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Johnson County War

The Johnson County War known as the War on Powder River and the Wyoming Range War, was a range conflict that took place in Johnson County, Wyoming from 1889 to 1893. The conflict began when cattle companies started ruthlessly persecuting alleged rustlers in the area, many of whom were settlers who competed with them for land and water rights; as violence swelled between the large established ranchers and the smaller settlers in the state, it culminated in Powder River Country when the ranchers hired gunmen to invade the county. The gunmen's initial incursion in the territory aroused the small farmers and ranchers, as well as the state lawmen, they formed a posse of 200 men that led to a grueling stand-off; the siege ended when the United States Cavalry on the orders of President Benjamin Harrison relieved the two forces, although further fighting persisted in the following months. The events have since become a mythologized and symbolic story of the Wild West, over the years variations of the storyline have come to include some of its most famous historical figures.

In addition to being one of the most well-known range wars of the American frontier, its themes class warfare, served as a basis for numerous popular novels and television shows in the Western genre. Conflict over land was a common occurrence in the development of the American West, but was prevalent during the late 19th century, when large portions of the West were being settled by white Americans for the first time through the Homestead Acts, it is a period that one historian, Richard Maxwell Brown, has called the "Western Civil War of Incorporation", of which the Johnson County War was a part. In the early days of Wyoming most of the land was in public domain, open to stock raising as an open range and farmlands for homesteading. Large numbers of cattle were turned loose on the open range by large ranches; each spring, round-ups were held to separate the cattle belonging to different ranches. Before a round-up, an orphan or stray calf was sometimes surreptitiously branded, the common way to identify the cow's owners.

Lands and water rights were distributed to whoever settled the property first, farmers and ranchers had to respect these boundaries. However, as more and more homesteaders called "grangers" moved into Wyoming, competition for land and water soon enveloped the state, the cattle companies reacted by monopolizing large areas of the open range to prevent newcomers from using it, they forbade their employees from owning cattle for fear of additional competition, threatened anyone they suspected to be rustlers. The uneasy relationship between the larger, wealthier ranches and smaller ranch settlers became worse after the harsh winter of 1886–1887, when a series of blizzards and temperatures of –50 to –40 °F followed by an hot and dry summer, ravaged the frontier. Thousands of cattle were lost and the large companies began appropriating land and the water supply in the area; some of the harsher tactics included forcing settlers off their land, setting fire to their properties, excluding them from participating in the annual roundup.

They justified these excesses on. Hostilities worsened when the Wyoming legislature passed the Maverick Act, which stated that all unbranded cattle in the open range automatically belonged to the cattlemen's association; the cattlemen held a firm grip on Wyoming's stock interests by limiting the number of small ranchers that could participate. Many of the large ranching outfits in Wyoming were organized as the Wyoming Stock Growers Association and gathered at the Cheyenne Club in Cheyenne, Wyoming. Comprising some of the state's wealthiest and most influential residents, the organization held a great deal of political sway in the state and region; the WSGA organized the cattle industry by scheduling cattle shipments. The WSGA employed an agency of detectives to investigate cases of cattle theft from its members' holdings. Grangers and rustlers intermixed with one another in the community, making it more difficult for the detectives to discriminate who were the criminals and the innocent. Rustling in the local area was increasing due to the harsh grazing conditions, the illegal exploits of organized groups of rustlers were becoming well publicized in the late 1880s.

Well-armed outfits of horse and cattle rustlers roamed across various portions of Wyoming and Montana, with Montana vigilantes such as the infamous Stuart's Stranglers declaring "War on the Rustlers" in 1884. Bandits taking refuge in the infamous hideout known as the Hole-in-the-Wall were preying upon the herds. Frank M. Canton, Sheriff of Johnson County in the early 1880s and better known as a detective for the WSGA, was a prominent figure in eliminating these supposed criminals from Wyoming. Before the events in Johnson County, Canton had developed a reputation as a lethal gunman. At a young age he had worked as a cowboy in Texas, in 1871 started a career in robbery and cattle rustling, as well as killing a Buffalo Soldier on October 10, 1874. Historian Harry Sinclair Drago described Canton as a "merciless, emotionless killer. For pay, he murdered eight—very ten—men." On July 20, 1889, a range detective from the Association named George Henderson accused Ella Watson, a local rancher, of stealing cattle from a fellow rancher by the name of Albert John Bothwell.

The cattlemen sent riders to seize Ella before capturing her husband Jim Averell as well. Both of them were subsequently hanged from a tree; this gruesome act was one of the rare cases in the Old West i

Sir George Francis Osborne, 16th Baronet

Lt.-Col. Sir George Francis Osborne, 16th Baronet, MC, was an Anglo-Irish baronet and British Army officer, he was decorated for gallantry during the First World War. Osborne was born on 27 July 1894, he was the eldest son of Sir Francis Osborne, 15th Baronet and wife Kathleen Eliza née Whitfield, of Framfield Grange, Sussex. Osborne was educated at Repton School, Derbyshire before entering the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Berkshire. Osborne fought with distinction in the First World War. Wounded in combat twice, Osborne was awarded the Military Cross in 1917 and was promoted Major in 1932 before retiring from regular service with the Royal Sussex Regiment in the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Osborne succeeded to the family title, the Osborne Baronetcy of Ballentaylor and Ballylemonon, on 23 October 1948. Osborne married on 27 February 1938 Mary Grace Horn, daughter of Clement Samuel Horn of Goring-by-Sea, West Sussex, married firstly before 1926 to Dr. Robert Stavali Aspinall, a British Army surgeon, by whom she had John Victor Aspinall, had four children: Jennifer Jane Osborne, married on 20 May 1966 Antony Rufus Little Caroline Mary Osborne, married before 1966 Michael J. Dodd, had issue Sir Peter Osborne, 17th Baronet of Vinnicks, Hampshire, 17th Baronet married on 16 October 1968 Felicity Alexandra Loxton-Peacock of Belgravia and had four children: The Rt.

Hon. George Gideon Oliver Osborne Benedict George Osborne Adam Peter Osborne Theodore "Theo" Grantley Osborne James Francis Osborne, educated at Seaford College, West Sussex, at the Sorbonne University, married on 9 October 1971 Felicity Jane Boutwood, daughter of Peter Boutwood of West Wittering, West Sussex and adopted two sons and had one son: Toby James Robert Osborne, twin with the below George Dominic Peter Osborne, twin with the above Harry Lucas Osborne Osborne died on 21 July 1960. Charles Mosley, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes, volume 2, pages 3031 and 3032. Http://www.thepeerage.com/p31486.htm#i314853

Dharam Pal Singh Malik

Dharampal Singh Malik in a small village, Bidhal Tehsil Gohana, District Sonipat, Haryana. He was a member of the 8th Lok Sabha representing the Sonipat, he was elected to the 10th Lok Sabha. He was President of Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee, he became Member of legislative assembly from Gohana. He Completed his Bachelor of Arts & Bachelor of Laws from University of Delhi, he studied from DB High School Bhainswal Kalan, Arya College, Panipat. Dharampal Singh Malik has a Son Vishal Malik, Indian Film Actor and two daughters Shakti Ahlawat and Anita Malik, lecturer in Haryana Govt School Sonipat, His Wife is Sudha Malik, Former Member, Haryana Public Service Commission and Chairperson Haryana Janhit Congress, he belongs to an Arya Samaji family. He belongs to an agriculturist family, his father name is Ch. Amir Singh Malik and his mother name is Shrimati Chotto Devi, he took admission in district board primary school, Bidhal in April 1947 as the youngest student of his class. In 3rd standard he joined district board middle school Bhainswal Kalan, Tehsil Gohana and passed out his 10th standard NDA examination but could not be selected for interview.

He came back and took admission in 11th standard in Arya College and cleared Faculty of Arts in 1961. He did his Bachelor of Arts from the same college in 1963, he took admission in University of Delhi in July 1964. After that he completed his Law from Delhi in 1966, he did practice under Chaudhary Lahri Singh for 1 year. Former Minister, Joined Punjab and Haryana and Former Member of Parliament Lok Sabha from Rohtak after that he got advocate licence from Punjab and Haryana High Court in Dec 1966 and he started his legal Practice in 1967, he started his career by becoming the Supreme Counsellor, University of Delhi in 1964. After that he became the Member of Executive Committee, Kanya Gurukul, Khanpur Kalan and Gurukul Bhainswal Kalan Sonipat since 1968-84 he was elected Delegate to IFFCO in 1972, he became the Vice President of Central Cooperative Bank Sonipat in 1973. He got selected as the Director of Marketing Cooperative Society, Gohana in 1974 he founded the Arya High School, Gohana in 1975.

He contested Haryana Assembly election from Gohana on Indian National Congress ticket in 1977, became the Member of Managing Committee, All India Jat Heroes' Memorial College, Rohtak in 1983. After that he got Elected to 8th Lok Sabha in 1984 by defeating Chaudhary Devi Lal, he became the Member of Committee Subordinate Legislation, Lok Sabha in 1985 become Chairman of Haryana State Congress MPs in Parliament in 1985, member of Estimates Committee, Lok Sabha, in 1987. He had been the President of DCC Sonipat in 1989 again re-elected to 10th Lok Sabha in 1991 became Member of Estimates Committee, Lok Sabha 1992 He became the President of Haryana Pradesh Congress Committee in 1992, Member of Committee Subordinate Legislation, Lok Sabha in 1994, Member of the Legislative Assembly in 2005. In 2012, he became the Chairman of Joint Committee i.e. Bharatiya Janata Party and Haryana Janhit Congress. Dharam Pal Singh Malik on Facebook http://www.tribuneindia.com/2004/20040519/ncr1.htm - Dharampal Singh Malik

Alma AdamkienÄ—

Alma Adamkienė is a Lithuanian-American philologist and philanthropist. She is the wife of the former President of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus, was First Lady during his two terms, she holds United States citizenship. Adamkienė was born in Šiauliai, her father, Stasys Nutautas, was a businessman. In 1944, when the Soviet Army returned to Lithuania, Alma Nutautaitė fled with her family to the West, she finished high school in Germany, studied Philology at Erlangen University in Nuremberg. Alma Nutautaitė emigrated to the United States of America in 1949, she first worked as a laboratory assistant at a steel factory. She took a position with an insurance company, she organized and participated in Lithuanian émigré activities. Alma Nutautaitė married Valdas Adamkus in 1951, took her husband's surname. During the presidential election held in Lithuania in 1997, Valdas Adamkus campaigned for the Presidency and won. After Adamkus became President, Adamkienė became involved in various Lithuanian social programs focusing on the welfare of children.

She opened a foundation, the Alma Adamkienė Charity and Support Fund, in 1999. 1998: Member 1st Class of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise2001: Grand Cross of the Order of the Three Stars2004: Member 1st Class of the Order of the White Star2006: Grand Cross in the Order of the Crown. 2007: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Henry2009: Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland Alma Adamkienė Charity and Support Fund

Buzz!: The Schools Quiz

Buzz!: The Schools Quiz is an educational game based on the popular Buzz! Series of games; the game was developed by Relentless Software in association with the UK Government's Department for Education and Skills. The game's 5,000 questions are based on the Key Stage 2 Curriculum that covers children between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Although the game is published by Sony the development cost were covered by Relentless themselves and a Government grant from DfES to fund the initial prototype. Sony is publishing it, but we've funded it ourselves to get it out there. We wanted to do something positive and this was a great opportunity afforded to us by the government. We don't make a penny from the version in schools but we will make money from retail sales if it sells well. Fastest Finger - A traditional round of Buzz! games. Players press their coloured buttons as fast as they can and see if they can get the questions right. Pie Fight - A round which first appeared in Buzz! The Mega Quiz, when a player gets a question correct they choose who they want to throw a pie at but they have to be careful, they could throw it at themselves!

Fact or Fiction - Another round, in Buzz! The Mega Quiz; the questions take the form of Buzz making a statement and players use the blue and orange buttons to say if the statement is fact or fiction. General Knowledge - New to Buzz! You select your everyone answers a question on it. Top Rank - Players put the answers in the correct order as fast as they can! The Final Countdown - Players' points are turned into time and however long they take to answer a question, their chances of winning goes down. Last one standing wins the game. Buzz - Jason Donovan Rose - Nicky Birch Questions - Sally Beaumont Probably because Buzz!: The Schools Quiz was seen more as an educational aid rather than a game per se, the game wasn't reviewed in any of the regular games magazines and websites although the newspaper reviews that it did receive were positive. The Sunday Times gave it top marks of 5 stars and said "The Schools Quiz is no substitute for homework or proper revision, but it is a good way to reinforce what children have learnt in class" The Guardian gave the game 4/5 and said "This game is a great way for both teachers and parents to make learning fun"Despite the game being for use in UK schools only, it was criticised by US attorney Jack Thompson, quoted in UK newspaper The Daily Telegraph as saying "Video games have hurt far more people than they have helped,", "I don't see how they can be of any more benefit than normal teaching.".

Although in an email to UK video game website Eurogamer, Thompson stated that the quotes were "a total fabrication". Thompson continued "I was never interviewed about Buzz. I had never heard about it until I was quoted having said this about it,". Relentless Software Daily Mail Article

Nigel Clark

Nigel Richard Clark is an English singer-songwriter, best known as the lead singer and bassist of Dodgy. Clark returned to performing in 2005 as a solo artist; this new project received a positive review from Q magazine. He released his debut album 21st Century Man, on 20 November 2006. In 2007, Clark teamed up with dance music duo SFG to produce a new version of Dodgy's "Good Enough". SFG had been writing dance tracks together in their Hereford recording studio for two years; the group consists of Andrew Marston. BMG Music Publishing, who own the copyright to "Good Enough", allowed the reworking in July 2007, the single is available as a white label. Clark works as a music teacher at "The Aspire Academy" in Worcester, lives with his wife and two children and Elektra