Winfield is a city and county seat of Cowley County, United States. It is situated along the Walnut River in South Central Kansas; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 12,301 and second most populous city of Cowley County. Winfield was founded in 1870, it was named for Rev. Winfield Scott, who promised to build the town a church in exchange for the naming rights; the first post office at Winfield was established in May, 1870. In 1873, Winfield incorporated as a city. Railroads reached Winfield in the late 1870s, and finished at Arkansas City in 1881. A total of 5 railroads passed through Winfield. In 1881, the State of Kansas established the Kansas State Asylum for Idiotic and Imbecile Youth, temporarily established at Lawrence, but moved to Winfield in 1887/1888, where it served as a dominant local employer for 117 years; the Winfield-Arkansas City area became an industrial community in the 20th Century, manufacturing consumer goods, aircraft and aircraft parts, while retaining its traditional dominant employer, the Winfield State Hospital.
In World War II, along with neighboring Arkansas City, became home to a military pilot training base, Strother Field, which remained in operation until the end of the war, bringing several thousand military personnel into the area. After the war, in the early 1950s, the field became the shared municipal airport and industrial park for Winfield and neighboring Arkansas City; the aircraft manufacturing industry in nearby Wichita —one of the world's principal aircraft-manufacturing centers—provided employment for many Winfield residents and indirectly. That opportunity grew in the last half of the century, as General Electric's GE Aviation division, in the late-1940s, began producing engines for Wichita aircraft, in the 1960s, one of Wichita's principal manufacturers, Cessna Aircraft Company built a factory at Winfield's Strother Field; the Winfield State Hospital and Training Center, established in the community in the prior century to house and confine the mentally ill and developmentally disabled, remained as a dominant local employer throughout the 20th century.
Towards the end of the century the housed developmentally disabled people. Social and legal changes, led to closing of most of the facility in 1998, it was turned into the Winfield Correctional Facility. Southwestern College grew to become a leading local institution and employer, drawing students from throughout the central United States, bringing an extra level of intellectual and cultural development and diversity to the community. In the 21st Century, Winfield remained an institutional town. With the exception of Cessna, most of the area's major employers continued into the early 21st Century. Winfield is situated along the Walnut River at its confluence with Timber Creek, it is located 17 miles north of the Kansas-Oklahoma state border at the junction of U. S. Routes 77 and 160. State highway route K-15 follows U. S. Route 77 to the north of the city and U. S. Route 160 to the east. K-360 is a bypass around the southeastern part of the city between U. S. Route 77 and U. S. Route 160. Arkansas City is 13 miles south of Winfield along U.
S. Route 77, Strother Field, a general aviation airport, is about five miles south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.93 square miles, of which, 11.56 square miles is land and 1.37 square miles is water. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low below 20 °F in January to an average high of nearly 93 °F in July; the maximum temperature reaches 90 °F an average of 69 days per year and reaches 100 °F an average of 12 days per year. The minimum temperature falls below the freezing point an average of 102 days per year; the first fall freeze occurs between early October and the first week of November, the last spring freeze occurs during the month of April. The area receives nearly 38 inches of precipitation during an average year with the largest share being received in May and June—with a combined 20 days of measurable precipitation. During a typical year the total amount of precipitation may be anywhere from 26 to 50 inches. There are on average 90 days of measurable precipitation per year.
Winter snowfall averages 12 inches, but the median is less than 3 inches. Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 7 days per year with at least an inch of snow being received on four of those days. Snow depth of at least an inch occurs an average of 11 days per year; as of the census of 2010, there were 12,301 people, 4,600 households, 2,848 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,064.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,217 housing units at an average density of 451.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.7% White, 3.9% African American, 1.3% Native American, 3.9% Asian, 1.8% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.1% of the population. There were 4,600 households of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.7% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.1% were non-families. 32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the city was 36.7 years. 23% of residents were under the
1950 Formula One season
The 1950 Formula One season was the fourth season of the FIA's Formula One motor racing. It featured the inaugural FIA World Championship of Drivers which commenced on 13 May and ended on 3 September, as well as a number of non-championship races; the championship consisted of six Grand Prix races, each held in Europe and open to Formula One cars, plus the Indianapolis 500, run to AAA National Championship regulations. Giuseppe Farina won the championship from Juan Manuel Luigi Fagioli; the inaugural World Championship of Drivers saw Alfa Romeo dominate with their supercharged 158, a well-developed pre-war design which debuted in 1938. All of the Formula One regulated races in the championship were run in Europe; the Indianapolis 500 was run to American AAA regulations, not to FIA Formula One regulations and none of the regular drivers who competed in Europe competed in the 500, vice versa. Alfa Romeo drivers dominated the championship with Italian Giuseppe "Nino" Farina edging out Argentine teammate Juan Manuel Fangio by virtue of his fourth place in Belgium.
Although the Indianapolis 500, which ran to different regulations, was included in the World Championship each year from 1950 to 1960, it attracted little European participation and, conversely few American Indianapolis drivers entered any Grands Prix. Championship points were awarded to the top five finishers in each race on 6, 4, 3, 2 basis. 1 point was awarded for the fastest lap of each race. Points for shared drives were divided between the drivers, regardless of how many laps each driver completed during the race. Only the best four results from the seven races could be retained by each driver for World Championship classification; the Alfa Romeo team dominated the British Grand Prix at the fast Silverstone circuit in England, locking out the four-car front row of the grid. With King George VI in attendance, Giuseppe Farina won the race from pole position setting the fastest lap; the podium was completed by his teammates Luigi Fagioli and Reg Parnell, while the remaining Alfa driver, Juan Manuel Fangio, was forced to retire after experiencing problems with his engine.
The final points scorers were the works Talbot-Lagos of Yves Giraud-Cabantous and Louis Rosier, both two laps behind the leaders. Scuderia Ferrari made their World Championship debut around the streets of Monaco, their leading drivers, Luigi Villoresi and Alberto Ascari had to settle for the third row of the grid, while the Alfa Romeos of Fangio and Farina again started from the front row, alongside the privateer Maserati of José Froilán González. Polesitter Fangio took a comfortable victory setting the race's fastest lap, a whole lap ahead of Ascari, with the third-placed Louis Chiron a further lap back in the works Maserati. A first-lap accident, caused by the damp track, had eliminated nine of the nineteen starters—including Farina and Fagioli—while González, who had incurred damage in the pile-up, retired on the following lap. Villoresi, although delayed by the accident, had made his way through the field to second place, but was forced to retire with an axle problem. Fangio's win brought.
The Indianapolis 500, the third round of the inaugural World Championship of Drivers held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Indianapolis, Indiana in the United States was won by the Kurtis Kraft-Offenhauser of Johnnie Parsons, ahead of the Deidt-Offenhausers of Bill Holland and Mauri Rose. The race was stopped after 138 of the scheduled 200 laps due to rain. Alfa Romeo's dominance continued when the World Championship returned to Europe for the Swiss Grand Prix at the tree-lined Bremgarten circuit just outside Bern. Fangio and Fagioli locked out the front row of the grid for Alfa, while the Ferraris of Villoresi and Ascari started from the second row. Fangio was the initial leader, starting from pole position, but he was passed by Farina on lap seven. Ascari and Villoresi were both able to compete with the third Alfa of Fagioli in the early stages, although both had retired by the ten-lap mark. Farina took the win and the fastest lap, finishing just ahead of Fagioli, while Rosier, in third place as a result of Fangio's retirement, took Talbot-Lago's first podium.
Farina's second win of the season put him six points clear of the consistent Fagioli, while Fangio was a further three points behind, having only scored points in one race. Alfa Romeo took their third front row lockout of the season at the Belgian Grand Prix at the fast 8.7 mile Spa-Francorchamps circuit, while the Ferrari of Villoresi shared the second row with the privateer Talbot-Lago of Raymond Sommer. The Alfas were once again untouchable at the start of the race, but when they stopped for fuel, Sommer emerged as an unlikely race leader, his lead, was short-lived and he was forced to retire when his engine blew up. Fangio took the victory, ahead of Fagioli, who again finished second. Rosier again made the podium in his Talbot-Lago, he had been able to pass the polesitter Farina when the Italian picked up transmission problems towards the end of the race. It was not all bad for Farina, however. Both Fagioli and Fangio closed the gap to Farina in the points standings—Fagioli was just four points adrift, while Fangio was a further point behind.
At Reims-Gueux, Alfa Romeo were unchallenged at the French Grand Prix at the fast Reims-Gueux circuit, due to the withdrawal of the works Ferraris of Ascari and Villoresi. The Alfas produced yet another lockout of the front row of the grid, with Fangio taking pole for the third time in six races; the powe
Denison is a city in Grayson County, United States. It is 75 miles north of Dallas; the population was 22,682 at the 2010 census. Denison is part of the Texoma region and is one of two principal cities in the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area. Denison is known as the birthplace of the 34th President of the United States. Denison was founded in 1872 in conjunction with "Katy" depot, it was named after the wealthy Katy vice president George Denison. Because the town was established close to where the MKT crossed the Red River, it came to be an important commercial center in the 19th century American West. In 1875, Doc Holliday had offices in Denison. During the phylloxera epidemic of the mid-19th century, which destroyed the vast majority of wine grapes in Europe, Denison horticulturalist T. V. Munson pioneered methods in creating phylloxera-resistant vines, earned induction into the French Legion of Honor, as well as sister city status for Denison and Cognac, France. In 1901 the first electric "Interurban" railway in Texas, the Denison and Sherman Railway, was completed between Denison and Sherman.
In 1915, the Kentucky-based evangelist Mordecai Ham held a revival meeting in Denison, which resulted in 1,100 professions of faith in Jesus Christ. Denison played host to 20th century notables such as the Marx Brothers and President Dwight D. Eisenhower, born on October 14, 1890, in Denison. Denison is located in northeastern Grayson County, with the city limits extending north to the Red River, which forms the Oklahoma state line, it is bordered to the south by the city of Sherman. According to the United States Census Bureau, Denison has a total area of 23.4 square miles, of which 23.0 square miles are land and 0.46 square miles, or 1.94%, are water. Denison Dam, which forms Lake Texoma on the Red River, is 5 miles north of Denison; the city is in the center of encompassing parts of Texas and Oklahoma. Denison has a humid subtropical climate. At the census of 2000, there were 22,773 people, 9,185 households, 6,135 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,008.1 people per square mile.
There were 10,309 housing units at an average density of 456.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 84.02% White, 8.62% African American, 1.67% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.19% from other races, 2.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.23% of the population. There were 9,185 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.1% were married couples living together, 14.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,474, the median income for a family was $39,820. Males had a median income of $30,459 versus $21,451 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,685. About 11.9% of families and 14.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.8% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over. Denison is served by the Denison Independent School District. At the start of the 2014 school year, a new Denison High School building was completed and ready for use, it is home to Grayson College, which preserves Denison's viticultural heritage with its T. V. Munson Viticulture & Enology Program. Munson Stadium seats 5,262 people and is used for football, it is the home field of Denison High School's soccer teams. The Denison High School football team won the 1984 Texas Class 4A State Championship by beating Tomball 27-13 completing a perfect 16–0 record, they made three straight appearances in the 1995, 1996, 1997 Class 4A Division II State Championship games, losing each time to La Marque.
They are home to the longest high school football rivalry in Texas: the Battle of the Ax, against Sherman High School. Texoma Living! Magazine The Herald Democrat KMAD Mad Rock 102.5 KMKT Katy Country 93.1 KDOC HOT 107.3 FM KTEN – Channel 10 KTEN – DT Channel 10.2 KTEN – Channel 10.3 KXII – Channel 12 KXII – DT Channel 12.2 KXII – DT Channel 12.3 Denison is served by two U. S. Highways—U. S. 69 and U. S. 75 and two State Highways—State Highway 91 and Spur 503. State Highway 91, known as Texoma Parkway, is one of the main commercial strips that connects Sherman and Denison, it extends north to Lake Texoma. General aviation service is provided by North Texas Regional Airport. Denison is served by one 24-hour taxicab service provided locally by yellow cab. Denison is a member city of the regional public transportation system called TAPS, which offers on-demand service, fixed routes to Choctaw and Sherman, services to Dallas/Fort Worth and Dallas Love Field airports; as of December 2015 TAPS had ceased most operations due to financial problems.
Limited service is available for the handicapped. Denison is home to the Eisenhower Birthplace State Historic Site. In 2013 Lake Texoma and the Hampton Inn and Suites Denison were featured on a travel show e
Miami Vice is an American television crime drama series created by Anthony Yerkovich and executive produced by Michael Mann for NBC. The series starred Don Johnson as James "Sonny" Crockett and Philip Michael Thomas as Ricardo "Rico" Tubbs, two Metro-Dade Police Department detectives working undercover in Miami; the series ran for five seasons on NBC from 1984 to 1989. The USA Network began airing reruns in 1988, broadcast an unaired episode during its syndication run of the series on January 25, 1990. Unlike standard police procedurals, the show drew upon 1980s New Wave culture and music; the show became. It has been called one of the "Top 50 TV Shows". People magazine stated that Miami Vice was the "first show to look new and different since color TV was invented". Michael Mann directed a film adaptation of the series, released July 28, 2006. Vin Diesel and Chris Morgan are working on a TV series reboot that could be part of the NBC 2018–19 TV season. Legend has it that the head of NBC's Entertainment Division, Brandon Tartikoff, wrote a brainstorming memo that read "MTV cops", presented it to series creator Anthony Yerkovich a writer and producer for Hill Street Blues.
Yerkovich, indicates that he devised the concept after learning about asset forfeiture statutes that allowed law enforcement agencies to confiscate the property of drug dealers for official use. The initial idea was for a movie about a pair of vice cops in Miami. Yerkovich turned out a script for a two-hour pilot, titled Gold Coast, but renamed Miami Vice. Yerkovich was drawn to South Florida as a setting for his new-style police show. In keeping with the show's namesake, most episodes focused on combating drug trafficking and prostitution. Episodes ended in an intense gun battle, claiming the lives of several criminals before they could be apprehended. An undercurrent of cynicism and futility underlies the entire series; the detectives reference the "Whac-A-Mole" nature of drug interdiction, with its parade of drug cartels replacing those that are apprehended. Co-executive producer Yerkovich explained: Even when I was on Hill Street Blues, I was collecting information on Miami, I thought of it as a sort of a modern-day American Casablanca.
It seemed to be an interesting socio-economic tide pool: the incredible number of refugees from Central America and Cuba, the extensive Cuban-American community, on top of all that the drug trade. There is a fascinating amount of service industries that revolve around the drug trade—money laundering, bail bondsmen, attorneys who service drug smugglers. Miami has become a sort of Barbary Coast of free enterprise gone berserk; the choice of music and cinematography borrowed from the emerging New Wave culture of the 1980s. As such, segments of Miami Vice would sometimes use music-based stanzas, a technique featured in Baywatch; as Lee H. Katzin, one of the show's directors, remarked, "The show is written for an MTV audience, more interested in images and energy than plot and character and words." These elements made the series into an instant hit, in its first season saw an unprecedented fifteen Emmy Award nominations. While the first few episodes contained elements of a standard police procedural, the producers soon abandoned them in favor of a more distinctive style.
Influenced by an Art Deco revival, no "earth tones" were allowed to be used in the production by executive producer Michael Mann. A director of Miami Vice, Bobby Roth, recalled: There are certain colors you are not allowed to shoot, such as red and brown. If the script says'A Mercedes pulls up here,' the car people will show you three or four different Mercedes. One will be white, one will be black, one will be silver. You will not get a brown one. Michael knows. Miami Vice was one of the first American network television programs to be broadcast in stereophonic sound, it was mixed in 4 channel stereo for its entire run. Nick Nolte and Jeff Bridges were considered for the role of Sonny Crockett, but since it was not lucrative for film stars to venture into television at the time, other candidates were considered. Mickey Rourke was considered for the role, but he turned down the offer. Larry Wilcox, of CHiPs, was a candidate for the role of Crockett, but the producers felt that going from one police officer role to another would not be a good fit.
After dozens of candidates and a twice-delayed pilot shooting, Don Johnson and Philip Michael Thomas were chosen as the vice cops. For Johnson, by 34 years old, NBC had particular doubts about the several earlier unsuccessful pilots in which he had starred. After two seasons, Johnson threatened to walk from the series as part of a publicized contract dispute; the network was ready to replace him with Mark Harmon, who had departed St. Elsewhere, but the network and Johnson were able to resolve their differences and he continued with the series until its end. Jimmy Smits played Crockett's partner in the pilot episode. Before production started, the idea was to do all or most of the exterior filming in Los Angeles, pass it off to viewers as urban Miami—an approach put into practice two decades during the filming of CSI: Miami, but instead, nearly all filming, both exterior and interior, was done in Florida. Many episodes of Miami Vice were filmed in the South Beach section of Miami Beach, an area which, at the time, was blighted by poverty and crime, with its demographic so deteriorated that there "simply weren't many people on the street.
Ocean Drive's hotels were filled with elderly Jewish retirees, many of them frail, subsisting on
To Tell the Truth
To Tell the Truth is an American television panel game show in which four celebrity panelists are presented with three contestants and must identify, the "central character" whose unusual occupation or experience has been read out by the show's moderator/host. When the panelists question the contestants, the two "impostors" may lie whereas the "central character" must tell the truth; the setup adds the "impostor" element to the format of What's My Line? and I've Got a Secret. The show was created by Bob Stewart and produced by Mark Goodson–Bill Todman Productions, it aired, on networks and in syndication, continuously from 1956 to 1978 and intermittently since reaching a total of 28 seasons in 2018. Although there have been some variations in the rules over the years, certain basic aspects have remained consistent throughout all versions of To Tell the Truth. Three challengers are introduced, all claiming to be the central character; the announcer asks the challengers, who stand side by side, "What is your name, please?"
Each challenger states, "My name is." The celebrity panelists read along as the host reads aloud a signed affidavit about the central character. The panelists are each given a period of time to question the challengers. Questions are directed to the challengers by number, with the central character sworn to give truthful answers, the impostors permitted to lie and pretend to be the central character. After questioning is complete, each member of the panel votes on which of the challengers they believe to be the central character, either by writing the number on a card or holding up a card with the number of their choice, without consulting the other panelists. Any panelist who knows one of the challengers or has another unfair advantage is required to recuse or disqualify himself or herself which, for scoring purposes, is counted as a "wrong vote." They would sit out of the questioning. Once the votes are in, the host asks, "Will the real please stand up?" The central character stands after some brief playful feinting and false starts among all three challengers.
The central character would be asked to do something else related to their story instead of standing up. The two impostors reveal their real names and their actual occupations. Prize money is awarded and divided among all three of the challengers, based on the number of "wrong" votes the impostors draw. To Tell the Truth was to have premiered on Tuesday, December 18, 1956, on CBS in prime time as Nothing But The Truth, but the program title was changed to To Tell the Truth the day before the show's debut; the series was recorded in New York City. The existence of an audience ticket for a taping indicates that the show originated in color at the CBS Broadcast Center in late 1966. Bud Collyer was the show's host. Earlier regular panelists had included Johnny Carson, Polly Bergen, Jayne Meadows, Don Ameche, Hy Gardner, Dick Van Dyke, Faye Emerson, Hildy Parks, John Cameron Swayze, Betty White, Ralph Bellamy. Bern Bennett, Collyer's announcer on Beat the Clock, was the inaugural announcer of To Tell the Truth in the 1950s.
Upon Bennett's transfer to CBS's Los Angeles studios, Johnny Olson, who in time became the best-known of all Goodson–Todman Productions announcers, joined the show in 1960 and remained through the end of its CBS runs. On the pilot and the prime-time run, three games were played per episode. For the pilot, a wrong vote from each of the four-member panel and one wrong vote derived from the majority vote of the audience paid $300, the total prize money divided among the three challengers; the studio audience voted with the majority vote counting with that of one of a celebrity panelist, thus the maximum of five incorrect votes resulted in $1,500 divided among the challengers. If there was a tie for the highest vote from the audience, for each panelist, disqualified, a wrong vote was counted. There was no consolation prize for no wrong votes. For the majority of the prime-time run there was no audience vote, thus each wrong vote from the four-member panel paid $250 divided among the three challengers, for a possible $1,000 for a complete stump of four wrong answers.
A consolation prize of $150 was awarded and divided among the three challengers if there were no wrong votes. For each panelist, disqualified, a wrong vote was counted. A design element in the set for this series was a platform directly above and behind the emcee's desk; the contestants stood on this platform during their introduction allowing the camera to pan directly down to the host. They traveled down a curved staircase to the main stage level to play the game. On Monday, June 18, 1962, a daytime five-day-per-week edition was introduced, running at 3 p.m. Eastern, 2 p.m. Central; the daytime show hosted by Collyer, featured a separate panel for its first three years, with actress Phyllis Newman as the only regular. The evening panel took over the afternoon show in 1965; the daytime show was reduced to two games to accommodate
The Cherokee are one of the indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands of the United States. Prior to the 18th century, they were concentrated in what is now southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, the tips of western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia; the Cherokee language is part of the Iroquoian language group. In the 19th century, James Mooney, an American ethnographer, recorded one oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples lived. Today there are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma, the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma. By the 19th century, European settlers in the United States classified the Cherokee of the Southeast as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were agrarian and lived in permanent villages and began to adopt some cultural and technological practices of the European American settlers.
The Cherokee were one of the first, if not the first, major non-European ethnic group to become U. S. citizens. Article 8 in the 1817 treaty with the Cherokee stated that Cherokees may wish to become citizens of the United States; the Cherokee Nation has more than 300,000 tribal members, making it the largest of the 567 federally recognized tribes in the United States. In addition, numerous groups claim Cherokee lineage, some of these are state-recognized. A total of more than 819,000 people are estimated to claim having Cherokee ancestry on the US census, which includes persons who are not enrolled members of any tribe. Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the UKB have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma; the UKB are descendants of "Old Settlers", Cherokee who migrated to Arkansas and Oklahoma about 1817 prior to Indian Removal. They are related to the Cherokee who were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s under the Indian Removal Act; the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is on the Qualla Boundary in western North Carolina.
A Cherokee language name for Cherokee people is Aniyvwiyaʔi, translating as "Principal People". Tsalagi is the Cherokee word for Cherokee. Many theories, though none proven, abound about the origin of the name "Cherokee", it may have been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "people who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "people who live in the cave country". The earliest Spanish transliteration of the name, from 1755, is recorded as Tchalaquei. Another theory is; the Iroquois Five Nations based in New York have called the Cherokee Oyata'ge'ronoñ. The word Cherokee means “people of different speech.” Anthropologists and historians have two main theories of Cherokee origins. One is that the Cherokee, an Iroquoian-speaking people, are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who may have migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas around the Great Lakes, the traditional territory of the Haudenosaunee nations and other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.
Another theory is. Researchers in the 19th century recorded conversations with elders who recounted an oral tradition of the Cherokee people migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times, they may have moved south into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by the Mississippian culture and earlier moundbuilders. In the 19th century, European-American settlers mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites in Georgia to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds. However, other evidence shows that the Cherokee did not reach this part of Georgia until the late 18th century and could not have built the mounds; the Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE. Pre-contact Cherokee are considered to be part of the Pisgah Phase of Southern Appalachia, which lasted from circa 1000 to 1500. Despite the consensus among most specialists in Southeast archeology and anthropology, some scholars contend that ancestors of the Cherokee people lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.
During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Native Americans in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, pigweed and some native squash. People created new art forms such as shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, developed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies. During the Mississippian culture-period, local women developed a new variety of maize called eastern flint corn, it resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex chiefdoms consisting of several villages and concentrated populations during this period. Corn became celebrated among numerous peoples in religious ceremonies the Green Corn Ceremony. Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures has come from records of Spanish expeditions; the earliest ones of the mid-16th-century encountered people of the Mississippian culture, the ancestors to tribes in the Southeast such as
Wide World of Sports (U.S. TV series)
ABC's Wide World of Sports is an American sports anthology television program that aired on the American Broadcasting Company from April 29, 1961 to January 3, 1998 on Saturday afternoons. Hosted by Jim McKay, with a succession of co-hosts beginning in 1987, the title continued to be used for general sports programs on the network until 2006. In 2007, Wide World of Sports was named by Time on its list of the 100 best television programs of all-time. Weekend sports news updates on sister radio network ABC Sports Radio, operated by Cumulus Media Networks, continue to be branded under the similar title ABC's World of Sports; the program lent its name to an athletic facility at Walt Disney World, the ESPN Wide World of Sports Complex –, known as Disney's Wide World of Sports Complex from its opening in 1997 – until 2010. Wide World of Sports was the creation of Edgar Scherick through Sports Programs, Inc.. After selling his company to ABC, he hired a young Roone Arledge to produce the show; the series' April 29, 1961 debut telecast featured both Drake Relays.
Jim McKay and Jesse Abramson, the track and field writer for the New York Herald Tribune, broadcast from Franklin Field with Bob Richards as the field reporter. Jim Simpson called the action from Drake Stadium with Bill Flemming working the field. During its initial season in the spring and summer of 1961, Wide World of Sports was broadcast from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. Eastern Time on Saturdays. Beginning in 1962, it was pushed to 5:00 to 6:30 pm, to 4:30 to 6:00 pm. Eastern Time to allow ABC affiliates in the Eastern and Central Time Zones to carry local early-evening newscasts. In 1961, Wide World of Sports covered a bowling event; the broadcast was so successful that in 1962, ABC Sports began covering the Professional Bowlers Tour. In 1964, Wide World of Sports covered the Oklahoma Rattlesnake Hunt championships. In 1973, the Superstars was first televised as a segment on Wide World of Sports. In 1963, ABC Sports producers began selecting the Athlete of the Year, its first winner was track and field star Jim Beatty for being the first to run a sub-4-minute mile indoors.
Through the years, this award was won by such now legendary athletes of Muhammad Ali, Jim Ryun, Lance Armstrong, Mario Andretti, Dennis Conner, Wayne Gretzky, Carl Lewis and Tiger Woods. The award was discontinued in 2001. In years, with the rise of cable television offering more outlets for sports programming, Wide World of Sports lost many of the events, staples of the program for many years. On January 3, 1998, Jim McKay announced that Wide World of Sports, in its traditional anthology series, had been canceled after a 37-year run; the Wide World of Sports name remained in use afterward as an umbrella title for ABC's weekend sports programming. In August 2006, ABC Sports came under the oversight of ESPN, under the relaunched banner name ESPN on ABC; the Wide World of Sports title continues to be revived for Saturday afternoon sports programming on ABC, most during the 140th Belmont Stakes as a tribute to Jim McKay, following his death in June 2008, in 2017 it was use for the revival of the Battle of the Network Stars.
Most of ABC's sports programming since Wide World of Sports ended as a program has been displaced from ABC and moved to ESPN. Wide World of Sports was intended to be a fill-in show for a single summer season, until the start of fall sports seasons, but became unexpectedly popular; the goal of the program was to showcase sports from around the globe that were if broadcast on American television. It ran for two hours on Saturday afternoons, but was reduced to 90 minutes. "Wide World" featured two or three events per show. These included many types not seen on American television, such as hurling, curling, jai-alai, firefighter's competitions, wrist wrestling, surfing, logger sports, demolition derby, slow pitch softball, barrel jumping, badminton. NASCAR Grand National/Winston Cup racing was a Wide World of Sports staple until the late 1980s, when it became a scheduled sporting event on the network. Traditional Olympic sports such as figure skating, skiing and track and field competitions were regular features of the show.
Another memorable regular feature in the 1960s and 1970s was Mexican cliff diving. The lone national television broadcast of the Continental Football League was a Wide World of Sports broadcast of the 1966 championship game. Wide World of Sports was the first U. S. television program to air coverage of – among events – Wimbledon, the Indianapolis 500, the NCAA Men's Basketball Championship, the Daytona 500, the U. S. Figure Skating Championships, the Monaco Grand Prix, the Little League World Series, The British Open Golf Tournam