Julian A. Scott, was born in Johnson and served as a Union Army drummer during the American Civil War, where he received America's highest military decoration the Medal of Honor for his actions at the Battle of Lee's Mills, he was an American painter and Civil War artist. Julian Scott was the fourth child, of eight, born to Charles Scott, a clockmaker, his wife Lucy Kellum. Julian's siblings were Cleora, Alice, Charlie, H. Percy and George. Lucy Scott died in childbirth and Charles Scott remarried, in 1860, to Susan Pollard. During the American Civil War, Julian's elder brother, served with the 4th Regiment of the U. S. Artillery, was wounded at the Battle of Ball's Bluff, was taken prisoner in December 1864, died at Libby Prison of starvation. Julian's younger brother, enlisted at age 13 and became a bugler. After the war, Charlie moved to Missouri to Boston, where he became a physician, his brother, became an attorney in Illinois. Scott married and had one daughter but he and his wife separated.
Scott received his early education at the Lamoille Academy, known today as Johnson State College where the main gallery is named in his memory. Scott continued his studies, graduating from the National Academy of Design in New York and subsequently studied under Emmanuel Leutze until 1868. During the Civil War, Scott enlisted in the 3rd Vermont Infantry on June 1, 1861, at the age of 15 as a fifer and, in February 1865, received the Medal of Honor for rescuing wounded soldiers while under enemy fire during the Battle at Lee's Mills, Virginia; when the war was over, he traveled to Stuttgart to continue his education. Scott's 1872 masterwork, the Battle of Cedar Creek, is located at the Vermont State House; the painting illustrates the contributions of his home state of Vermont in the American Civil War and is significant for its absence of glorification of war and instead shows the suffering and human sacrifice associated with war. Scott traveled west as part of a census party, painting Native Americans in New Mexico and Oklahoma.
Many of his works from this expedition now hang in the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Art. Scott was interred in Hillside Cemetery located in New Jersey. "Rear-Guard at White Oak Swamp". "Encampment", Rank and Organization: Drummer, Company E, 3d Vermont Infantry. Place and date. At Lees Mills, Va. April 16, 1862. Entered service at. Johnson, Vt. Birth: Johnson, Vt. Date of issue: February 1865. Citation: Crossed the creek under a terrific fire of musketry several times to assist in bringing off the wounded. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: Q–S Titterton, Robert J.. Julian Scott: artist of the Civil War and native America: with 97 illustrations. Jefferson, N. C.: McFarland & Co. "Julian Scott, Medal of Honor recipient". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. June 8, 2009. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2007. "Photographs of the painting "Battle of Cedar Creek" at the Vermont State House by Sara Lovering".
Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Several paintings". Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2010. Native paths: American Indian art from the collection of Charles and Valerie Diker, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Julian Scott
Johnson is a town in Lamoille County, United States. The population was 3,274 at the 2000 census. Johnson is home of a part the Vermont State Colleges system; the Vermont Studio Center is located in the village of a part of the town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 45.1 square miles, of which 45.1 square miles is land and 0.02% is water. According to Esther Munroe Swift's book "Vermont Place-names: Footprints of History" the town of Johnson is named for the American jurist and educator William Samuel Johnson. Johnson, Vermont and a part of neighboring Cambridge, Vermont were together known as King's College Tract being created by a royal charter of British King George III in 1774; the King's College Tract was reserved for the eventual expansion of Kings College in New York, today's Columbia University. After the Declaration of Independence, Vermont's Council of Censors granted the town to Johnson in 1785; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,274 people, 1,170 households, 669 families residing in the town.
The population density was 72.6 people per square mile. There were 1,263 housing units at an average density of 28.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.58% White, 0.61% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.31% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 1,170 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.4% were couples living together and joined in either marriage or civil union, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.8% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 26.4% from 18 to 24, 25.4% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, 8.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years.
For every 100 females, there were 103.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,343, the median income for a family was $38,224. Males had a median income of $28,257 versus $20,610 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,014. About 13.8% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.6% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Rodgers, Steve. Country Towns of Vermont. McGraw-Hill: 1998. ISBN 1-56626-195-3. Strickland, Ron. Vermonters: Oral Histories from Down Country to the Northeast Kingdom. University Press of New England: 1986. ISBN 0-87451-867-9. Swift, Esther Monroe. Vermont Place Names: Footprints of History; the Stephen Greene Press: 1996 ISBN 0-8289-0291-7. Johnson Vermont Official Town Website Johnson Woolen Mills Johnson State College Vermont Studio Center The Johnson Connection: A Business listing site with information about the town
The Vermont Senate is the upper house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U. S. state of Vermont. The senate consists of 30 members. Senate districting divides the 30 members into three single-member districts, six two-member districts, three three-member districts, one six-member district; each senator represents at least 20,300 citizens. Senators are elected to two-year terms and there is no limit to the number of terms that a senator may serve; as in other upper houses of state and territorial legislatures and the U. S. Senate, the state senate of Vermont has special functions, such as confirming or rejecting gubernatorial appointments to executive departments, the state cabinet and boards, as well as electing members to the Vermont Supreme Court; the Vermont Senate meets at the Vermont State House in the state capital of Montpelier. Senators are elected from a total of 13 multi-member senate districts; the districts correspond to the boundaries of the state's 14 counties with adjustments to ensure equality of representation.
Two small counties are combined into one district. Each district elects between 6 senators at-large depending on population. Vermont is the only state to have any senate districts represented by more than two senators each, as well as the only state to employ bloc voting for senate elections. Vermont is one of the 14 states where the upper house of its state legislature serves at a two-year cycle, rather than the more common four-year term in the majority of states; the Lieutenant Governor of Vermont serves as the President of the Senate, but casts a vote only if required to break a tie. In his or her absence, the President pro tempore presides over the Senate; the President pro tempore is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation from the entire body through a Senate Resolution. The President Pro Tempore is the chief leadership position in the senate; the senate majority and minority leaders are elected by their respective party caucuses. Committee assignments are determined by the Committee on Committees.
This panel consists of the Lieutenant Governor, the President pro tempore and one member chosen by the full Senate. For several years the third member of the committee has been Richard Mazza; the full Senate meets Tuesday and Friday mornings only for the first seven weeks of the annual session. The Vermont Senate is aided by an administrative staff, including the Secretary of the Vermont Senate and several assistants. Since 2011, the Senate Secretary has been a former member of the Senate. Previous secretaries include Ernest W. Gibson Jr. Murdock A. Campbell, Franklin S. Billings Jr. See also: Political party strength in Vermont. Vermont had a unicameral legislature until 1836; the state added a senate by constitutional amendment. The longest-serving member of the Vermont Senate was William T. Doyle. Doyle served from January 1969 to January 2017. Most individuals who have served as governor or lieutenant governor had experience in the Vermont legislature. For more than 100 years from the 1850s to the 1960s, the Vermont Republican Party won every election for statewide office.
In keeping with the "Mountain Rule", created to ensure party unity and lieutenant governors were from opposite sides of the Green Mountains, were limited to two years in office. Candidates for governor and lieutenant governor were agreed upon by party leaders years in advance, were chosen for leadership positions in the House or Senate to groom them for statewide office. Governors who served in the Vermont Senate include: Horace Eaton. Proctor. Mead. Wills. Many of Vermont's members of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives served in the Vermont Senate. U. S. Senators include Samuel S. Phelps, George F. Edmunds, Jonathan Ross, Porter H. Dale, Frank C. Partridge, Ernest Willard Gibson and Jim Jeffords. U. S. House members who served in the Vermont Senate include William Henry, Ahiman Louis Miner, George Tisdale Hodges, Frederick E. Woodbridge, H. Henry Powers, David J. Foster, William Hebard, Andrew Tracy, William W. Grout, Kittredge Haskins, Frank Plumley, Alvah Sabin, Homer Elihu Royce, Worthington Curtis Smith, Bradley Barlow, Augustus Young, Richard W. Mallary, Peter Plympton Smith and Peter Welch.
Other notable members of the Vermont Senate include: Jefferson P. Kidder: U. S. Congressman from Dakota Territory. Lucius E. Chittenden: author and government official. Daniel Kellogg: Adjutant general of the Vermont Militia. Hoyt Henry Wheeler: judge of
Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates. Inkjet printers are the most used type of printer, range from small inexpensive consumer models to expensive professional machines; the concept of inkjet printing originated in the 20th century, the technology was first extensively developed in the early 1950s. Starting in the late 1970s, inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed by Epson, Hewlett-Packard and Canon. In the worldwide consumer market, four manufacturers account for the majority of inkjet printer sales: Canon, HP, Epson and Brother; the emerging ink jet material deposition market uses inkjet technologies printheads using piezoelectric crystals, to deposit materials directly on substrates. The technology has been extended and the'ink' can now comprise solder paste in PCB assembly, or living cells, for creating biosensors and for tissue engineering.
Images produced on inkjet printers are sometime sold under other names since the term is associated with words like "digital", "computers", "everyday printing", which can have negative connotations in some contexts. These trade names or coined terms are used in the fine arts reproduction field, they include Digigraph, Iris prints, Cromalin. There are two main technologies in use in contemporary inkjet printers: continuous and drop-on-demand; the continuous inkjet method is used commercially for coding of products and packages. In 1867, Lord Kelvin patented the syphon recorder, which recorded telegraph signals as a continuous trace on paper using an ink jet nozzle deflected by a magnetic coil; the first commercial devices were introduced in 1951 by Siemens. In CIJ technology, a high-pressure pump directs liquid ink from a reservoir through a gunbody and a microscopic nozzle, creating a continuous stream of ink droplets via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A piezoelectric crystal creates an acoustic wave as it vibrates within the gunbody and causes the stream of liquid to break into droplets at regular intervals: 64,000 to 165,000 droplets per second may be achieved.
The ink droplets are subjected to an electrostatic field created by a charging electrode as they form. This results in a variable electrostatic charge on each droplet. Charged droplets are separated by one or more uncharged "guard droplets" to minimize electrostatic repulsion between neighbouring droplets; the charged droplets pass through another electrostatic field and are directed by electrostatic deflection plates to print on the receptor material, or allowed to continue on undeflected to a collection gutter for re-use. The more charged droplets are deflected to a greater degree. Only a small fraction of the droplets is used to the majority being recycled. CIJ is one of the oldest ink jet technologies in use and is mature; the major advantages are the high velocity of the ink droplets, which allows for a long distance between print head and substrate, the high drop ejection frequency, allowing for high speed printing. Another advantage is freedom from nozzle clogging as the jet is always in use, therefore allowing volatile solvents such as ketones and alcohols to be employed, giving the ink the ability to "bite" into the substrate and dry quickly.
The ink system requires active solvent regulation to counter solvent evaporation during the time of flight, from the venting process whereby air, drawn into the gutter along with the unused drops is vented from the reservoir. Viscosity is monitored and a solvent is added to counteract solvent loss. Drop-on-demand is divided into thermal DOD and piezoelectric DOD. Most consumer inkjet printers, including those from Canon, Hewlett-Packard, Lexmark, use the thermal inkjet process; the idea of using thermal excitation to move tiny drops of ink was developed independently by two groups at the same time: John Vaught and a team at Hewlett-Packard's Corvallis Division, Canon engineer Ichiro Endo. In 1977, Endo's team was trying to use the piezoelectric effect to move ink out of the nozzle but noticed that ink shot out of a syringe when it was accidentally heated with a soldering iron. Vaught's work started in late 1978 with a project to develop low-cost printing; the team at HP found. Two years the HP and Canon teams found out about each other's work.
In the thermal inkjet process, the print cartridges consist of a series of tiny chambers, each containing a heater, all of which are constructed by photolithography. To eject a droplet from each chamber, a pulse of current is passed through the heating element causing a rapid vaporization of the ink in the chamber and forming a bubble, which causes a large pressure increase, propelling a droplet of ink onto the paper; the ink's surface tension, as well as the condensation and resultant contraction of the vapor bubble, pulls a further charge of ink into the chamber through a narrow channel attached to an ink reservoir. The inks involved are water-based and use either pigments or dyes as the colorant; the inks must have a volatile component to form the vapor bubble. As no special materials are required, the print head is cheaper to produce than in other inkjet technologies. Most commercial and industrial inkjet printers and
Liberal arts college
A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college with an emphasis on undergraduate study in the liberal arts and sciences. Such colleges aim to impart a broad general knowledge and develop general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. Students in a liberal arts college major in a particular discipline while receiving exposure to a wide range of academic subjects, including sciences as well as the traditional humanities subjects taught as liberal arts. Although it draws on European antecedents, the liberal arts college is associated with American higher education, most liberal arts colleges around the world draw explicitly on the American model. According to US News & World Report, the top ten ranked Liberal Arts Colleges in America for 2019, by alphabetical order are: Amherst College, Bowdoin College, Carleton College, Claremont McKenna College, Davidson College, Middlebury College, Pomona College, Swarthmore College, Wellesley College, Williams College.
There is no formal definition of liberal arts college, but one American authority defines them as schools that "emphasize undergraduate education and award at least half of their degrees in the liberal arts fields of study." Other researchers have adopted similar definitions. Although many liberal arts colleges are undergraduate, some offer graduate programs that lead to a master's degree or doctoral degree in subjects such as business administration, nursing and law. Although the term "liberal arts college" most refers to an independent institution, it may sometimes refer to a university college within or affiliated with a larger university. Most liberal arts colleges outside the United States follow this model. Liberal arts colleges are distinguished from other types of higher education chiefly by their generalist curricula and small size; these attributes have various secondary effects in terms of administration as well as student experience. For example, class size is much lower at liberal arts colleges than at universities, faculty at liberal arts colleges focus on teaching more than research.
From a student perspective, a liberal arts college differs from other forms of higher education in the following areas: higher overall student satisfaction, a general feeling that professors take a personal interest in the student's education, perception of encouragement to participate in discussion. Many students select liberal arts colleges with this sense of personal connection in mind. From an administrative standpoint, the small size of liberal arts colleges contributes to their cohesion and ability to survive through difficult times. Job satisfaction is typically higher in liberal arts colleges, for both faculty and staff; the smaller size makes it feasible for liberal arts colleges to adopt experimental or divergent approaches, such as the Great Books curriculum at St. John's or Shimer, or the radically interdisciplinary curriculum of Marlboro. In addition, most liberal arts colleges are residential, which means students live and learn away from home for the first time; the distinctiveness of these attributes is somewhat eroded by the tendency of universities to adopt aspects of the liberal arts college, vice versa.
For example, several American universities, including the University of California system, have experimented with a cluster colleges model in which small liberal-arts-college-like units within a larger university form a "honeycomb of residential colleges". In addition, some universities have maintained a sub-unit that preserves many aspects of the liberal arts college, such as Columbia College within Columbia University. Liberal arts colleges themselves sometimes cluster to offer greater curricular breadth or share other resources. In academia, liberal arts refer to subjects or skills that aim to provide general knowledge and comprise the arts, natural sciences, social sciences, as opposed to professional or technical subjects. Most liberal arts colleges nowadays, offer more than just liberal arts subjects, such as computer science from the formal science discipline. Liberal arts colleges are found in all parts of the world. Notwithstanding the European origins of the concept of liberal arts education, today the term is associated with the United States, most self-identified liberal arts colleges worldwide are built on the American model.
The Global Liberal Arts Alliance, which incorporates institutions on five continents, refers to itself as "an international, multilateral partnership of American style liberal arts institutions."In 2009, liberal arts colleges from around the world formed the Global Liberal Arts Alliance, an international consortium and "matching service" to help liberal arts colleges in different countries deal with their shared problems. The liberal arts college model took root in the United States in the 19th century, as institutions spread that followed the model of early schools like Harvard and Dartmouth, although none of these early American schools are regarded as liberal arts colleges today; these colleges served as a means of spreading a European cultural model across the new country. The model proliferated in the 19th century; as of 1987, there were about 540 liberal arts colleges in the United States. The oldest liberal arts college in America is considered to be Washington College, the first college chartered after American independence.
Other prominent examples in the United States include the so-called Little Ivy co
International Style (architecture)
The International Style is a major architectural style, developed in the 1920s and 1930s and was related to modernism and modern architecture. It was first defined by Museum of Modern Art curators Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932, based on works of architecture from the 1920s, it is defined by the Getty Research Institute as "the style of architecture that emerged in Holland and Germany after World War I and spread throughout the world, becoming the dominant architectural style until the 1970s. The style is characterized by an emphasis on volume over mass, the use of lightweight, mass-produced, industrial materials, rejection of all ornament and color, repetitive modular forms, the use of flat surfaces alternating with areas of glass." Around 1900 a number of architects around the world began developing new architectural solutions to integrate traditional precedents with new social demands and technological possibilities. The work of Victor Horta and Henry van de Velde in Brussels, Antoni Gaudí in Barcelona, Otto Wagner in Vienna and Charles Rennie Mackintosh in Glasgow, among many others, can be seen as a common struggle between old and new.
These architects were not considered part of the International Style because they practiced in an "individualistic manner" and seen as the last representatives of Romanticism. The International Style can be traced to buildings designed by a small group of modernists, of which the major figures includes Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Jacobus Oud, Le Corbusier, Richard Neutra and Philip Johnson; the founder of the Bauhaus school, Walter Gropius, along with prominent Bauhaus instructor, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, became known for steel frame structures employing glass curtain walls. One of the world's earliest modern buildings where this can be seen is a shoe factory designed by Gropius in 1911 in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, called the Fagus Works building; the first building built on Bauhaus design principles was the concrete and steel Haus am Horn, built in 1923 in Weimar, designed by Georg Muche. The Gropius designed Bauhaus school building in Dessau, built 1925–26 and the Harvard Graduate Center known as the Gropius Complex, exhibit clean lines and a "concern for uncluttered interior spaces".
Marcel Breuer, a recognized leader in Béton Brut architecture and notable alumni of the Bauhaus, who pioneered the use of plywood and tubular steel in furniture design, who after leaving the Bauhaus would teach alongside Gropius at Harvard, is as well an important contributor to Modernism and the International Style. Prior to use of the term'International Style', some American architects—such as Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright, Irving Gill—exemplified qualities of simplification and clarity. Frank Lloyd Wright's Wasmuth Portfolio had been exhibited in Europe and influenced the work of European modernists, his travels there influenced his own work, although he refused to be categorized with them, his buildings of the 1920s and 1930s showed a change in the style of the architect, but in a different direction than the International Style. In Europe the modern movement in architecture had been called Functionalism or Neue Sachlichkeit, L'Esprit Nouveau, or Modernism and was much concerned with the coming together of a new architectural form and social reform, creating a more open and transparent society.
The "International Style", as defined by Hitchcock and Johnson, had developed in 1920s Western Europe, shaped by the activities of the Dutch De Stijl movement, Le Corbusier, the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus. Le Corbusier had embraced Taylorist and Fordist strategies adopted from American industrial models in order to reorganize society, he contributed to a new journal called L'Esprit Nouveau that advocated the use of modern industrial techniques and strategies to create a higher standard of living on all socio-economic levels. In 1927, one of the first and most defining manifestations of the International Style was the Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, overseen by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, it was enormously popular, with thousands of daily visitors. The exhibition Modern Architecture: International Exhibition ran from February 9–March 23, 1932, at the Museum of Modern Art, in the Heckscher Building at Fifth Avenue and 56th Street in New York. Beyond a foyer and office, the exhibition was divided into six rooms: the "Modern Architects" section began in the entrance room, featuring a model of William Lescaze's Chrystie-Forsyth Street Housing Development in New York.
From there visitors moved to the centrally placed Room A, featuring a model of a mid-rise housing development for Evanston, Illinois, by Chicago architect brothers Monroe Bengt Bowman and Irving Bowman, as well as a model and photos of Walter Gropius's Bauhaus building in Dessau. In the largest exhibition space, Room C, were works by Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, J. J. P. Oud and Frank Lloyd Wright. Room B was a section titled "Housing", presenting "the need for a new domestic environment" as it had been identified by historian and critic Lewis Mumford. In Room D were works by Richard Neutra. In Room E was a section titled "The extent of modern architecture", added at the last minute, which included the works of thirty seven modern architects from fifteen countries who were said to be influenced by the works of Europeans of the 1920s. Among these works was shown Alvar Aalto's Turun Sanomat newspaper offices building in Turku, Finland. After a six-week run in New York City, the exhibition toured the USA – the first such "travel
William Samuel Johnson
William Samuel Johnson was an early American statesman, notable for signing the United States Constitution, for representing Connecticut in the United States Senate, for serving as the third president of King's College now known as Columbia University. William Samuel Johnson was born in Stratford, Connecticut, on October 7, 1727 to Samuel Johnson, a well-known Anglican clergyman and president of King's College, Johnson's first wife, Charity Floyd Nicoll. Johnson received his primary education at home, he graduated from Yale College in 1744, going on to receive a master's degree from his alma mater in 1747. Although Johnson's father urged him to enter the clergy, Johnson decided to pursue a legal career. Self-educated in law he established various business connections. Johnson held a commission in the Connecticut colonial militia for over 20 years, earning the rank of colonel, he served in the lower house of the Connecticut legislature years 1761 and 1765. He was a member of the colony's supreme court in the years 1772–74.
William Samuel Johnson attended the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 and served on the committee that addressed the King arguing the right of the colonies to decide tax policies for themselves. Although his father urged him to enter the clergy, Johnson decided instead to pursue a legal career. Self-educated in the law, he developed an important clientele and established business connections extending beyond the boundaries of his native colony, he held a commission in the Connecticut colonial militia for over 20 years, rising to the rank of colonel, he served in the lower house of the Connecticut Legislature and in the upper house. Additionally, he was a member of the colony's Supreme Court, he was first attracted to the Patriot cause by what he and his associates considered Parliament's unwarranted interference in the government of the colonies. He attended the Stamp Act Congress in 1765 and served on the committee that drafted an address to the King arguing the right of the colonies to decide tax policies for themselves.
He opposed the Townshend Acts passed by Parliament in 1767 to pay for the French and Indian War and supported the non-importation agreements devised by the colonies to protest taxation without representation. Johnson lived in London from 1767 to 1771, serving as Connecticut's agent in its attempt to settle the colony's title to Indian lands, he criticized British policy toward the colonies. His experience in Britain convinced him that Britain's policy was shaped more by ignorance of American conditions and not through the sinister designs of a wicked government, as many Patriots alleged; as the Patriots became more radical in their demands, Johnson found it difficult to commit himself wholeheartedly to the cause. Although he believed British policy unwise, he found it difficult to break his own connections with the mother country. A scholar of international renown, he had many friends among the American Loyalists; as the famous English author, Samuel Johnson, said of him, "Of all those whom the various accidents of life have brought within my notice, there is scarce anyone whose acquaintance I have more desired to cultivate than yours."
He was bound to Britain by religious and professional ties. He enjoyed close associations with the Anglican Church in England and with the scholarly community at Oxford, which awarded him an honorary degree in 1766. Fearing the consequences of independence for both the colonies and the mother country, Johnson sought to avoid extremism and to reach a compromise on the outstanding political differences between the protagonists, he rejected his election to the First Continental Congress, a move criticized by the Patriots, who removed him from his militia command. He was strongly criticized when seeking an end to the fighting after Lexington and Concord, he visited the British commander, General Thomas Gage; the incident led to his arrest for communicating with the enemy, but the charges were dropped. He felt that the American Revolution was not necessary and that independence would be bad for everyone concerned. Once independence was achieved, Johnson felt free to participate in the government of the new nation, serving in the Congress of the Confederation.
His influence as a delegate was recognized by his contemporaries. Jeremiah Wadsworth wrote of him to a friend, "Dr. Johnson has, I believe, much more influence than either you or myself; the Southern Delegates are vastly fond of him." In 1785, the Vermont Republic granted Johnson a town in the former King's College Tract in thanks for representing the interests of Vermont before the Continental Congress. The town of Johnson, the small university Johnson State College, Johnson Street in Madison, Wisconsin bear his name. In 1787, Johnson played a major role as one of the Philadelphia Convention's delegates, his eloquent speeches on the subject of representation carried great weight during the debate. He looked to a strong federal government to protect the rights of Connecticut and the other small states from encroachment by their more powerful neighbors, he supported the New Jersey Plan, which called for equal representation of the states in the national legislature. In general, he favored extension of federal authority.
He argued that the judicial power "ought to extend to equity as well as law". The inflexibility of the law had to be tempered by fairness, he denied that there could be treason against a separate state since sovereignty was "in the Union." He opposed prohibition of any ex post facto