Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's triple jump
The Men's triple jump event at the 2000 Summer Olympics as part of the athletics program was held at the Olympic Stadium. The triple jump has been present since the beginning of the modern Olympic Games in 1896; the top twelve athletes from the three jumps in qualifying progressed through to the final where the qualifying distances are scrapped and they start afresh with another three jumps. After these the top eight athletes carry their record forward and have a further three attempts to decide the gold medalist. All times are Australian Eastern Standard Time. DNS denotes did not start. DNF denotes did not finish. DQ denotes disqualification. NR denotes national record. AR denotes area/continental record. OR denotes Olympic record. WR denotes world record. PB denotes personal best. SB denotes season best Held on 23 September 2000; the qualifying distance was 16.95m. For all qualifiers who did not achieve the standard, the remaining spaces in the final were filled by the longest jumps until a total of 12 qualifiers.
Official results, qualification - IAAF.org Official results, final - IAAF.org Source: Official Report of the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics available at https://web.archive.org/web/20080522105330/http://www.la84foundation.org/5va/reports_frmst.htm
The triple jump, sometimes referred to as the hop and jump or the hop and jump, is a track and field event, similar to the long jump. As a group, the two events are referred to as the "horizontal jumps"; the competitor runs down the track and performs a hop, a bound and a jump into the sand pit. The triple jump was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympics event since the Games' inception in 1896. According to IAAF rules, "the hop shall be made so that an athlete lands first on the same foot as that from which he has taken off. Both records were set during 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg. Historical sources on the ancient Olympic Games mention jumps of 15 meters or more; this led sports historians to conclude that these must have been a series of jumps, thus providing the basis for the triple jump. However, there is no evidence for the triple jump being included in the ancient Olympic Games, it is possible that the recorded extraordinary distances are due to artistic license of the authors of victory poems, rather than attempts to report accurate results.
The triple jump was a part of the inaugural modern Olympics in Athens, although at the time it consisted of two hops on the same foot and a jump. In fact, the first modern Olympic champion, James Connolly, was a triple jumper. Early Olympics included the standing triple jump, although this has since been removed from the Olympic program and is performed in competition today; the women's triple jump was introduced into the Atlanta Olympics in 1996. In Irish mythology the geal-ruith, was an event contested in the ancient Irish Tailteann Games as early as 1829 BC; the athlete sprints down a runway to a takeoff mark. The takeoff mark is a physical piece of wood or similar material embedded in the runway, or a rectangle painted on the runway surface. In modern championships a strip of plasticine, tape, or modeling clay is attached to the far edge of the board to record athletes overstepping or "scratching" the mark, defined by the trailing edge of the board; these boards are placed at different places on the run way depending on how far the athlete can jump.
The boards are set. These are the most common boards you see at the high school and collegiate levels, but boards can be placed anywhere on the runway. There are three phases of the triple jump: the "hop" phase, the "bound" or "step" phase, the "jump" phase; these three phases are executed in one continuous sequence. The hop begins with the athlete jumping from the take off board on one leg, which for descriptive purposes will be the right leg; the objective of the first phase is to hop out. The hop landing phase is active, involving a powerful backward "pawing" action of the right leg, with the right take-off foot landing heel first on the runway; the hop landing marks the beginning of the step phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward momentum of the right leg to execute a powerful jump forwards and upwards, the left leg assisting the take-off with a powerful hip flexion thrust. This leads to the familiar step-phase mid-air position, with the right take off leg trailing flexed at the knee, the left leg now leading flexed at the hip and knee.
The jumper holds this position for as long as possible, before extending the knee of the leading left leg and immediately beginning a powerful backward motion of the whole left leg, again landing on the runway with a powerful pawing action. The takeoff leg should be extended with the drive leg thigh just below parallel to the ground; the takeoff leg stays extended behind the body with the heel held high. The drive leg extends with a flexed ankleand snaps downward for a quick transition into the jump phase; the step landing forms the beginning of the take-off of the final phase, where the athlete utilizes the backward force from the left leg to take off again. The jump phase is similar to the long jump although most athletes have lost too much speed by this time to manage a full hitch kick, used is a hang or sail technique; when landing in the sand-filled pit, the jumper should aim to avoid sitting back on landing, or placing either hand behind the feet. The sand pit begins 13m from the take off board for male international competition, or 11m from the board for international female and club-level male competition.
Each phase of the triple jump should get progressively higher, there should be a regular rhythm to the 3 landings. A "foul" known as a "scratch," or missed jump, occurs when a jumper oversteps the takeoff mark, misses the pit does not use the correct foot sequence throughout the phases, or does not perform the attempt in the allotted amount of time; when a jumper "scratches," the seated official will raise a red flag and the jumper, "on deck," or up next, prepares to jump. It shall not be considered a foul if an athlete, while jumping, should touch or scrape the ground with his/her "sleeping leg". Called a "scrape foul", "sleeping leg" touch violations were ruled as fouls prior to the mid-1980s; the IAAF changed the rules following outrage at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, when Russian field officials in the Men's Triple Jump ruled as foul 8 of the 12 jumps made by two leading competitors thus helping two Russian jumpers win the G
1990 Commonwealth Games
The 1990 Commonwealth Games were held in Auckland, New Zealand from 24 January – 3 February 1990. It was the 14th Commonwealth Games, part of New Zealand's 1990 sesquicentennial celebrations. Participants competed in ten sports: athletics, badminton, cycling, judo, lawn bowls and weightlifting; the Triathlon was a demonstration event. The main venue was the Mount Smart Stadium; the Games were awarded to Auckland on 27 July 1984 at the Los Angeles Summer Olympics. Perth, had withdrawn from the bid contest leaving New Delhi, India, as the sole opponent to Auckland's bid; the opening of the games comprised a variety of events, including the arrival of The Queen's representative The Prince Edward, the arrival of the Queen's Baton and many Māori ceremonial stories. The opening ceremony itself started off with the Auckland Commonwealth Games Choir singing the Song of Welcome. Upon the arrival of The Prince Edward, the Māori in attendance, gave him a Challenge of a welcome; this is conducted by a Māori placing a wooden batton on the ground.
To see if the visitor comes in peace or not, the visitor must pick it up. The New Zealand national anthem "God Defend New Zealand" was sung during a ceremonial fourteen gun salute from nearby One Tree Hill; this was followed by the New Zealand Army Guard Commander allowing The Prince Edward to inspect the guard of honour. After, the introduction of the participating countries of the Commonwealth, Scotland entering first as the hosts of the previous games, New Zealand entering last as hosts. During the introduction of the countries, the choir at attendance would display the flag of the announced country with boards; when all the athletes sat down, the main Māori ceremonies began. First of the Māori ceremonies was all the Māori women performing a "Song of Welcome" for the athletes with the use of Poi; the Māori women gave some of the athletes a Hongi. Next was the Māori story of how New Zealand was formed, performed by many New Zealanders and organised by Logan Brewer, it involved a narration of.
In the middle of the performance, a re-enactment was performed of how New Zealand was formed between Rangi and Papa. The story moved on to the coming of religion and European migration; this was demonstrated with a formation of the Union Jack. Dame Whina Cooper made a speech about the Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 that brought about peace and stability of modern New Zealand. Introduction of the European communities was next with music and native dancing from European countries such as Italy, Greece, Scotland, Austria and England, music and native dancing from Asian countries such as China, Sri Lanka and India. From here, many of the neighbouring Pacific Islanders made their entrance with the rhythmic tempo of the Pacific Island drum beat; this was to show the complete migration of people to New Zealand. New Zealand performer Howard Morrison lead New Zealand in singing the folk song Tukua-a-hau. After Howard Morrison, the Queen's Baton arrived at the stadium where The Prince Edward announced the opening of the games, followed by the Athletes Pledge.
Fireworks followed and was capped off with a night time flyover by nine A-4 Skyhawk jets of the Royal New Zealand Air Forces 75 Squadron. The ceremony was concluded by the singing of the game's motto "This is the moment" as performers and athletes exited the stadium. A more relaxed affair was held for the 14th Commonwealth Games closing ceremony, reflecting that of Christchurch in 1974. Attended by HM The Queen of New Zealand and respect played their due part in the beginning with formal salute and the acceptance of the Commonwealth Games flag to the next host city, Canada; this was followed by modern Canadian dancing display. The fun began with thousands of children entering the stadium with a mass jumprope demonstration, followed by the athletes themselves; the Queen made the traditional closing speech and called for all the Commonwealth's athletes to assemble in four years time in Victoria. As the evening wore on, opera singer Dame Kiri Te Kanawa sang "Now is the Hour", a favorite New Zealand hymn, as the Royal New Zealand Air Force's A4 Skyhawks made one final swooping flyover of Mount Smart Stadium followed by fireworks.
The Queen, Duke of Edinburgh, Prince Edward exited the stadium standing in open top vehicles. The mascot of the games was Goldie. 55 teams were represented at the 1990 Games.. This is the full table of the medal count of the 1990 Commonwealth Games; these rankings sort by the number of gold medals earned by a country. The number of silvers is taken into consideration next and the number of bronze. If, after the above, countries are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically; this follows the system used by the IOC, IAAF and BBC. Figures from Commonwealth Games Foundation website. * Host nation At these games, the Triathlon was a demonstration event. The Bateman New Zealand Encyclopedia Commonwealth Games Official Site
2002 Commonwealth Games
The 2002 Commonwealth Games known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and known as Manchester 2002 were held in Manchester, from 25 July to 4 August 2002. The 2002 Games were to be hosted in the United Kingdom to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth, Manchester was selected for the 2002 Games ahead of London; the XVII Commonwealth Games was, prior to the 2012 Summer Olympics, the largest multi-sport event to be held in the UK, eclipsing the London 1948 Summer Olympics in numbers of teams and athletes participating. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 Games were the largest Commonwealth Games in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports; the Games were considered a success for the host city, providing an event to display how Manchester had changed following the 1996 bombing. The Games formed the catalyst for the widespread regeneration and heavy development of Manchester, bolstered its reputation as a European and global city internationally. Rapid economic development and continued urban regeneration of the now post-industrial Manchester continued after the Games which helped cement its place as one of the principal cultural cities in the United Kingdom.
The opening and closing ceremonies, the athletic and the rugby sevens events were held at the City of Manchester Stadium, purpose built for the Games. Unusually for a large multi-sport event—the second-largest competition by number of countries and athletes participating—the shooting events were held in the National Shooting Centre in Bisley, some 200 miles from the main focus of the Games in Manchester. Seventy-two nations competed in 3 team sports events. Sporting legacy includes the British Cycling team who inherited the Manchester Velodrome and went on to win eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympics and another eight gold medals at the 2012 Olympics attributed to the availability of the velodrome. Manchester City F. C. inherited the City of Manchester Stadium, as a result, have since found themselves in a desirable investment opportunity in age of foreign football investment. The club was taken over by the Abu Dhabi United Group led by Sheikh Mansour in 2008, without the stadium, a takeover would have been far less certain.
The Games were a formative moment for Manchester and Britain with then-IOC president Jacques Rogge viewing the games as an important litmus test as to whether Britain could host the Summer Olympics. The success of the Games encouraged and inspired the future London bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics with London going on to win the bid on 6 July 2005 and the games were staged seven years later; the venues were eclectic ranging from high-tech architecture in the City of Manchester Stadium to the 19th-century Grade II* listed Manchester Central hall. The Games' main venue was the City of Manchester Stadium, which hosted all athletics events, the rugby sevens and the opening and closing ceremonies; the stadium was a downscaled version of that proposed during Manchester's bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics. Construction started in January 2000, was completed shortly before the Games; the cost was £110 million, £77 million of, provided by Sport England, with the remainder funded by Manchester City Council.
For the Commonwealth Games the stadium featured a single lower tier running around three sides of the athletics track, second tiers to the two sides, with an open-air temporary stand at one end, giving an overall capacity of 41,000. The stadium formed the centrepiece of an area known as Sportcity. Other venues in Sportcity include the Manchester Velodrome, which hosted cycling, the £3.5m National Squash Centre, built for the Games. Swimming and diving events took place at Manchester Aquatics Centre, another purpose-built venue, the only one in the United Kingdom with two 50 m pools; the Manchester Arena built in 1994, at the time was the largest arena in Europe and hosted netball and boxing. The shooting events were held at Bisley; the NSC saw major redevelopment of all its ranges in order to host the fullbore rifle, smallbore rifle and clay target events. The Games Village is located on 30 acres of land, which operates as the Fallowfield Campus within the University of Manchester during the games.
The 2002 Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay, the continuation of a tradition that started with the 1958 Games, consisted of the relay of an electronic baton, containing a personal message from Elizabeth II across 23 Commonwealth nations. The relay culminated in the arrival of the baton at the City of Manchester Stadium, opening the Games; the speech was removed electronically from the baton, read by Her Majesty to open the Games. The 2002 Baton itself was designed by a company called IDEO, was constructed of machined aluminium with the handle plated for conductivity, it weighed 1.69 kg, reached over 710 mm, was 42.5 mm to 85 mm in diameter. The Queen's message itself was held in an aluminium capsule inserted into the top of the Baton. On either side of the Baton were two sterling silver coins, designed by Mappin and Webb, which celebrated the City of Manchester as host of the XVII Commonwealth Games; the Baton was equipped with sensors that detected and monitored the Runner's pulse rate. This information was conveyed to a series of light-emitting diodes, via a light behaviour module.
The lens transformed the LEDs into a shaft of bright blue pulsating light which synchronised with each new Runner. The hearts of the Runner and the Baton beat as one until it was passed on, symbolising the journey of humanity and the essence of life; the Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay passed through ove
1998 European Athletics Indoor Championships
The 25th European Athletics Indoor Championships were held from Friday, 27 February to Sunday, 1 March 1998 at the Palace of Luis Puig, Spain. 1998 in athletics Results - Athletix
West Buckland School
West Buckland School is an English independent school located on the outskirts of the village of West Buckland on the edge of Exmoor 10 miles east of Barnstaple, Devon. It comprises a senior school, preparatory school, a nursery, it is the highest performing school in North Devon and the highest performing co-ed day and boarding school in the South West. It has been shortlisted for'Boarding School of the Year' in the TES Independent School Awards 2019, it facilitates 600 pupils of whom around 120 board. The day pupils and flexible boarders are drawn from a wide area of North Devon and many use the large school bussing operation in collaboration with local coach operators. West Buckland School was founded as the Devon County School in 1858 by Rev. J. L. Brereton to provide a public school education for sons of the middle class; the foundation stone of the Gothic-style buildings was laid in October 1860 by Earl Fortescue, who had provided land and other support for the school. Under the first headmaster, J.
H. Thompson, numbers rose to 150 by 1876 and declined as a consequence of agricultural depression and competition from other schools. In the winter of 1912/13 the school was renamed West Buckland School. During the 1950s it received increasing support from the Devon County Educational authority and became a direct grant school. In 1976, when direct grants were abolished, it became a independent school. West Buckland leads the North Devon schools examination league table; the school is expanding in facilities. 2008 saw the completion of a sports hall behind the nineteenth century complex. In April 2010 the 150 Building opened, a combination of buildings containing modern art and technology workshops, a theatre which replaced an old theatre together with assembly space for the prep school, a quadrangle. In Autumn 2015 the'Michael Morpurgo' library opened. In the building there is the head of sixth form office, an English and economics classroom, the school library and work area with computers for pupils.
Opened was Parkers, a sixth form boarding house for boys and girls, each with their own room with en suite facilities. Downstairs features a kitchen for use of day pupils as well; the four House system of West Buckland School are: Brereton Courtenay Fortescue Grenville Numerous inter-house competitions are held throughout the school year in music and sport, culminating in Sports' Day on the final day of the summer term. Points are awarded depending on how well houses do in each competition and whichever house has amassed the largest number of points after Sports' Day wins the coveted Southcomb Shield. An extract from “West Buckland School 1858–1958; the First Hundred Years. A Review of a Century recorded by Friends and Pupils.” On July 31, 1917, there fell in action, E. H. Southcomb a Lieutenant in the Manchester Regiment, he was for many years a cheerful member of the Brereton House, no great athlete but always ready to play his part to the best of his ability. On leaving West Buckland he went, by his father’s wish, to Shrewsbury for two years, entered a bank, where he remained till war broke out.
On his death it was found that he had left a legacy to the Sports Fund of his first school, somewhat late it has at last been decided to perpetuate his memory by a Shield which will be held by the House which obtains the chief athletic cups in the School year, which starts in September. For this purpose, each of the Challenge Cups carries a definite mark; the allocation of marks for each cup was not an easy matter and now the values may require re-adjustment in 1924. The Headmaster formed a committee consisting of Messrs. Corless and Walton, the list as issued by them will hold good at any rate till July, 1924; the winning House will hold the shield, which will be hung over their dining tables, will take the right of the line on ceremonial parades. The House system provides a continuity of pastoral care throughout a pupil’s school career, as well as creating opportunities for leadership qualities to be demonstrated. There are four main boarding houses at West Buckland: Bamfylde – situated on the preparatory school site, catering for girls aged 11 to 16.
Boyer House – for boys aged 11 to 16 Parkers – for sixth form boys and girls aged 16 to 18Each of the boarding houses has its own houseparent. Annual Day Fees: £7,140 – £13,260, Annual Boarding Fees: £21,120 – £24,600 Prefect duties, which include care of younger students, are awarded to senior pupils within each house; the Head and Deputy Head of School are selected from the Senior Prefects. The prefect team consists of around 20 members of the upper sixth, they are split into each having responsibility for one day of the working week. There are dedicated boarding prefects. Aside from being Senior Prefects, sixth form members of each house have the opportunity to be Link Prefects; this is. They will visit the group once a week on a Thursday. West Buckland's preparatory school, has around 120 pupils and provides an independent, day education for 4 to 11 year olds. There is a nursery on site; the Prep School occupies its own space on the school's 90-acre, rural campus, shares some of the sporting and art facilities with the Senior School.
The headmaster of the Prep School is Mr Nick Robinson. The Old West Buckland Association provides regular newsletters to former pupils, it als
Van Mildert College, Durham
Van Mildert College is a college of Durham University in England. Founded in 1965, it takes its name from William Van Mildert, Prince-Bishop of Durham from 1826 to 1836 and a leading figure in the University's 1832 foundation. An all-male college, it became the first Durham college to become co-educational in 1972 with the admission of female undergraduates; the college is centred on a small lake. The college's accommodation and communal facilities are modern and spacious, includes an adjacent conference centre, used by external organisations. Van Mildert College was established in 1965 following recommendations of the Robbins Report looking into the future of higher education in the UK. In 1963, the University of Newcastle was established as a separate entity from the University of Durham, meaning new colleges were required to meet the new university places that the Government wished to create; as a result, the university planned to establish three new colleges on Elvet Hill and these went on to be named Collingwood College, Trevelyan College and Van Mildert College.
Women postgraduate students were first admitted in 1967. Female undergraduates were first admitted to the college in 1972, making it the first Durham college to become co-educational; the accommodation blocks are named Tyne, Middleton, Wear and Deerness, the latter two of which are en suite. These are named after towns in the local area, they are all situated within the college grounds and the university is in the process of refurbishing each of the buildings in turn. In total the College can provide 550 single rooms for its members; the college's Dining Hall is the largest student dining hall in the UK. It measures 30.8m by 13.2m and can seat 350 members at formal dinners. The dining hall is used for a variety of functions over the academic year and plays a central role in the lives of livers in as it is where college meals and formals are held; the hall acts as a venue for drama productions, has use as a sports hall and in 2010 was one of the main locations for the Inter-Varsity Folk Dance Festival.
The portrait of William Van Mildert, whom the college is named after, hangs at one end of Van Mildert dining hall, along with portraits of the former Principals and Masters of the college. The College library is well equipped with over 12,000 books & journals and along with St John's College Archives is the only other College library in Durham to be listed in The National Archives. Opposite the library is the newly refurbished Kent Room, where the library's fiction collection is kept; the library is run by a part-time librarian and the library committee of the JCR, which provides much of the funding to maintain the library. The library has undergone a process of automating its catalogue of books. Van Mildert has a refurbished bar, extensively used by members of the college, as well as by students from other colleges, it is generally used for holding JCR meetings during term time. In recent years, the college bar has won the'University Bar' category of the Best Bar None awards for Durham City for the 2008–09 and 2010–11 academic years.
Most Van Mildert Bar won the'Gold' category for the Best Bar None Awards for the year 2016-17. It is joint managed by Callum Miller and Patrick Schmidt; the Junior Common Room, or JCR lounge, is used for holding many of the social events that are organised by the JCR. For example, entertainment after formal dinners, band nights and amateur theatre productions. Both rooms have large plasma screen TVs which are used to show major sporting fixtures during the academic term; the College has a host of other social facilities, including a music/recording suite with drums, grand piano and recording equipment. The College has a gym, computer room, tennis court and a full-size snooker table; the college arms are blazoned as "Gules two Scythe blades in saltire in chief the Cross of St Cuthbert Argent And for the Crest On a Wreath of the Colours in front of a Castle of three Towers Sable a silver penannular brooch proper the ends charged with Gilded Crosses of St Cuthbert." The scythes and the red field are taken from Bishop Van Mildert's episcopal arms.
The college uses only the shield of its arms for most purposes. All members of college are members of a common room. Undergraduates are members of the Junior Common Room; the JCR elects an Executive Committee which ensures the successful running of the JCR, in conjunction with the College Officers. The governance procedure of the JCR is stated in the constitution, which can only be amended by resolution of the JCR members during general meetings. Undergraduates constitute the majority of the student population of the college, 972 students in 2012/13. Postgraduate students are members of the Middle Common Room which hosts its own events and benefits from a refurbished Common Room and separate accommodation in Deerness block. All rooms in this block are en-suite and have access to kitchen facilities due to the fact that postgraduate students are resident in college outside of normal term times. Postgraduate members of the college are entitled to make use of all the JCR facilities available. Administrative and other members of college are members of the Senior Common Room.
The college has a number of groups involved in music and the performing