Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, author and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000, he transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals and ranking against those with wealth, not able to be ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, held it from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German and Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, a younger sister, Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, once damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early on in his life, Gates observed; when Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
The family encouraged competition. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing". At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school and wrote his first software program; when Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the school's students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine; when he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine." After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, he modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls." He stated that "it
Pottstown is a borough in Montgomery County, United States about 40 miles northwest of Philadelphia and 20 miles southeast of Reading, on the Schuylkill River. Pottstown was named Pottsgrove in honor of its founder, John Potts; the old name was abandoned at the time of the incorporation as a borough in 1815. In 1888, the limits of the borough were extended. Pottstown is the center of dairying region. Pottstown's iron and steel interests were once extensive. There were large rolling mills, nail works, textile mills, bridge works, agricultural-implement works and machine shops and manufactories of bricks, shirts, etc. In 1900, 13,696 people lived there; the population was 22,377 at the 2010 census. Modern-day Pottstown is on land deeded to William Penn. Germans and English were among the area's first European settlers. After establishment of the first iron forge in 1714, Pottstown's fortunes became tied to the iron industry. Blast furnaces for production of iron and steel opened in the area. Iron and steel production attracted iron masters by trade.
They built a large home just west of the Manatawny Creek. John Potts founded a town in 1761 on part of the 995 acres, it is the home of Pottstown Roller Mill. Over time, Pottsgrove grew, in 1815 it was incorporated under the name Pottstown, becoming the second borough in Pennsylvania, after Norristown; the Philadelphia & Reading Railroad mainline reached Pottstown in 1838. The extension of the railroad to Mount Carbon in 1842 facilitated the movement of raw materials and finished goods that helped Pottstown's economy grow. In a few years after the extension of the railroad, the population grew from 600 to 1,850. Pottstown's metal production grew. In 1944, the borough adopted a city manager form of government. By 1964, the borough saw the need to reorganize the municipal government. At the time, it had one of the largest borough councils in the state, with 20 members; this was reduced to seven members in redrawn wards. The High Street Historic District, Old Pottstown Historic District, Pottsgrove Mansion, Grubb Mansion, Jefferson Elementary School, Pottstown Roller Mill, Reading Railroad Pottstown Station, Henry Antes House are on the National Register of Historic Places.
Pottstown has a city manager form of government with a seven-member borough council. The mayor is Stephanie A. Henrick and the manager is Justin Keller; the borough is part of the Fourth Congressional District, the 26th and 146th State House District and the 24th State Senate District. Pottstown is located at 40°14′59″N 75°38′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.9 square miles, of which 4.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Pennsylvania has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Using the freezing mark as a boundary, the climate is hot-summer humid continental; the hardiness zone is 7a bordering on 6b. As of the 2010 census, the borough was 72.1% White, 19.5% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 4.4% were two or more races.
8.0% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of 2006-2008 Census Bureau Estimates, there were 22,018 people living in Pottstown; the racial makeup of the borough was 72.1% White, 19.4% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.2% from other races, 5.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.6% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,859 people, 9,146 households, 5,533 families residing in the borough; the population density was 4,526.3 people per square mile. There were 9,973 housing units at an average density of 2,065.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 79.34% White, 15.06% African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.89% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.53% of the population. There were 9,146 households, out of which 29.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families.
33.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.02. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.6% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.6 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $35,785, the median income for a family was $45,734. Males had a median income of $34,923 versus $26,229 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $19,078. About 8.7% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.2% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of t
Heung-Yeung "Harry" Shum is a computer scientist of Chinese origin. He is the Executive Vice President of Artificial Research at Microsoft, he is known for his research on computer vision and computer graphics, for the development of the search engine Bing. Shum grew up in China, he got his bachelor's degree from Southeast University, China, a master's degree from Hong Kong University. He studied at Carnegie Mellon University and earned a Ph. D. in robotics from its School of Computer Science in 1996. In 1996, Shum joined Microsoft Research in Redmond, he moved to Microsoft Research China when it was founded in 1998. In 2004, he became the Managing Director of Microsoft Research Asia. In 2006, he was promoted to Distinguished Engineer of Microsoft Corporation. In 2007, he became Corporate Vice President of Bing Product Development at Microsoft. In 2013, he took on the responsibilities as Microsoft's Executive Vice President, Technology & Research including oversight of Microsoft Research.. Since 2016, he has been Microsoft's Executive Vice President for the AI & Research Group, leading the overall strategy and R&D efforts in AI while continuing oversight of Microsoft Research.
Shum has published over 200 papers at international journals. Most of them are focused on computer vision, he is a proponent of research on interactive computer vision. He has published many important interactive computer vision papers on ACM SIGGRAPH, he was active in Image-based modeling and rendering, an important field in realistic computer graphics. In recent years, since he worked on Bing he has been active in data mining research. Shum was named IEEE Fellow by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in 2006. In 2007, he was recognized as ACM Fellow by Association for Computing Machinery. In 2017, he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering of the United States, for contributions to computer vision and computer graphics, for leadership in industrial research and product development. In 2018 he was elected an International Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in the UK. List of International Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering Microsoft executive profile: Harry Shum Harry Shum at DBLP Bibliography Server
Penny Sue Pritzker is an American billionaire businesswoman and civic leader. President Barack Obama nominated Pritzker as United States Secretary of Commerce. After being confirmed by a Senate vote of 97–1, she became the 38th person to hold that position. Pritzker spent her early career in business, she worked her way up through the Pritzker family business being appointed as one of three successors to her uncle, Jay Pritzker. She is the founder of Pritzker Realty Group, she is co-founder of Artemis Real Estate Partners. As of October 2015, Forbes estimated her net worth at $2.4 billion. In 2009, Forbes named Pritzker one of the 100 most powerful women in the world. Before entering government service, Pritzker had been involved in many Chicago organizations, including the Chicago Board of Education, Museum of Contemporary Art and her own foundation, the Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation. Pritzker was an early supporter of Obama's presidential candidacy, having been a friend of the Obama family since their time in Chicago.
Penny Pritzker was born in Chicago in the daughter of Sue and Donald Pritzker. She is a member of the Pritzker family of a wealthy and influential business family. Donald Pritzker was one of the co-founders of Hyatt Hotels, he moved the family to Atherton, where business for the Hyatt Hotels began to grow. Penny has two younger brothers, Tony and J. B. Pritzker. Young Penny would accompany her father to the hotels and check the cleanliness of the ladies restrooms. In 1972, Don died of a heart attack when Penny was 13 years old. Following Don's death, Sue began battling depression, requiring Penny to at times care for her mother and her younger brothers. At age 16, Penny wrote a letter to her grandfather, head of the family business empire, A. N. Pritzker, in which she asked why he talked business with the men in the family and not with her. Realizing Penny's interest in business, A. N. provided her with a summer course in accounting. Penny attended Castilleja School until 1977, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in economics from Harvard College in 1981.
The following year, Penny's mother died after falling out of the passenger side of a tow truck. Penny returned to school, earning both a Juris Doctor and a Masters of Business Administration from Stanford University in 1985. After she earned her degrees, Pritzker joined the Pritzker organization encouraged by her cousin Nick Pritzker. In 1987, she founded Classic Residence by Hyatt renamed Vi, upscale housing for seniors as an alternative to nursing homes; the project struggled at first, losing $40 million in the first 18 months, but turned around after changes in marketing and management. In 1991, Jay Pritzker, Penny's uncle and head of the Pritzker family businesses, named Penny as the director of the Pritzkers' non-hotel landholdings. With that appointment, Penny created the Pritzker Realty Group, which developed apartment buildings, shopping centers, the Baldwin Park neighborhood in Orlando, Florida. From 1991–1994, Penny Pritzker was chairperson of the Hinsdale, Illinois-based Superior Bank of Chicago, in which Jay Pritzker had purchased a 50% stake from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, who had taken over the bank when it failed.
In 1993 the bank "embarked on a business strategy of significant growth into subprime home mortgages", according to a report by the United States Treasury Department. In 2000 it became clear. In the months leading up to 2001, the Pritzkers tried to work out a recapitalization plan. In July 2001, the FDIC seized the bank. Subsequently, the Pritzker family reached an agreement with regulators to pay $460 million. According to the FDIC, by 2011 the uninsured depositors of Superior had each received 81% of their uninsured monies, in addition to the $100,000 each received of their insured amount. Industry experts have criticized the Pritzkers in regard to Superior. Consumer advocates and government investigators asserted Superior "engaged in unsound financial activities and predatory lending practices". Responding to the Wall Street Journal, Pritzker noted she had no ownership in the bank, either direct or indirect, that the bank's reasons for failure "were complex, including changes in accounting practices, auditing failures, reversals in regulatory positions and general economic conditions".
She said the bank complied with "fair lending laws" and ethical business practices. A 2001 Business Week article described the bank's other owner, Alvin Dworman, as the more dominant partner in its operation as a result of agreements made by Jay Pritzker. Quoted in the New York Times, a Pritzker family friend observed Pritzker was trapped in a deal of her uncle's making: "Penny got sucked into this…this was the legacy of Jay." In 1995, Penny was named as one of three successors to the retiring Jay Pritzker besides his son Tom and his cousin Nick. Tom was named the official head of the businesses and Penny each named vice-chairman. Together, the three were to oversee the Pritzker family assets. Jay intended to keep the family business together, devising a system of trusts that would allow individual family members to receive money from the trusts to meet their needs; the Pritzker business empire was valued at $15 billion. After Jay Pritzker's death in 1999, other Pritzker family members challenged Tom and Penny's control of the businesses in multiple lawsuits.
Penny's brothers joined in one of the lawsuits. In 2001 Tom and Penny decided to sell
Helmut Gunter Wilhelm Panke is a senior German manager and is holding board membership in several companies - Microsoft, Bayer AG and Singapore Airlines. During the past recent 30 years, Mr Panke's management career spread over several companies, including e.g. serving as the chairman of the board of management at BMW AG from May 2002 through August 2006. In 1972, Mr Panke graduated from the University of Munich in physics, having started his studies in 1968, received his Ph. D. in 1976. Prior to his studies, during the period from 1964 to 1965, he was an AFS Exchange Student to the United States. After the award of the doctorate degree in nuclear physics, Mr Panke joined the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research. From 1976 to 1978, Panke was a researcher at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research and a lecturer at the University of Munich. From 1978 to 1982, he was a consultant with Company. In 1982, he started at Bayerische Motoren Werke as a head of planning and control of the research and development division, before assuming management functions in 1985.
He said that his attraction to the company was based on the reputation it had for encouraging creativity and independence among its staff. Over the next 20 years, Panke worked his way up through the company, working in nearly every department: he served as the chairman of the management board at BMW Capital PLC, as Chairman and CEO of BMW Holding Corporation from 1993 to 1996, he managed the US manufacturing facility, responsible for building, as well as corporate planning, staff, IT, finance and sales. From 1996 to 1999, his tasks focused on Information Technology. From 1999 to 2002, he served as a member of the board of management responsible for finance. In 2002, Panke succeeded Joachim Milberg to become the chairman of BMW after Milberg's resignation due to health reasons. During his tenure from May 16, 2002 until September 1, 2006, he was credited with leading the company’s internationalization and his refusal to move the company into the lower priced mass market. In 2004, he was elected into the board of directors of UBS AG, where he served as a member for eleven years.
He left the BoD at the Annual General Meeting of 2015, stepping down due to regulatory provisions regarding the term of office. Mr. Panke joined UBS AG in 1982, when he was appointed Head of Planning and Controlling in the Research and Development Division, he worked as a member of the Human Resources and Compensation Committee and of the Risk Committee since 2008. Panke has served on the board of directors for Microsoft since November 11, 2003, as the first board member from outside the United States, he is the chairman of the Regulatory and Public Policy Committee, a member of the Compensation Committee and of the Audit Committee of Microsoft. He is a board member of Singapore Airlines Ltd. and chairs the Safety and Risk Committee in the organization. He is a member of the supervisory board of Bayer AG since October 2006. Furthermore, he serves as a member of the advisory board at Dubai International Capital LLC since 2007, a member of the board of directors of Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, a member of the supervisory board at Bayer Schering Pharma AG and Bayer Pharma AG.
Mr. Panke serves as a member of the board of directors of ACEA, the Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles, Belgium, a member of the board of directors of VDA, the association of the German automobile industry, of the American Chamber of Commerce in Germany
President (corporate title)
The President is a leader of an organization, community, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position is loosely defined; the powers of the president vary across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws like Robert's Rules of Order. The term "president" was used to designate someone who presided over a meeting, was used in the same way that "foreman" or "overseer" is used now, it has now come to mean "chief officer" in terms of administrative or executive duties. In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the president has the duties of presiding over meetings; such duties at meetings include: calling the meeting to order determining if a quorum is present announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up recognition of members to have the floor enforcing the rules of the group putting all questions to a vote adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the president should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group.
In committees or small boards, the president votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the president should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the president only has one vote; the powers of the president vary across organizations. In some organizations the president has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the president only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the president has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the president depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself. If the president exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform the duties, the president may face disciplinary procedures; such procedures may include suspension, or removal from office. The rules of the particular organization would provide details on who can perform these disciplinary procedures and the extent that they can be done.
Whoever appointed or elected the president has the power to discipline this officer. Some organizations may have a position of President-Elect in addition to the position of President; the membership of the organization elects a President-Elect and when the term of the President-Elect is complete, that person automatically becomes President. Some organizations may have a position of Immediate Past President in addition to the position of President. In those organizations, when the term of the President is complete, that person automatically fills the position of Immediate Past President; the organization can have such a position. The duties of such a position would have to be provided in the bylaws. Bennett, Nathan. Riding Shotgun: The Role of the COO. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5166-8. National Association of Parliamentarians®, Education Committee. Spotlight on You the President. Independence, MO: National Association of Parliamentarians®. ISBN 1-884048-15-3