SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Jonas Salk

Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. He developed one of the first successful polio vaccines. Born in New York City, he attended the City College of New York and New York University School of Medicine choosing to do medical research instead of becoming a practicing physician. In 1939, after earning his medical degree, Salk began an internship as a physician scientist at Mount Sinai Hospital. Two years he was granted a fellowship at the University of Michigan, where he would study flu viruses with his mentor Thomas Francis Jr; until 1955, when the Salk vaccine was introduced, polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world. In the postwar United States, annual epidemics were devastating; the 1952 U. S. epidemic was the worst outbreak in the nation's history. Of nearly 58,000 cases reported that year, 3,145 people died and 21,269 were left with mild to disabling paralysis, with most of its victims being children; the "public reaction was to a plague", said historian William L. O'Neill.

"Citizens of urban areas were to be terrified every summer when this frightful visitor returned." According to a 2009 PBS documentary, "Apart from the atomic bomb, America's greatest fear was polio." As a result, scientists were in a frantic race to find a way to cure the disease. In 1947, Salk accepted an appointment to the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. In 1948, he undertook a project funded by the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, the organization that would fund the development of a vaccine, to determine the number of different types of polio virus. Salk saw an opportunity to extend this project towards developing a vaccine against polio, together with the skilled research team he assembled, devoted himself to this work for the next seven years; the field trial set up to test the Salk vaccine was, according to O'Neill, "the most elaborate program of its kind in history, involving 20,000 physicians and public health officers, 64,000 school personnel, 220,000 volunteers."

Over 1.8 million school children took part in the trial. When news of the vaccine's success was made public on April 12, 1955, Salk was hailed as a "miracle worker" and the day became a national holiday. Around the world, an immediate rush to vaccinate began, with countries including Canada, Denmark, West Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium planning to begin polio immunization campaigns using Salk's vaccine. Salk campaigned for mandatory vaccination, claiming that public health should be considered a "moral commitment." Salk claimed that his sole focus had been to develop a safe and effective vaccine as as possible, with no interest in personal profit, credited this attitude with the fact that there is no patent for the vaccine. However, there would have been no patent either way, as the vaccine was ruled to be unpatentable due to prior art. In 1960, he founded the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, today a center for medical and scientific research, he continued to conduct research and publish books, including Man Unfolding, The Survival of the Wisest, World Population and Human Values: A New Reality, Anatomy of Reality: Merging of Intuition and Reason.

Salk's last years were spent searching for a vaccine against HIV. His personal papers are stored at the University of San Diego Library. Jonas Salk was born in New York City, New York, on October 28, 1914, his parents and Dora Salk, were Ashkenazi Jewish. Daniel was born to eastern European immigrant parents, they had not received extensive formal education. Jonas had two younger brothers and Lee, a renowned child psychologist; the family moved from East Harlem to 853 Elsmere Place, the Bronx, with some time spent in Queens at 439 Beach 69th Street, Arverne. When he was 13, Salk entered Townsend Harris High School, a public school for intellectually gifted students. Named after the founder of City College of New York, it was, said Oshinsky, "a launching pad for the talented sons of immigrant parents who lacked the money—and pedigree—to attend a top private school." In high school "he was known as a perfectionist... who read everything he could lay his hands on," according to one of his fellow students.

Students had to cram a four-year curriculum into just three years. As a result, most dropped out or flunked out, despite the school's motto "study, study." Of the students who graduated, most would have the grades to enroll in CCNY, noted for being a competitive college. Salk enrolled in CCNY from which he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry in 1934. Oshinsky writes that "for working-class immigrant families, City College represented the apex of public higher education. Getting in was tough. Competition was intense, but the rules were applied. No one got an advantage based on an accident of birth."At his mother's urging, he put aside aspirations of becoming a lawyer, instead concentrated on classes necessary for admission to medical school. However, according to Oshinsky, the facilities at City College were "barely second rate." There were no research laboratories. The faculty contained few noted scholars. "What made the place special," he writes, "was the student body that had fought so hard to get there... driven by their parents....

From these ranks, of the 1930s and 1940s, emerged a wealth of intellectual talent, including more Nobel Prize winners—eight—and PhD recipients than any other public college except the University of California at Berkeley." Sal

Five Pits Trail

The Five Pits Trail is a rail trail in Derbyshire, England. It consists of a network of surfaced walkways for recreational use; the 5.5-mile-long trail links Grassmoor to Tibshelf. The Trail can be extended to 7.5 miles by continuing along the route to Williamthorpe Ponds and Holmewood. Derbyshire County Council created the Five Pits Trail in 1989, following the route of the former Great Central Railway which served the five main coal mines of Grassmoor, Holmewood and Tibshelf. Part of the trail has been identified as the "Tom Hulatt Mile" and is marked at the side of the trail; this mile commemorates local runner Tom Hulatt who took place in the race that created the first four-minute mile. The Tibshelf end of the trail runs past Newton Ponds and joins the Silverhill Trail, which connects to the Brierley Forest Link Trail, to Teversal Trail in Teversal. Access to the Five Pits Trail is possible via numerous footpaths which cross it and by a number of roads which cross it. There are car parks provided at several locations: Church Lane in Tibshelf, Station Road in Pilsley, Timber Lane near Astwith, at both the Birkin Lane and the Mansfield Road entrances to Grassmoor Country Park

Paul Mérault Monneron

Paul Mérault Monneron or de Monneron was an engineer officer in the French armed forces and from 1785 to 1788 a member of Lapérouse's expedition. His eldest brother Charles Claude Ange Monneron was député to the Estates General of 1789, for the Sénéchaussée of Annonay, his brothers Louis Monneron and Pierre Antoine Monneron were députés of the National Constituent Assembly for the West Indies and Mauritius. Another brother, Joseph François Augustin Monneron was député for Paris at the Legislative Assembly and retired from it in 1792, before becoming Director General of the Caisse des Comptes Courants and going bankrupt in 1798. Entering the École du génie de Mézières and received as an engineer on 1 January 1770, he was first employed in France, at Briançon Saint-Omer. Lapérouse proposed Monneron to Fleurieu as the expedition's chief engineer, for "such a character joined to knowledge is that which convened in him". Moneron Island, discovered by the expedition west of Sakhalin Island, was named after him.

He died in the shipwreck of the "Astrolabe" at Vanikoro in 1788. European and American voyages of scientific exploration His genealogy on geneanet samlap L'expédition de Lapérouse 1785–1788 Réplique Française aux voyages de Cook – C. Gaziello Paris 1984 Association Lapérouse France