Princess Stéphanie of Monaco
Princess Stéphanie of Monaco, Countess of Polignac is the youngest child of Rainier III, Prince of Monaco, the American actress Grace Kelly. She is the younger sister of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, Caroline, Princess of Hanover. 13th in the line of succession to the Monegasque throne, she has been a singer, swimwear designer and fashion model. Stéphanie was born to Grace Kelly on 1 February 1965 at Prince's Palace in Monaco, she is the youngest of their three children, after Caroline and Albert II. Her godparents are her maternal uncle John B. Kelly Jr. and paternal first cousin Elisabeth-Anne de Massy. Her mother, who described Stéphanie as a "warm, amusing and capable girl" and a "good athlete", lovingly called her "wild child". On 13 September 1982, while returning home from their farm in Rocagel, France, Stéphanie and her mother had a car accident. Grace died the next day, on September 14, while Stéphanie sustained a hairline fracture of a neck vertebra. Although the official version was that Grace suffered a stroke while driving, rumors began that Stéphanie, who had to miss her mother's funeral due to her recovery, was the one driving.
Stéphanie herself refused to speak publicly about her mother's death until 1989, when she gave an interview to the author Jeffrey Robinson, insisting that the story was untrue. She said, "There was a lot of pressure on me because everyone was saying that I had been driving the car, that it was all my fault, that I'd killed my mother... It's not easy when you're 17 to live with that." She did not discuss the subject again until a 2002 interview with the French magazine Paris Match in which she repeated her earlier denial, discussed the trauma of being beside her mother at the time of the accident. She said, "Not only did I go through the horrible trauma of losing my mother at a young age, but I was beside her at the moment of the accident. Nobody can imagine how much I've suffered, still suffer."Stéphanie was educated at the Dames de Saint-Maur in Monaco, at the école and collège Dupanloup in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Stéphanie received her baccalauréat from the Cours Charles de Foucauld in 1982.
During her school years, she studied classical dance and piano, competed in gymnastics and horse riding. She attended Camp Oneka, an all-girls' summer camp in the Pocono Mountains, in America, where both her sister and mother had attended previously. In 1983, after her physical recovery from the accident which killed her mother, Stéphanie started an apprentice programme at Christian Dior under the direction of head designer Marc Bohan; the following year, she debuted as a model on the biannual haute couture special published by Spanish magazine ¡Hola!, a venture that she repeated in 1990. In 1985, Stéphanie covered the American edition of Vanity Fair, she became the spokesman of the Swiss beauty line La Prairie, for which she was photographed by Horst, she appeared on the cover of French Vogue, photographed by the late Helmut Newton, in September 1986. In 1986, Stéphanie launched a swimwear line Pool Position with Alix de la Comble, whom she had met during her internship at Dior; the fashion show to present the line, held at the Sporting Club in Monaco and attended by Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert and Princess Caroline, was a major event covered by the worldwide media.
In 1989, Stéphanie launched her own self-titled perfume. Stéphanie co-owns Replay stores in both Monaco and Barcelona. In December 2008, she covered the Vogue Paris. In February 1986, Stéphanie self-produced and released her first single with the French label Carrere, under the production of Yves Roze; the song "Ouragan" and its English version "Irresistible" were both international hits selling more than 2 million copies. "Ouragan" is one of the best-selling singles in France of all time. The full album Besoin, released as Stéphanie in some countries, sold more than 1.5 million, with 100,000 in France. The single "Flash", as well as its English version "One Love to Give," achieved success throughout Europe. In January 1987, Stéphanie released the single "Young Ones Everywhere" to benefit UNICEF; the same year, Stéphanie moved to Los Angeles to record a new album. However, it took her five years to release it; the album Stéphanie, released in 1991, met with disappointing sales and negative reviews, despite the promotional tour that included a performance on The Oprah Winfrey Show.
Stéphanie ended her music career after recording "In the Closet" with Michael Jackson for his album Dangerous. The song became a worldwide hit and reached the top 10 in the United States but Stéphanie was credited on the single under the alias "Mystery Girl" and her involvement in the song was not revealed until a few years later, she made a brief return to singing in 2006, when she recorded "L'Or de nos vies", a charity single, along with her foundation Fight AIDS. Stéphanie is the president of several associations, including Monaco Youth Centre and Princess Stéphanie Activity Centre, is an honorary board member of the Princess Grace Foundation – United States, she has been the patron of the International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo, which she attends, the World Association of Children's Friends, founded in 1963 by her mother Grace, Princess of Monaco. Since 1985, Stéphanie has been the president of the Monte-Carlo Magic Grand Prix and the International Festival of Amateur Theatre, she is the president of the Théâtre Princesse Grace.
In 2003, Stéphanie created her own Women Face the AIDS Association, which became Fight AIDS Monaco in 2004, in order to support people living with HIV and to combat the social st
Aishwarya Rai known by her married name Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, is an Indian actress and the winner of the Miss World 1994 pageant. Through her successful acting career, she has established herself as one of the most popular and influential celebrities in India. Rai has received numerous accolades, including two Filmfare Awards from eleven nominations, she was honoured with the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2009 and the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the Government of France in 2012, she has been cited in the media as "the most beautiful woman in the world". While in college, Rai did a few modelling jobs. Following appearances in several television commercials, she entered the Miss India pageant, in which she placed second, she was crowned Miss World 1994, after which she began receiving offers to act in film. She made her acting debut in Mani Ratnam's 1997 Tamil film Iruvar and had her first Hindi film release in Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya that same year, her first commercial success was the Tamil romantic drama Jeans, following which she achieved wider success and won two Best Actress awards at Filmfare for her performances in Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam and Devdas.
Rai garnered critical appreciation for portraying a passionate artist in the Tamil romance Kandukondain Kandukondain, Tagore's heroine, Binodini, in the Bengali film Chokher Bali, a depressed woman in the drama Raincoat, Kiranjit Ahluwalia in the British drama film Provoked, a nurse in the drama Guzaarish. Rai's greatest commercial successes have been the romance Mohabbatein, the adventure film Dhoom 2, the historical romance Jodhaa Akbar, the science fiction film Enthiran, the romantic drama Ae Dil Hai Mushkil. Rai married actor Abhishek Bachchan in 2007 with, her off-screen roles include duties as a brand ambassador for several charity organisations and campaigns. She is a Goodwill Ambassador for the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS. In 2003, she was the first Indian actress to be a jury member at the Cannes Film Festival. Rai was born on 1 November 1973 into a Tulu speaking Tuluva Bunt family in Karnataka, her father, who died on 18 March 2017, was an Army biologist, while her mother, Brinda, is a homemaker.
She has one elder brother, Aditya Rai, an engineer in the merchant navy. Rai's movie Dil Ka Rishta was co-produced by her co-written by her mother; the family moved to Mumbai. Rai did her intermediate schooling at Jai Hind College for a year, joined DG Ruparel College in Matunga, securing 90 percent in the HSC exams, she trained in classical music for five years during her teens. Her favourite subject was zoology, so she considered a career in medicine. With plans to become an architect, she enrolled at Rachana Sansad Academy of Architecture, but gave up her education to pursue a career in modelling. In 1991, Rai won an international supermodel contest and was featured in the American edition of Vogue. In 1993, Rai gained huge public recognition for her appearance in a Pepsi commercial with actors Aamir Khan and Mahima Chaudhry; the single line – "Hi, I'm Sanjana," of her dialogue in the commercial made her famous. In the 1994 Miss India pageant, she won second place, behind Sushmita Sen, was crowned Miss India World winning five other sub-titles, "Miss Catwalk", "Miss Miraculous", "Miss Photogenic", "Miss Perfect Ten" and "Miss Popular".
With Sen representing India at the Miss Universe pageant, Rai's duties as the first runner-up included representing India in the rival Miss World Pageant, held that year in Sun City, South Africa. She went on to win the crown where she won the "Miss Photogenic" award and Miss World Continental Queen of Beauty − Asia and Oceania. After winning the pageant, Rai spoke of her dream for peace for this world, her desire to be an ambassador of peace during her one-year reign in London. Rai continued to pursue a career as a model. Rai made her acting debut in 1997 with Mani Ratnam's Tamil film Iruvar, a semi-biographical political drama, featuring Mohanlal, Prakash Raj and Revathi; the film was a critical success and among other awards, won the Best Film award at the Belgrade International Film Festival. Rai featured as Kalpana -- dual roles. Due to Rai's weak Tamil-speaking skills, her dialogue in the film was dubbed by Tamil actress Rohini; that same year, she was cast as Ashi, a naive teenager in her first Bollywood film – Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya, a romantic comedy opposite Bobby Deol.
Both Iruvar and Aur Pyaar Ho Gaya were commercial failures and reviewers were critical of Rai's acting ability in both the films. However, for the latter, she won a Screen Award for Best Female Debut. In the 1998 big-budget Tamil romantic drama Jeans directed by S. Shankar, Rai appeared alongside Prashanth and Nassar, she played Madhumita, a young woman who accompanies her ailing grandmother to the United States to seek medical attention. A commercial success, the film earned Rai praise for her dancing skills. Unlike in Iruvar, Rai dubbed for her own lines in the film. Jeans was submitted as India's official entry to the Academy Awards for 1998, her first role in 1999 was in the melodrama Aa Ab Laut Chalen, directed by Rishi Kapoor. The film had a below average performance at the box office. Rai's portrayal of Pooja Walia, a traditional Indian woman living in the United States, met with negative reviews.
Toumani Diabaté is a Malian kora player. In addition to performing the traditional music of Mali, he has been involved in cross-cultural collaborations with flamenco, blues and other international styles. Diabaté comes from a long family tradition of kora players including his father Sidiki Diabaté, who recorded the first kora album in 1970, his family's oral tradition tells of 70 generations of musicians preceding him in a patrilineal line. His cousin Sona Jobarteh is the first female kora player, his younger brother Mamadou Sidiki Diabaté is a prominent kora player. In 1987, Diabate made his first appearance on an album in the UK, on Ba Togoma, an album featuring his father's ensemble. In 1988 Diabaté released his first album in the West, a solo album entitled Kaira, recorded in one afternoon in London and produced by Lucy Durán. In addition to performing Malian traditional music, Diabaté has performed and recorded in cross-cultural settings, he has collaborated with flamenco group Ketama, forming a combined group known as Songhai and releasing two recordings: Songhai I and Songhai II.
In 1999, Diabaté collaborated with American blues musician Taj Mahal on the release Kulanjan. "MALIcool" is a collaboration with American jazz trombonist Roswell Rudd. He collaborated with the Icelandic popular musician Björk on her 2007 album Volta. In 1999 Diabaté released the album New Ancient Strings, a collaboration with Ballaké Sissoko. In September 2005, he released In the Heart of the Moon, for which he collaborated with Ali Farka Touré; the album went on to win the 2006 Grammy Award for Best Traditional World Music Album. On July 25, 2006 he released his latest album Boulevard de l'Indépendance, recorded with his Symmetric Orchestra. In the Heart of the Moon and Boulevard de l'Indépendance, are both part of the Hotel Mandé Sessions, recorded by Nick Gold and released on World Circuit Records. Both Boulevard and Hotel Mandé are references to landmarks in Bamako; the Symmetric Orchestra led by Toumani Diabaté is composed of musicians from the across the old Mande Empire of west Africa, who play a mix of traditional instruments including the kora, djembe and bolombatto, as well as modern ones like the guitar and electronic keyboard.
Diabaté appeared in 2006 at the WOMAD Festival UK, Roskilde Festival in Denmark, at the Sziget Festival in Budapest, Hungary. In 2007 he performed at the Glastonbury Festival and toured the U. S. A.. In 2008, he was at WOMADelaide. In early 2008, Diabaté released his new album of solo Kora music, The Mandé Variations, to widespread critical acclaim. Many reviewers praised the album for its detailed recording of the Kora and careful mastering, in addition to the improvisational skills and wide range of apparent influences displayed on the album. In October 2008 the Arabic language lyrics in Diabaté's song Tapha Niang were removed from the PlayStation 3 video game LittleBigPlanet, after it elicited objections from a Muslim individual due to their inclusion of verses from the Qur’an; the publisher Sony Computer Entertainment Europe decided to delay the launch of the game by a week and recall most discs in order to replace the song with a lyric-free instrumental version. However, some copies of the original game had been sold in the Middle East and United States.
Diabaté was chosen by Matt Groening to perform at the All Tomorrow's Parties festival in May 2010 in Minehead. Diabaté performed at Hay Festival in June. In July he performed at the Larmer Tree Festival to huge acclaim. In February 2016, Diabaté hosted Festival Acoustik Bamako a three-day music festival to bring together international and Malian musicians along with other public figures with an overall message of peace, it was planned as a collection of outdoor and indoor music events to draw crowds of more than 20,000 people. The 2015 Bamako hotel attack meant. 1987 - "Ba Togoma" 1988 - Kaira 1988 - Songhai 1994 - Songhai 2 1995 - The Rough Guide to West African Music 1995 - Djelika 1999 - New Ancient Strings 1999 - Kulanjan 1999 - Unwired: Acoustic Music from Around the World 2001 - Jarabi: the Best of Toumani Diabate 2002 - Malicool 2005 - In the Heart of the Moon 2006 - Boulevard de l'Indépendance 2008 - The Mandé Variations 2010 - Ali and Toumani - 2010 - Afrocubism 2011 - A Curva da Cintura - Brazil 2014 - Toumani & Sidiki 2017 - Lamomali Bamako Is a Miracle by Maurice Engler, Arnaud Robert and Samuel Chalard.
Toumani Diabaté - Koraklänge aus dem Land der Flusspferde by Martina Pfaff. Toumani Diabaté official website Toumani Diabaté on the label website Official Toumani Diabaté biography Afropop Worldwide Slideshow of Toumani Diabate Performing Live in Brooklyn The Kora Star'Our music is older than Bach' - Interview in The Guardian Info on the kora & Toumani Diabaté Toumoani Diabante review in The New Current Making of Boulevard de L'Indépendance short documentary Making of In the Heart of the Moon short documentary Ali and Toumani Review and interview with Tounami Diabaté| Folk Radio UK One on One - Toumani Diabate Al Jazeera
World AIDS Day
World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988, is an international day dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection and mourning those who have died of the disease. Government and health officials, non-governmental organizations, individuals around the world observe the day with education on AIDS prevention and control. World AIDS Day is one of the eight official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization, along with World Health Day, World Blood Donor Day, World Immunization Week, World Tuberculosis Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Malaria Day and World Hepatitis Day; as of 2017, AIDS has killed between 28.9 million and 41.5 million people worldwide, an estimated 36.7 million people are living with HIV, making it one of the most important global public health issues in recorded history. Thanks to recent improved access to antiretroviral treatment in many regions of the world, the death rate from AIDS epidemic has decreased since its peak in 2005.
World AIDS Day was first conceived in August 1987 by James W. Bunn and Thomas Netter, two public information officers for the Global Programme on AIDS at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. Bunn and Netter took their idea to Dr. Jonathan Mann, Director of the Global Programme on AIDS. Dr. Mann liked the concept, approved it, agreed with the recommendation that the first observance of World AIDS Day should be on 1 December 1988. Bunn, a former television broadcast journalist from San Francisco, had recommended the date of 1 December that believing it would maximize coverage of World AIDS Day by western news media, sufficiently long following the US elections but before the Christmas holidays. In its first two years, the theme of World AIDS Day focused on young people. While the choice of this theme was criticized at the time by some for ignoring the fact that people of all ages may become infected with HIV, the theme helped alleviate some of the stigma surrounding the disease and boost recognition of the problem as a family disease.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS became operational in 1996, it took over the planning and promotion of World AIDS Day. Rather than focus on a single day, UNAIDS created the World AIDS Campaign in 1997 to focus on year-round communications and education. In 2004, the World AIDS Campaign became an independent organization; each year, Popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI have released a greeting message for patients and doctors on World AIDS Day. In 2016, a collection of HIV and AIDS related NGOs started a campaign to rename World AIDS Day to World HIV Day, they claim the change will put the emphasis on social justice issues, the advancement of treatments like PrEP. In the US, the White House began marking World AIDS Day with the iconic display of a 28 foot AIDS Ribbon on the building's North Portico in 2007. White House aid Steven M. Levine serving in President George W. Bush's administration, proposed the display to symbolize the United States' commitment to combat the world AIDS epidemic through its landmark PEPFAR program.
The White House display, now an annual tradition across four presidential administrations garnered attention, as it was the first banner, sign or symbol to prominently hang from the White House since the Abraham Lincoln administration. Since 1993, the President of the United States has made an official proclamation for World AIDS Day. On 30 November 2017, President Donald Trump proclaimed World AIDS Day for 1 December. All the World AIDS Day campaigns focus on a specific theme, chosen following consultations with UNAIDS, WHO and a large number of grassroots and international agencies involved in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS; as of 2008, each year's theme is chosen by the Global Steering Committee of the World AIDS Campaign. For each World AIDS Day from 2005 through 2010, the theme was "Stop AIDS. Keep the Promise", designed to encourage political leaders to keep their commitment to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and support by the year 2010; as of 2012, the multi-year theme for World AIDS Day is "Getting to Zero: Zero new HIV infections.
Zero deaths from AIDS-related illness. Zero discrimination." The US Federal theme for the year 2014 is "Focus, Achieve: An AIDS-Free Generation". The themes are not limited to a single day but are used year-round in international efforts to highlight HIV/AIDS awareness within the context of other major global events including the G8 Summit, as well as local campaigns like the Student Stop AIDS Campaign in the UK. Source: AIDS Awareness Week National AIDS Testing Day Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS World Health Day World Hepatitis Day World Cancer Day Day Without Art HIV.gov World AIDS Vaccine Day World Rabies Day World AIDS Day – UK site HIC AIDS Slogans The World AIDS Campaign World AIDS Day Campaign – WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region World Aids Day posters from the AIDS Posters Collection – UCLA Library The ILO's Getting to Zero at the workplace campaign
Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp
The Institute of Tropical Medicine known as Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine is located in Antwerp, Belgium. ITM is one of the world's leading institutes for training and research in tropical medicine and the organisation of health care in developing countries, it delivers outpatient and preventive services in tropical pathologies and sexually transmitted diseases. The institute has a strong reputation in biomedical and public health research, advanced education, travel medicine and care for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections, as well as capacity-building in developing countries. Peter Piot and colleagues at the institute were the first to demonstrate that AIDS was a tropical African disease. ITM has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a reference centre for AIDS research. ITM is a national and international reference centre for a series of diseases and pathogens. At ITM, some 450 scientists and technicians do research on pathogens and populations. Yearly, an average of 500 medical doctors and scientists follow advanced courses.
Each year, the medical services handle around 35 000 consultations. The website www.travelhealth.be services more than 100 000 visitors a year. More than 75% of its publications appear in the top-25% of journals in its field. ITM carries out an extensive capacity strengthening program in developing countries, is part of a large network of institutions in Africa, South America and Asia. Department of Biomedical Sciences Department of Clinical Sciences Department of Public Health Travel medicine UNAIDS Peter Piot Institute of Tropical Medicine More information about higher education in Flanders/Belgium Find an recognised programme of this institution in the Higher Education Register
Vera Viktorovna Galushka, better known by her stage name Vera Brezhneva, is a Ukrainian pop-singer, television presenter and actress. Was born on 3 February 1982 in Dniprodzerzhynsk, in the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union, her parents were not involved in the entertainment business. Her father, worked in a chemical factory. Vera's mother, who had graduated from medical school, worked in the same factory as Vera's father. Vera has three sisters: two younger, she bought a flat for her parents in a town close to Kiev. The father of Vera's daughter is Vitaliy Voychenko, she earned a degree by correspondence from the faculty of economics of the Dnepropetrovsk Institute of Railway Engineering. In 2002, Brezhneva was invited to a casting organized to find a girl to replace Alena Vinnitskaya and she won. In January 2003 Nu Virgos started performing in the new configuration that, due to its amazing popularity, gained the name of "the golden line up". In July 2007, Brezhneva decided to have a break from the band, which ended in December 2007 with the official announcement of her leaving Nu Virgos.
Vera was replaced in the group by Tatiana Kotova. Brezhneva was the presenter of the Russian version of the Power of 10 game-show called Магия 10-ти, which ran on Channel One Russia for two seasons from 7 January 2008 to 31 August 2008. In May 2008, Vera premiered her first single called Ya ne igrayu; the song was written by her former producer Konstantin Meladze. The second single Nirvana came out on 27 October 2008. Third single Ljubov v bolshom gorode was released in 2009, she appeared in the video Leto vsegda of the group Diskoteka Avariya with actresses Anastasia Zadorozhnaya & Svetlana Khodchenkova. The fourth single was released in April - Ljubov spasyot mir and reached #1 in Russian Airplay Weekly; the next single Pronto, a duet with Potap was released in September. Her sixth single was a duet with Dan Balan Lepestkami slyoz. Early in 2011, Vera premiered her new single Realnaya zhizn, at the end of 2011 the single Sexy Bambina and early in 2012 the single Ishu tebya were released. Vera has appeared in a number of Russian-language films.
She played Katya in the film Love in the Big City in 2009 and its two sequels in 2010 and 2013. In 2016 she played in 8 Best Dates, she had a major part as herself in Yolki and Yolki 2, appeared in Jungle. Most of her film work has been in romantic comedies. Studio albums Lyubov spasyot mir VERVERA Vera Brezhneva has been the recipient of numerous awards including the celebrated title of the “Woman of the Year” in Russia, she is considered one of the most beautiful women in Russia. In 2007, 2012, 2015, 2016 she was named the sexiest woman in Russia by the men’s magazine Maxim. A Ray of Light Fan site Vera Brezhneva on Twitter
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association; the World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group. The World Bank's most recent stated goal is the reduction of poverty; as of November 2018, the largest recipients of world bank loans were India and China, through loans from IBRD. The World Bank is different from the World Bank Group, an extended family of five international organizations: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Development Association International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes The World Bank was created at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference along with the International Monetary Fund; the president of the World Bank is, traditionally, an American. The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D.
C. and work with each other. Although many countries were represented at the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and United Kingdom were the most powerful in attendance and dominated the negotiations; the intention behind the founding of the World Bank was to provide temporary loans to low-income countries which were unable to obtain loans commercially. The Bank may make loans and demand policy reforms from recipients. Before 1974, the reconstruction and development loans provided by the World Bank were small; the Bank's staff were aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. Fiscal conservatism ruled, loan applications had to meet strict criteria; the first country to receive a World Bank loan was France. The Bank's president at the time, John McCloy, chose France over two other applicants and Chile; the loan was for US$250 million, half the amount requested, it came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments.
World Bank staff monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. In addition, before the loan was approved, the United States State Department told the French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed; the French government complied and removed the Communist coalition government - the so-called tripartite. Within hours, the loan to France was approved; when the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries; until 1968, its loans were earmarked for the construction of infrastructure works, such as seaports, highway systems, power plants, that would generate enough income to enable a borrower country to repay the loan. In 1960, the International Development Association was formed, providing soft loans to developing countries. From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people in the developing world.
The size and number of loans to borrowers was increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and other sectors. These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson. McNamara implored bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the northern banks, the primary sources of funding. Rotberg used the global bond market to increase the capital available to the bank. One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rapid rise of third world debt. From 1976 to 1980 developing world debt rose at an average annual rate of 20%. In 1980 the World Bank Administrative Tribunal was established to decide on disputes between the World Bank Group and its staff where allegation of non-observance of contracts of employment or terms of appointment had not been honored. In 1980 McNamara was succeeded by Alden W. Clausen. Clausen crafted a different mission emphasis, his 1982 decision to replace the bank's Chief Economist, Hollis B.
Chenery, with Anne Krueger was an example of this new focus. Krueger was known for her criticism of development funding and for describing Third World governments as "rent-seeking states". During the 1980s the bank emphasized lending to service Third-World debt, structural adjustment policies designed to streamline the economies of developing nations. UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for "reduced health and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, Africa". Beginning in 1989, in response to harsh criticism from many groups, the bank began including environmental groups and NGOs in its loans to mitigate the past effects of its development policies that had prompted the criticism, it formed an implementing agency, in accordance with the Montreal Protocols, to stop ozone-depletion damage to the Earth's atmosphere by phasing out the use of 95% of ozone-depleting chemicals, with a target date of 2015.
Since in accordance with its so-called "Six Strategic Themes", the bank has put various additional policies into effect to preserve the environment while promoting development. For example, in 1991 the bank announced that to protect against deforestation in the Amazon, it would not finance any commercial logging or infrastructure projects that harm the en