University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is a professor of computer science at the University of Oxford and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he made a proposal for an information management system on March 12, 1989, he implemented the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol client and server via the internet in mid-November the same year. Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium, which oversees the continued development of the Web, he is the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com founders chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He is a director of the Web Science Research Initiative, a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In 2011, he was named as a member of the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation, he is a founder and president of the Open Data Institute, is an advisor at social network MeWe.
In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his pioneering work. In April 2009, he was elected a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences. Named in Time magazine's list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century, Berners-Lee has received a number of other accolades for his invention, he was honoured as the "Inventor of the World Wide Web" during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared in person, working with a vintage NeXT Computer at the London Olympic Stadium. He tweeted "This is for everyone", spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. Berners-Lee received the 2016 Turing Award "for inventing the World Wide Web, the first web browser, the fundamental protocols and algorithms allowing the Web to scale". Berners-Lee was born in London, United Kingdom, one of four children born to Mary Lee Woods and Conway Berners-Lee, his parents worked on the first commercially built computer, the Ferranti Mark 1.
He attended Sheen Mount Primary School, went on to attend south west London's Emanuel School from 1969 to 1973, at the time a direct grant grammar school, which became an independent school in 1975. A keen trainspotter as a child, he learnt about electronics from tinkering with a model railway, he studied at The Queen's College, from 1973 to 1976, where he received a first-class bachelor of arts degree in physics. While he was at university, Berners-Lee made a computer out of an old television set, which he bought from a repair shop. After graduation, Berners-Lee worked as an engineer at the telecommunications company Plessey in Poole, Dorset. In 1978, he joined D. G. Nash in Ferndown, where he helped create type-setting software for printers. Berners-Lee worked as an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980. While in Geneva, he proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext, to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. To demonstrate it, he built a prototype system named ENQUIRE.
After leaving CERN in late 1980, he went to work at John Poole's Image Computer Systems, Ltd, in Bournemouth, Dorset. He ran the company's technical side for three years; the project he worked on was a "real-time remote procedure call" which gave him experience in computer networking. In 1984, he returned to CERN as a fellow. In 1989, CERN was the largest internet node in Europe, Berners-Lee saw an opportunity to join hypertext with the internet: I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the Transmission Control Protocol and domain name system ideas and—ta-da!—the World Wide Web... Creating the web was an act of desperation, because the situation without it was difficult when I was working at CERN later. Most of the technology involved in the web, like the hypertext, like the internet, multifont text objects, had all been designed already. I just had to put them together, it was a step of generalising, going to a higher level of abstraction, thinking about all the documentation systems out there as being part of a larger imaginary documentation system.
Berners-Lee wrote his proposal in March 1989 and, in 1990, redistributed it. It was accepted by his manager, Mike Sendall, who called his proposals'vague, but exciting', he used similar ideas to those underlying the ENQUIRE system to create the World Wide Web, for which he designed and built the first Web browser. His software functioned as an editor, the first Web server, CERN HTTPd. Mike Sendall buys a NeXT cube for evaluation, gives it to Tim. Tim's prototype implementation on NeXTStep is made in the space of a few months, thanks to the qualities of the NeXTStep software development system; this prototype offers WYSIWYG browsing/authoring! Current Web browsers used in'surfing the internet' are mere passive windows, depriving the user of the possibility to contribute. During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to find a catching name for the system. I was determined that the name should not yet again be taken from Greek mythology..... Tim proposes'World-Wide Web'. I like this much, except that it is difficult to pronounce in French... by Robert Cailliau, 2 November 1995.
The first website was built at CERN. Despite this being an international organisation hosted by Switzerland, the office that Berners-Lee used was just across the border in France; the website was put online on 6 August 1991 for the first time: info.cern.ch was th
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
Ballistic Research Laboratory
The Ballistic Research Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland was the center for the United States Army's research efforts in ballistics as well as vulnerability/lethality analysis. In 1992, the BRL's mission and facilities were incorporated into the newly created Army Research Laboratory, BRL was disestablished. According to a pamphlet published in 1955 by the US Army's Ordnance Corps, BRL was "established by the Ordnance Department because they recognized that Ballistics, the study of the motion of projectiles, provides a rational foundation for the design and development of Ordnance." The name was plural, reflecting subordinate laboratories for each of the ballistic disciplines, but these were redesignated divisions of a single laboratory. Over the years, during World War II, BRL's permanent technical staff was augmented by a number of eminent scientists and engineers serving in various capacities. Among those was noted American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble who served as Chief of the External Ballistics Branch of the BRL during which he directed a large volume of research in exterior ballistics during the war which increased the effective fire power of bombs and projectiles.
His work was facilitated by his personal development of several items of equipment for the instrumentation used in exterior ballistics, the most outstanding development being the high-speed clock camera, which made possible the study of the characteristics of bombs and low velocity projectiles in flight. The results of his studies was credited with improving design and military effectiveness of bombs and rockets. Other included members of the Scientific Advisory Committee, established in 1940. Among its member were: Other consultants included astronomer Dorrit Hoffleit. H. Thomas. On March 27 of 1964, the U. S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, according to the 36th U. S. President's Commission, played host to one of the most famous rifles in U. S. history. On that date, three marksmen test fired a Mannlicher–Carcano Type 38, the rifle used by Lee Harvey Oswald to assassinate President John F. Kennedy on November 22 of 1963. Only one of the three expert marksmen was able to fire three shots somewhat close to the established official time limit attributed to Oswald.
But unlike Oswald from the 6th Floor of the Texas School Book Depository Building, these three marksmen were allowed to use a gun rest, they were allowed to take as much time as they needed to line up their first shot at a stationary target. Oswald shot at a moving target. BRL played an important role in the history of computer development: Sponsored the development of ENIAC - regarded as the first general-purpose electronic digital computer - to aid the creation of firing tables for artillery and mortars Developed and built several generations of computers: EDVAC, ORDVAC and BRLESC Developed BRL-CAD, a solid geometric modeling system - now open sourced The network ping utility was authored by Mike Muuss of BRL in December 1983 to troubleshoot network problems
Van Nuys High School
Van Nuys High School, established in 1914, is a public high school in the Van Nuys district of Los Angeles, belonging to the Los Angeles Unified School District: District 2. The school is home to a Residential Program and three Magnet Programs—Math/Science, performing arts, Medical. Several neighborhoods, including much of Van Nuys, portions of Sherman Oaks, Magnolia Woods, Victory Park, are zoned to this school. Van Nuys High School opened in 1914. For years the only high schools in the Valley were Van Nuys, San Fernando, North Hollywood; the main buildings and auditorium were built in 1933, incorporating remnants of the 1915 building, destroyed in the Long Beach earthquake. The football and track stadium built at the same time as the current high school, is named for Bob Waterfield, the baseball field for Don Drysdale, the two most famous athletes to have played for VNHS. For the 1998–1999 Scholastic Assessment Test, Van Nuys high had a 537 average on the verbal portion and a 568 on the mathematics portion, giving it the highest SAT scores in the LAUSD that year.
The Los Angeles Unified School District ordered Van Nuys High School to convert to year-round scheduling in 2001, due to such reasons as overcrowding. Though this relieved the overcrowding at the school, the Magnet Programs separated tracks, along with the residential students; the Performing Arts Magnet and the Medical Magnet were only available on the A-Track Schedule, while the Math and Science Magnet was only available on the C-Track Schedule. B-Trackers could not take the same classes as C-Trackers, while C-Trackers could only take certain A-Track classes. Teachers that had both A-Track and C-Track students were frustrated because the curriculum had to be synchronized with both tracks. Van Nuys High School returned to the Traditional School Calendar in 2005; the switch was caused by a decline in the school population and by a new district policy to eliminate year-round schools whenever possible. The opening of Panorama High School in October 2006, relieved overcrowding at Van Nuys High School.
Van Nuys High School has had the highest AP passing rate in the LAUSD for two consecutive years. Van Nuys High School was indeed established in 1915. Although, the first graduating ceremony was held in 1914 for a small group of students that had attended different schools. Legitimately making the class of 2014 The Centennials; the issue has been discussed between high authority figures of the school, they decided that though the first graduating ceremony that took place for students that did attend Van Nuys High School was in the year 1915, the first graduating ceremony to take place in the school took place back in 1914. The Adult School is on the same campus as Van Nuys High School, it allows adults as well as high school students to take classes. Most Van Nuys High School students take courses in the Adult School for academic remediation. However, some take classes for Counselor-Identified High School Credit Deficiencies, while others take classes for personal necessities of flexible scheduling.
The Adult School is considered a work-at-your-own-pace program. A student can finish an entire course in just 2–3 weeks, but can take longer depending on the work effort of the student. In baseball Van Nuys High qualified for postseason play; the following time the school's team qualified was in 1989, after a 9–7 victory over Birmingham High School at the Van Nuys-Sherman Oaks Recreation Center. Van Nuys High has a variety of sports including: basketball, softball, football, golf, water polo and tennis, it has had longtime rivalries with Hollywood High School. Paula Abdul, entertainer George O. Abell astronomer, professor at UCLA Diane Baker, actress Ed Begley, Jr. actor/environmentalist Harry Browne best selling author and Libertarian presidential nominee in 1996 and 2000 Julie Brown, actress/comedian/producer/singer/writer Chuck Cecil, disc jockey Vint Cerf, computer scientist, one of the "fathers of the Internet" Stephen M. Cohen, controversial internet entrepreneur Steve Crocker, computer scientist, inventor of the RFC series Kim Darby, actress who appeared in True Grit Dorothy DeBorba, actress who appeared in Our Gang Larry Dixon NHRA drag car champion Tony Dow actor Don Drysdale, National Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher Erika Eleniak, actress Diana Fuhrman, women's weightlifting pioneer, inducted into USA Weightlifting Hall of Fame David Gerrold, writer Joseph Gordon-Levitt, actor Steve Kanaly, actor Stacy Keach, actor David Klein, creator of Jelly Belly jelly beans, subject of the 2010 film Candyman Bruce Kovner, former hedge fund manager Scott Mason, Los Angeles Disc Jockey Bob McChesney, NFL football player Marilyn Monroe, actress Jon Postel, computer scientist, known as "the god of the internet" Don Prudhomme, drag racer Al Qöyawayma, Hopi sculptor and co-founder of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society Robert Redford, actor Ted Robbins, NPR journalist Ricardo Rodriguez, American professional wrestler and ring announcer Jane Russell, actress Sean Saly and Professor, Planet Earth John K. Singlaub, Major General, US Army David J. Skorton, Secretary of Smithsonian Institution.
Robert Elliot Kahn is an American electrical engineer, along with Vint Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol, the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet. Kahn was born in New York to parents Beatrice Lawrence Kahn in a Jewish family. Through his father, he is related to futurist Herman Kahn. After receiving a B. E. E. degree in electrical engineering from the City College of New York in 1960, Kahn went on to Princeton University where he earned a M. A. in 1962 and Ph. D. in 1964. In 1972, he began work at the Information Processing Techniques Office within DARPA. In the fall of 1972, he demonstrated the ARPANET by connecting 20 different computers at the International Computer Communication Conference, "the watershed event that made people realize that packet switching was a real technology." He helped develop the TCP/IP protocols for connecting diverse computer networks. After he became director of IPTO, he started the United States government's billion dollar Strategic Computing Initiative, the largest computer research and development program undertaken by the U.
S. federal government. After thirteen years with DARPA, he left to found the Corporation for National Research Initiatives in 1986, as of 2015 is the chairman, CEO and president. While working on a satellite packet network project, he came up with the initial ideas for what became the Transmission Control Protocol, intended as a replacement for an earlier network protocol, NCP, used in the ARPANET. While working on this, he played a major role in forming the basis of open-architecture networking, which would allow computers and networks all over the world to communicate with each other, regardless of what hardware or software the computers on each network used. To reach this goal, TCP was designed to have the following features: Small sub-sections of the whole network would be able to talk to each other through a specialized computer that only forwarded packets. No portion of the network would be the single point of failure, or would be able to control the whole network; each piece of information sent through the network would be given a sequence number, to ensure that they were dealt with in the right order at the destination computer, to detect the loss of any of them.
A computer which sent information to another computer would know that it was received when the destination computer sent back a special packet, called an acknowledgement, for that particular piece of information. If information sent from one computer to another was lost, the information would be retransmitted, after the loss was detected by a timeout, which would recognize that the expected acknowledgement had not been received; each piece of information sent through the network would be accompanied by a checksum, calculated by the original sender, checked by the ultimate receiver, to ensure that it was not damaged in any way en route. Vint Cerf joined him on the project in the spring of 1973, together they completed an early version of TCP, it was separated into two separate layers, with the more basic functions being moved to the Internet Protocol. The two together are referred to as TCP/IP, form part of the basis for the modern Internet. In 1992 he co-founded with Vint Cerf the Internet Society, to provide leadership in Internet related standards and policy.
He was awarded the SIGCOMM Award in 1993 for "visionary technical contributions and leadership in the development of information systems technology", shared the 2004 Turing Award with Vint Cerf, for "pioneering work on internetworking, including.. The Internet's basic communications protocols.. and for inspired leadership in networking." He is a recipient of the AFIPS Harry Goode Memorial Award, the Marconi Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the President's Award from ACM, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computer and Communications Award, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the ACM Software Systems Award, the Computerworld/Smithsonian Award, the ASIS Special Award and the Public Service Award from the Computing Research Board. He has twice received the Secretary of Defense Civilian Service Award, he was awarded an honorary degree by the University of Pavia in 1998. He is a recipient of the 1997 National Medal of Technology, the 2001 Charles Stark Draper Prize from the National Academy of Engineering, the 2002 Prince of Asturias Award, the 2004 A. M. Turing Award from the Association for Computing Machinery.
Kahn received the 2003 Digital ID World award for the Digital Object Architecture as a significant contribution to the digital identity industry. In 2005 he was awarded the Townsend Harris Medal from the Alumni Association of the City College of New York, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the C & C Prize in Tokyo, Japan, he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in May 2006. He was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum in 2006 "for pioneering technical contributions to internetworking and for leadership in the application of networks to scientific research."He was awarded the 2008 Japan Prize for his work in "Information Communication Theory and Technology". In 2001 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf were each inducted as an Honorary Fellow of the Society for Technical Communication in May 2006; the duo were awarded with the Harold Pender Award, the highest honor awarded by the University of Pennsylvania School Engineering and Applied Sciences, in February 2010.
He has served on the board of directors for
Internet protocol suite
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It is known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol, it is known as the Department of Defense model because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense through DARPA. The Internet protocol suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, transmitted and received; this functionality is organized into four abstraction layers, which classify all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment; the technical standards underlying the Internet protocol suite and its constituent protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force.
The Internet protocol suite predates the OSI model, a more comprehensive reference framework for general networking systems. The Internet protocol suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in the late 1960s. After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, who helped develop the existing ARPANET Network Control Program protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET. By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a fundamental reformulation, in which the differences between local network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, this function was delegated to the hosts.
Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design. The protocol was implemented as the Transmission Control Program, first published in 1974; the TCP managed both datagram transmissions and routing, but as the protocol grew, other researchers recommended a division of functionality into protocol layers. Advocates included Jonathan Postel of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute, who edited the Request for Comments, the technical and strategic document series that has both documented and catalyzed Internet development. Postel stated, "We are screwing up in our design of Internet protocols by violating the principle of layering." Encapsulation of different mechanisms was intended to create an environment where the upper layers could access only what was needed from the lower layers. A monolithic design would lead to scalability issues; the Transmission Control Program was split into two distinct protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol.
The design of the network included the recognition that it should provide only the functions of efficiently transmitting and routing traffic between end nodes and that all other intelligence should be located at the edge of the network, in the end nodes. This design is known as the end-to-end principle. Using this design, it became possible to connect any network to the ARPANET, irrespective of the local characteristics, thereby solving Kahn's initial internetworking problem. One popular expression is that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, can run over "two tin cans and a string." Years as a joke, the IP over Avian Carriers formal protocol specification was created and tested. A computer called, it forwards network packets forth between them. A router was called gateway, but the term was changed to avoid confusion with other types of gateways. From 1973 to 1974, Cerf's networking research group at Stanford worked out details of the idea, resulting in the first TCP specification.
A significant technical influence was the early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around that time. DARPA contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms. Four versions were developed: TCP v1, TCP v2, TCP v3 and IP v3, TCP/IP v4; the last protocol is still in use today. In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London. In November 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, the UK, Norway. Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centers between 1978 and 1983. In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer networking. In the same year, Peter T. Kirstein's research group at University College London adopted the protocol; the migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was completed on flag day January 1, 1983, when the new protocols were permanently activated.
In 1985, the Internet Advisory Board held a three-day TCP/