highways in Indiana, I-65 was constructed in segments. There were six segments in the southern portion of the state between the Kentucky border and the south leg of I-465 in Indianapolis, nine within the I-465 loop and eleven more that made up the northern portion connecting the northwest side of Indianapolis to the Indiana Toll Road in Gary; the first section of I-65 to be completed in Indiana was a 13.39-mile stretch between a temporary connection with US 52 near Royalton in Boone County and the US 52 junction northwest of Lebanon, which opened in December 1960. The initial southern Indiana portion, running 45.71 miles between then-US 31E in Clarksville and US 50 east of Seymour, saw its first traffic in November 1961. The final of the 17 segments of I-65 outside of I-465, 23.09 miles from SR 252 near Edinburgh to Southport Road on Indy's far south side, opened on June 30, 1972. Unlike for most of portions of I-70 within the I-465 beltway, several inner sections of I-65 were built throughout the overall project lifespan.
However, the final three segments from the south side through the heart of the city, including the common portion of I-65 and I-70, were not finished and opened to traffic until around 1974. Prior to 2004, the interchange from the Indiana Toll Road to southbound I-65 required making a physical left turn onto I-65 via a traffic signal; this deficiency has since been corrected by a grade-separation. As part of the Operation Indy Commute project, INDOT began work in 2013 to widen I-65 on both northbound and southbound mainlines from exit 103 at Southport Road northward to the southern junction with I-465, adding auxiliary lanes in this section to improve merging of traffic entering southbound I-65 from I-465 and entering northbound I-65 from westbound Southport Road. To reduce congestion on I-65 South from I-465 West, the loop ramp from westbound I-465 was replaced by a flyover ramp to southbound I-65; the eastbound I-465 exit to southbound I-65 South
Trafalgar is a town in Nineveh and Hensley townships, Johnson County, United States. The population was 1,101 at the 2010 census; this town is 20 miles south of Indianapolis. It is the home of the transmitters for WTTV, WTTS, WFCI-FM and WHZN. Col. Avery M. Buckner is credited for platting a town, in the early 1850s, along a short-lived flat bar railroad that ran between Franklin, Martinsville. First named Liberty, the name was changed to Trafalgar. Soon Ezekiel W. Morgan came to town to open a store. Denied a site near the railroad, he bought land in a nearby village founded by George Bridges. In 1868, the railroad was rebuilt as the Martinsville branch of the Big Four; the post office was moved to Morgan's store. By 1870, the “old” and “new” Trafalgars had grown together and were incorporated as one; the current town of Trafalgar was reincorporated in 1946. By the 90s, the town had grown 266%; the name of the town commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar. Trafalgar is located at 39°24′51″N 86°9′12″W. According to the 2010 census, Trafalgar has a total area of all land.
It is within the Nineveh-Hensley-Jackson United School Corporation. Trafalgar is home to Indian Creek Senior High School, one of seven high schools located in Johnson County, it is home to Indian Creek Middle School and Indian Creek Elementary School. Trafalgar has a branch of the Johnson County Public Library; as of the 2010 census, the town had 1,101 people that comprised 292 families. The population density was 417.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 419 housing units at an average density of 158.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.3% White, 0.9% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.0% of the population. There were 385 households of which 46.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.2% were non-families.
20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.24. The median age in the town was 34.2 years. 30.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 798 people, 263 households, 208 families residing in the town; the population density was 619.2 people per square mile. There were 286 housing units at an average density of 221.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.75% White, 0.63% Native American, 0.50% Asian, 0.13% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. There were 263 households out of which 52.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.9% were non-families. 18.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.39. In the town, the population was spread out with 35.2% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 36.3% from 25 to 44, 12.9% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,357, the median income for a family was $54,531. Males had a median income of $38,438 versus $22,083 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,079. About 3.5% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.3% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over. Elmer S. Riggs, paleontologist
Shelby County, Indiana
Shelby County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 44,436; the county seat is Shelbyville. Shelby County was organized in 1821, it was named for Gen. Isaac Shelby, who defeated the British at the Battle of Kings Mountain in the Revolutionary War. Shelby became the first Governor of Kentucky. During the War of 1812, he led the army of Kentucky into Canada, defeated the British at the decisive Battle of the Thames in 1813. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 412.76 square miles, of which 411.15 square miles is land and 1.61 square miles is water. Shelbyville Edinburgh Fairland Morristown St. Paul Waldron Hancock County Rush County Decatur County Bartholomew County Johnson County Marion County In recent years, average temperatures in Shelbyville have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.38 inches in January to 4.47 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversee different parts of the county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county. Current elected officials: County CommissionersDonald Parker Kevin Nigh Chris Ross County Council Terry Smith Scott Asher Ryan Claxton Tony Titus Linda Sanders Leigh Lankable Bryan Fischer As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 44,436 people, 17,302 households, 12,221 families residing in the county.
The population density was 108.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 19,080 housing units at an average density of 46.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.4% white, 1.0% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.6% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.5% were German, 13.1% were American, 12.2% were Irish, 9.0% were English. Of the 17,302 households, 33.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families, 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $60,824. Males had a median income of $46,325 versus $32,416 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $26,398. About 7.4% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. Isaac Colton Ash, Los Angeles, City Council member, 1925–27 George W. Clarke, governor of Iowa, 1913–1917 National Register of Historic Places listings in Shelby County, Indiana Young, Julie. A brief history of Shelby County, Indiana. Charleston, SC: History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-846-0
Alternative meanings at Edinburgh. Edinburgh is a town in Bartholomew and Shelby counties in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 4,480 at the 2010 census, it is part of Indiana metropolitan statistical area. Edinburgh was named in honor of Edinburgh and for many years was pronounced the same way. Edinburgh is the home of a National Guard training facility; the Big Blue River and Sugar Creek join to form the Driftwood River 1 mi west of Edinburgh. Edinburgh was laid out in about 1822. A founder of the town being a native of Scotland may have caused the name Edinburgh to be selected; the Edinburgh post office has been in operation since 1823. Edinburgh Commercial Historic District, South Walnut Street Historic District, Toner Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Severe thunderstorms formed across Central Indiana on the evening of June 3, 2008; these storms produced multiple tornadoes. One of these tornadoes traveled across northern sections of Brown County and southern sections of Johnson County.
This tornado did considerable damage to the Camp Atterbury facility. The tornado crossed US 31, entering the town of Edinburgh. Several buildings and countless trees and power lines were damaged as the tornado moved parallel with Indiana 252; the tornado lifted near Interstate 65. The National Weather Service rated this damaging event as an EF-2 tornado. Several bouts of severe thunderstorm activity and heavy rainfall affected the Edinburgh area in early June 2008; the Big Blue River and Sugar Creek overflowed their banks as a result of this activity. However, the worst of the weather was to come. A line of severe thunderstorms moved across Central Indiana on the evening of June 6, 2008; these storms began weakening as daylight was lost. However, strong surface winds began to interact with a leftover outflow boundary from the earlier severe activity; as a result, new thunderstorm activity began to move to the east. This interaction produced what is known as a training effect, with thunderstorm after thunderstorm moving over the same area.
The first rainfall began to fall in Edinburgh at 9:00 PM on the evening of June 6. The torrential rain would last until 12:00 PM on June 7. An unofficial rainfall total of 10.71 inches was measured in Edinburgh. Official National Weather Service rainfall totals across Central Indiana during this period ranged from 3.09 inches to 9.85 inches. This water had no place to go as it struck the saturated grounds, so runoff was high; the Big Blue River and Sugar Creek began to rise rapidly. Runoff flooded agricultural areas and much of this water made its way into several subdivisions in Edinburgh. Many homes were flooded with several feet of water. US 31, SR 252, Interstate 65 were all flooded at the height of the flood cutting Edinburgh off from surrounding areas. Edinburgh is located at 39°21′10″N 85°58′3″W. According to the 2010 census, Edinburgh has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,480 people, 1,760 households and 1,180 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,440.5 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,940 housing units at an average density of 623.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.2% White, 0.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 3.0% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.5% of the population. There were 1,760 households of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.0% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the town was 38.3 years. 24.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 49.9% male and 50.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,505 people, 1,789 households, 1,207 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,584.8 people per square mile.
There were 1,894 housing units at an average density of 666.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.18% White, 0.13% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 0.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.07% of the population. There were 1,789 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families. 27.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.07. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $32,170, the median income for a family was $40,511. Males had a median income of $27,445 versus
Morgan County, Indiana
Morgan County is a county in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 68,894; the county seat is Martinsville. Morgan County is between Indianapolis, in Marion County, Bloomington in Monroe County, it is included IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. Two major highways, Interstate 69 and Indiana State Road 67, carry large numbers of daily commuters between the two larger communities; the county has 14 townships. Morgan County was formed in 1822, it was named for Gen. Daniel Morgan, who defeated the British at the Battle of Cowpens in the Revolutionary War. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, mineral springs in Martinsville gave rise to several spas, the nickname of the Martinsville High School athletic teams has subsequently been the Artesians. Settlers in Morgan County in the early nineteenth century came predominantly from southern states; the Mooresville area and surrounding communities received large numbers of southern Quakers, driven to migrate because of their opposition to slavery.
Paul Hadley, a Mooresville resident, was the designer of the current Indiana flag, as well as a locally prominent water color artist in the early twentieth century. County government took several steps forward in the 2000s, creating a new Plan Commission, re-instituting a county economic development organization, establishing the county's first Park and Recreation Board between 2000 and 2004. Morgan County was the first county in the metropolitan Indianapolis region to establish a smoking ban ordinance for restaurants, taking that step in 2004. Other communities in the region soon followed Morgan County's lead. A County Achievement Award from the Association of Indiana Counties in 2006 was the third award from the group given to Morgan County in a ten-year span, adding to 1997 and 2003 awards. In 2006 Morgan County was the first in the central Indiana region to offer a prescription drug discount program to its residents at no charge to individuals, helping residents save an average of 20% on prescriptions.
During 2006, Morgan and Hendricks Counties became the first in Indiana to develop neighboring and co-related TIF districts for economic development activity. Morgan County has developed a new thoroughfare plan, integrated with the Mooresville thoroughfare plan, recently completed a new capital improvement plan. Both activities are preludes to a new comprehensive plan being developed for the county; the first building used for Morgan County courts was the log house of a pioneer. Work began in 1823 to build a two-story log house. A brick courthouse replaced it in 1833; the Morgan County courthouse was designed by Isaac Hodgson in the Italianate style. It was built from 1857 to 1859 by Perry M. Blankenship of Martinsville at a cost of $32,000, it was identical to Hodgson's Jennings County courthouse in Vernon, begun in 1857, but the Martinsville building received an addition in the 1970s. The building is of red brick with white stone quoins and has tall windows with round arches, arranged in pairs.
It is one of the few remaining pre-Civil War courthouses. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 409.43 square miles, of which 403.97 square miles is land and 5.46 square miles is water. Morgan County is bisected by the White River Valley; the county is home to large areas of land that were not glaciated during the last ice age. The river valley and contributing watersheds, along with the non-glaciated hills, results in a topography unlike the rest of the metropolitan Indianapolis area. County residents are proud of the scenic terrain, in recent years have established a county park system and a bike/pedestrian trail system plan to provide protection and access to the amenities. An annual five mile run is held as a fundraiser for the path system endowment. Martinsville Bethany Brooklyn Monrovia Mooresville Morgantown Paragon Painted Hills In recent years, average temperatures in Martinsville have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 85 °F in July, although a record low of −35 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1954.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.44 inches in February to 4.73 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code; the county council is the fiscal branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Four Council members are elected from county districts, three are elected at-large by the entire county electorate; the council members serve four-year terms and are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget and special spending. The council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of optional income taxes and the property tax levy, subject to state level approval, excise taxes and service taxes; the executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue and managing day-to-day functions of the county government.
The county maintains a smal
Greenwood is a city in Johnson County, United States. The population was 49,791 at the 2010 Census, increased to 56,545 in the Census 2016 estimates. Greenwood is located between Indiana State Road 37 and Interstate 65; the city shares a border with Indianapolis and is the most populous suburb in the southern portion of the Indianapolis Metropolitan Area. The first inhabitants of the area known as Greenwood were the Delaware Indians. In 1818, the Treaty of St. Mary's opened central Indiana to European American settlement, by 1823 the first cabin in northern Johnson County was erected by settlers John B. and Isaac Smock on land now occupied by Greenwood Park Mall. Greenwood was first known as "Smocktown" or "Smock's Settlement" in honor of the Smock brothers, became "Greenfield" in 1825. Since this clashed with another Greenfield located in Hancock County, the name of the settlement was changed to "Greenwood". Greenwood was incorporated as a town under Indiana law in 1864; some claim the town's name was in honor of Samuel Greenwood, who platted the community in 1872.
Greenwood was an key cog in the Electric Indianapolis Interurban Railway System. In 1895, Henry L. Smith proposed and organized the Indianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin Company and graded the line to Greenwood; the Indianapolis, Greenwood & Franklin Railway was opened between Indianapolis and Greenwood on January 1, 1900 and, according to Indianapolis historian Jacob Piatt Dunn, was the Hoosier capital's first real interurban electric railway. The railway followed; the J. T. Polk Canning Company was essential to Greenwood's early growth; the cannery was a major employer and canned a variety of vegetables grown in Indiana. The company expanded into the dairy market and provided milk delivery to customers. At one point the cannery was the largest canning operation west of Baltimore; the cannery was purchased by the Stokely-Van Camp company and retained operations in Greenwood until the 1950s. Portions of the cannery are still standing on Main Street and have been repurposed for professional office space.
Greenwood became a fifth-class city in 1960. In 1965, an Indiana Civil Rights Commission report found that Greenwood had been one of 19 sundown towns in Indiana, where African Americans were not allowed to live or stay after dark; the city had been white since the 1920s. Greenwood Commercial Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991; this district encompasses 32 acres. In 2010, the Greenwood City Council approved a measure to change the official status of Greenwood to second class city in accordance with Indiana Code Title 36, Article 4, Chapter 1. Greenwood is in northern Johnson County and occupies the northern half of Pleasant Township and the northeast portion of White River Township, it is bordered to the southwest by Bargersville, to the south by Whiteland and New Whiteland, to the north, in Marion County, by the city of Indianapolis. Greenwood is 11 miles south of downtown Indianapolis and 12 miles north of Franklin, the Johnson county seat. According to the 2010 census, Greenwood has a total area of 21.231 square miles, of which 21.23 square miles is land and 0.001 square miles is water.
There are no navigable bodies of water within city limits. Several creeks run through the area and influence local drainage patterns and storm water management systems. Pleasant Run Creek flows from east to west across the northern half of the city, leading 5 miles to the White River. Several municipal parks occupy the lowlands next to the creek. Grassy Creek and Tracy Ditch flow south from the city, connecting Greenwood to the towns of New Whiteland and Franklin. Honey Creek originates in the southwest section of the city and after flowing through White River Township joins the White River near the intersection of Smith Valley Road and Highway 37. According to Greenwood's most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, there were 209.6 miles of public streets within the city limits as of 2015. Major east-west arterial routes in Greenwood are not numbered and include County Line Road, Fry Road, Main Street, Smith Valley Road, Stop 18 Road, Worthsville Road. Greenwood's system of east-west streets and roads link residents and businesses in White River Township with the business and neighborhoods adjacent to Interstate 65.
Most major north-south corridors in Greenwood are not property of the city. U. S. 31, State Road 135, Interstate 65 serve as the major north-south routes in the city. Greenwood owns and maintain three secondary corridors east of U. S. 31: Madison Avenue connects the Greenwood Park Mall to the Old Town Historic District. As of 2015, three interstate exits connected Greenwood to Interstate 65; the most recent interchange, the Worthsville Road Exit, features a diverging diamond traffic design, The diverging diamond at Worthsville Road is one of two such installations in Indiana. The remaining two interchanges, Main Street and County Line Road, follow conventional design standards and serve major commercial and industrial zones. KHFY – Indy South Greenwood Airport Freight rail service is provided by the Louisville and Indiana Railroad; the LIRC line traverses Greenwood from north to south and parallels U. S. 31 and Interstate 65. As of the census of 2010, there were 49,791 people, 19,615 households, 12,845 fa