Jonah or Jonas, in the Hebrew Bible, is a prophet of the northern kingdom of Israel in about the 8th century BCE. He is the central figure of the Book of Jonah, in which he is called upon by God to travel to Nineveh and warn its residents of impending divine wrath. Instead, Jonah boards a ship to Tarshish. Caught in a storm, he orders the ship's crew to cast him overboard, whereupon he is swallowed by a giant fish. Three days after Jonah agrees to go to Nineveh, the fish vomits him out onto the shore. Jonah convinces the entire city of Nineveh to repent, but waits outside the city in expectation of its destruction. God shields Jonah from the sun with a plant, but sends a worm to cause it to wither; when Jonah complains of the bitter heat, God rebukes him. In Judaism, the story of Jonah represents the teaching of teshuva, the ability to repent and be forgiven by God. In the New Testament, Jesus calls himself "greater than Jonah" and promises the Pharisees "the sign of Jonah", his resurrection. Early Christian interpreters viewed Jonah as a type for Jesus.

During the Reformation, Jonah came to be seen instead as an archetype for the "envious Jew". Jonah is regarded as a prophet in Islam and the biblical narrative of Jonah is repeated, with a few notable differences, in the Quran. Mainstream Bible scholars regard the Book of Jonah as fictional and at least satirical, but the character of Jonah may have been based on the historical prophet of the same name mentioned in 2 Kings 14:25. Although the word "whale" is used in English versions of the Jonah story, the Hebrew text uses the phrase dag gadol, which means "giant fish". In the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the species of the fish that swallowed Jonah was the subject of speculation for naturalists, who interpreted the story as an account of a historical incident; some modern scholars of folklore have noted similarities between Jonah and other legendary figures Gilgamesh and the Greek hero Jason. Jonah is the central character in the Book of Jonah, in which God commands him to go to the city of Nineveh to prophesy against it "for their great wickedness is come up before me," but Jonah instead attempts to flee from "the presence of the Lord" by going to Jaffa, sailing to Tarshish.

A huge storm arises and the sailors, realizing that it is no ordinary storm, cast lots and discover that Jonah is to blame. Jonah admits states that if he is thrown overboard, the storm will cease; the sailors refuse to do this and continue rowing, but all their efforts fail and they are forced to throw Jonah overboard. As a result, the storm calms and the sailors offer sacrifices to God. Jonah is miraculously saved by being swallowed by a large fish, in whose belly he spends three days and three nights. While in the great fish, Jonah prays to God in his affliction and commits to thanksgiving and to paying what he has vowed. God commands the fish to vomit Jonah out. God again commands Jonah to prophesy to its inhabitants; this time he goes and enters the city, crying, "In forty days Nineveh shall be overthrown." After Jonah has walked across Nineveh, the people of Nineveh begin to believe his word and proclaim a fast. The king of Nineveh puts on sackcloth and sits in ashes, making a proclamation which decrees fasting, the wearing of sackcloth and repentance.

God spares the city at that time. The entire city is broken with the people in sackcloth and ashes. Displeased by this, Jonah refers to his earlier flight to Tarshish while asserting that, since God is merciful, it was inevitable that God would turn from the threatened calamities, he leaves the city and makes himself a shelter, waiting to see whether or not the city will be destroyed. God causes a plant to grow over Jonah's shelter to give him some shade from the sun. God causes a worm to bite the plant's root and it withers. Jonah, now being exposed to the full force of the sun, becomes pleads for God to kill him, but God said to Jonah: "Do you have a right to be angry about the vine?" And he said: "I do. I am angry enough to die."But the LORD said: "You have been concerned about this vine, though you did not tend it or make it grow. It sprang up overnight, died overnight, but Nineveh has more than a hundred and twenty thousand people who cannot tell their right hand from their left, many cattle as well.

Should I not be concerned about that great city?" The Book of Jonah is one of the twelve minor prophets included in the Tanakh. According to one tradition, Jonah was the boy brought back to life by Elijah the prophet in 1 Kings 17. Another tradition holds that he was the son of the woman of Shunem brought back to life by Elisha in 2 Kings 4 and that he is called the "son of Amittai" due to his mother's recognition of Elisha's identity as a prophet in 2 Kings 17:24; the Book of Jonah is read every year, in its original Hebrew and in its entirety, on Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement, as the Haftarah at the afternoon mincha prayer. According to Rabbi Eliezer, the fish that swallowed Jonah was created in the primordial era and the inside of its mouth was like a synagogue. According to the Midrash, while Jonah was inside the fish, it told him that its life was nearly over because soon the Leviathan would eat them both. Jonah promised the fish. Following Jonah's directions, the fish swam up alongside the Leviathan and Jonah threatened to leash the Leviathan by its tongue and let the other fish eat it.

The Leviathan

Socialist Party of Bangladesh

The Socialist Party of Bangladesh is a Marxist-Leninist party in Bangladesh. The party was founded by Comrade Khalequzzaman on 7 November 1980. SPB follows a Marxist-Leninist ideological line; the party claims to uphold the original intent of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong. SPB holds. In line with that analysis, the party works toward a socialist revolution in the country. There are four members in the central committee of the party. Comrade Khalequzzaman is the General Secretary of Central Committee of SPB. Comrade Bazlur Rashid & Razequzzaman Ratan are Members of Central Committee; the official party newspaper, Vanguard, is published monthly in Bengali. SPB Central Committee member Razequzzaman Ratan is the chief editor. SPB has many political wings, some of them are: Socialist Students' Front Socialist Labour Front Socialist Peasants' Front Socialist Women's Forum Progressive Teachers' forum Progressive Engineers' and Architects' Forum Progressive Lawyers' Front Progressive Agriculturist Centre Progressive Doctors Forum Progressive Art an Mass Media Workers Forum Bangladesh Shipping Workers Federation Re-rolling Steel Mills Labour Front Charan Sangskritik Kendro Shishu Kishor Mela Platform of Science Movement Official website

Chuvash literature

Chuvash literature — consists of literature written in the Chuvash language, regardless of the ethnic origin of the authors or the place of publication. This term does not include folklore; the Chuvash language is the only surviving member of the Oghur or Bulgar branch of the Turkic group of languages. Therefore, Chuvash literature begins with ancient Turkic literature; the history of the Chuvash literature begins when texts in the Chuvash language first appear in historical sources. The oldest known Chuvash texts appear on the gravestones left by the Volga Bulgars in the 13th and 14th centuries in the Middle Volga region, during the reign of the Golden Horde. Most of the epitaphs on the tombstones were written in Oghur languages, of which Chuvash is the only extant member. However, these epitaphs cannot be considered full-fledged literary works. However, the Chuvash language of the Golden Horde is forever cemented in time. Sometimes in plain text, you can find a certain artistry. For example, in some instance there is plot development.

Modern people have learned about ancient Turkic literature by studying the monuments of ancient Turkic runic writing, Manichean writing and ancient Uyghur writing. Literature created in the Chuvash language dates back to medieval Oghur language; this is the principal value of the culture of the Chuvash Volga Bulgars in the literature. Aside from the aforementioned epitaphs, there are no surviving texts in the Oghur language. However, medieval translations of Oghur literature were completed based directly on the Oghur sources. Yaqub ibn Numan, who lived in the 11th century, authored the pseudo-historical work "History of Bulgar", but this work has not survived. Abu Hámid al-Garnáti met with the ibn Numan and wrote a work based on "History of Bulgar"; this work alludes to the animosity between the Bulgars and the Khazars, another ethnic group in Central Asia, as well as a narrative about how the Bulgars converted to Islam. Much of these historical events are presented by al-Garnáti in a mythologized form.

He includes characters that are similar to characters in modern Chuvash folklore such as Ulyp, a giant and a legendary hero. Aside from the epitaphs of gravestones during the Golden Horde period, more artistic texts in the Chuvash languages began to appear in the 18th century, with the emergence of the Chuvash alphabet. For example, one poem by an anonymous in 1767 praised Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia: Translation: We do not know what to give / You, beautiful queen, universal mother, for the love of us. Did not know until now / Goddess, in heaven, it turns out she is elegant. / We have nothing significant except our souls - / May they be a gift to you! More than 10 similar Chuvash poems with unknown authors, have been identified. One of them, witten in 1795 and dedicated to archbishop Ambrose, is attributed to Nikita Bichurin. E. I. Rozhanski, one of the founders of the original Chuvash alphabet wrote literature in Chuvash. For example, he translated "Short Catechezis" into the Chuvash language in 1800.

This was the first book published in the Chuvash language. Another piece of Chuvash literature called "Chvash Aber Boldymyr" authored by V. I. Lebedev, dates to the same period; the current new Chuvash alphabet was created in the early 1870s by IY Yakovlev, a great educator and social activist. During these years, there were works in the Chuvash language using this new alphabet; the highest achievement of the Chuvash literature of this period may be a poem by Mikhail Fedorov "Arzuri". It is written in 1884, spread among the population in the lists, it was published much than the first time - in 1908. During these years, Ignatius Ivanov wrote works of literature, he is best known as the author of a cycle of short stories entitled "How to live Chuvash" Some of his creations have been published in the primer by I. Ya. Yakovlev, alongside many other works of the Chuvash literature; the formal the starting point of this period can be considered 1986, when Ivan Yurkin wrote his first short story, he began his literary career.

He became a large figure in the Chuvash culture and, in particular, in the realm of literature. Yurkin's major works of literature include "Wealth" and "The man is full, but his eyes were hungry", he was known as a journalist and an active defender of the traditional religion of the Chuvash, that is, he was its apologist. See Category:Chuvash writers «Чăваш литературин антологийĕ», составители: Д. В. Гордеев, Ю. А. Силэм. Шупашкар, 2003. ISBN 5-7670-1279-2. Виталий Родионов, «Чăваш литератури. XVIII—XIX ĕмĕрсем», Чебоксары, 2006. ISBN 5-7670-1463-9. Юхма Мишши, "Авалхи чăвашсем, Чебоксары, 1996. История развития чувашской литературы/ The history of the Chuvash literature Культурное наследие Чувашии. Писатели/ Cultural heritage Chuvashia. Writers