Barrier islands are coastal landforms and a type of dune system that are exceptionally flat or lumpy areas of sand that form by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast. They occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen, they are subject to change during storms and other action, but absorb energy and protect the coastlines and create areas of protected waters where wetlands may flourish. A barrier chain may extend uninterrupted for over a hundred kilometers, excepting the tidal inlets that separate the islands, the longest and widest being Padre Island of Texas; the length and width of barriers and overall morphology of barrier coasts are related to parameters including tidal range, wave energy, sediment supply, sea-level trends, basement controls. The amount of vegetation on the barrier has a large impact on the height and evolution of the island. Chains of barrier islands can be found along 13-15% of the world's coastlines, they display different settings, suggesting that they can form and be maintained in a variety of environmental settings.
Numerous theories have been given to explain their formation. Lower shorefaceThe shoreface is the part of the barrier where the ocean meets the shore of the island; the barrier island body itself separates the shoreface from the backshore and lagoon/tidal flat area. Characteristics common to the lower shoreface are fine sands with mud and silt. Further out into the ocean the sediment becomes finer; the effect from the waves at this point is weak because of the depth. Bioturbation is common and many fossils can be found here. Middle shorefaceThe; the middle shoreface is influenced by wave action because of its depth. Closer to shore the grain size will be medium size sands with shell pieces common. Since wave action is heavier, bioturbation is not likely. Upper shorefaceThe upper shore face is affected by wave action; this results in development of herringbone sedimentary structures because of the constant differing flow of waves. Grain size is larger sands. ForeshoreThe foreshore is the area on land between low tide.
Like the upper shoreface, it is affected by wave action. Cross bedding and lamination are present and coarser sands are present because of the high energy present by the crashing of the waves; the sand is very well sorted. BackshoreThe backshore is always above the highest water level point; the berm is found here which marks the boundary between the foreshore and backshore. Wind is the important factor here, not water. During strong storms high waves and wind can erode sediment from the backshore. DunesThe dunes are typical of a barrier island, located at the top of the backshore. Dunes are made by the wind. See Coastal Dunes for more information; the dunes will display characteristics of typical aeolian wind blown dunes. The difference here is that dunes on a barrier island contain coastal vegetation roots and marine bioturbation. Lagoon and tidal flatsThe lagoon and tidal flat area is located behind the backshore area. Here the water is still and this allows for fine silts and mud to settle out.
Lagoons can become host to an anaerobic environment. This will allow high amounts of organic rich mud to form. Vegetation is common. Moreton Bay, on the east coast of Australia and directly east of Brisbane, is sheltered from the Pacific Ocean by a chain of large barrier islands. Running north to south they are Bribie Island, Moreton Island, North Stradbroke Island and South Stradbroke Island. North Stradbroke Island is the second largest sand island in the world and Moreton Island is the third largest. Fraser Island, another barrier island lying 200 km north of Moreton Bay on the same coastline, is the largest sand island in the world, they are seen most prominently on the United States' East Coast and Gulf Coast, where every state, stretching from Maine to Florida and Florida to Texas on each coast has at least part of a barrier island, stretching to more than twenty-five for Florida. However, this chain is international, it ends in Mexico. No barrier islands are found on the Pacific coast of the United States due to the rocky shore and short continental shelf, but barrier peninsulas can be found.
Barrier islands can be seen on Alaska's Arctic coast. Barrier Islands can be found in Maritime Canada, other places along the coast. A good example is found at Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick, where Portage Island as well as Fox Island and Hay Island protect the inner bay from storms in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Mexico's Gulf Coast has numerous barrier islands and barrier Peninsulas. Barrier islands are more prevalent in the north of both of New Zealand's main islands. Notable barrier islands in New Zealand include Matakana Island, which guards the entrance to Tauranga Harbour, Rabbit Island, at the southern end of Tasman Bay. See Nelson Harbour's Boulder Bank, below. Barrier islands can be observed in the Baltic Sea and are a distinct feature of the Wadden Islands, which stretch from the Netherlands to Denmark; the Lido di Venezia is a notable barrier island which has for centuries protected the city of Venice in Italy. Barrier Islands can be observed except Antarctica. Migration and overwashWater levels may be higher than the island during storm events.
This situation can lead to overwash, which brings sand from the front of the island to the top and/or landward side of the island. This process leads to the migration of the barrier island. Critical width conceptBarrier islands are formed to h
Ocean Parkway (Long Island)
The Ocean Parkway is a 15.59-mile parkway that traverses Jones Beach Island between Jones Beach State Park and Captree State Park on Long Island, New York, in the United States. It begins at the southern terminus of the Meadowbrook State Parkway and heads east across Jones Beach Island, intersecting the south end of the Wantagh State Parkway before ending just past the southern terminus of the Robert Moses Causeway; the highway is designated an unsigned reference route. The Ocean Parkway begins at a cloverleaf interchange with the southern terminus of the Meadowbrook State Parkway and the Bay Parkway in Jones Beach State Park. Proceeding eastward, the Ocean Parkway parallels the Bay Parkway through Jones Beach State Park, running along the beachfront and past multiple recreational facilities. Just after a connection to the Bay Parkway, the four-lane parkway passes a parking lot for Jones Beach, along with a turnoff into a secondary lot for the bathhouse and the Jones Beach Theatre. In front of that turnoff, the westbound lanes pass two ramps that lead to a large parking lot that spans the gap between the Ocean and Bay parkways.
After the parking lot, the Ocean Parkway enters a roundabout around the Jones Beach Water Tower, marking the southern terminus of the Wantagh State Parkway. After the Wantagh, the Ocean Parkway continues east along the beachfront, passing another large parking lot on the westbound lanes and access to the Jones Beach Pitch and Putt on the eastbound lanes; the four-lane parkway begins to run between the beachfront and the shore for Zachs Bay, a section of the Great South Bay. Passing multiple u-turn ramps between directions, the parkway soon leaves Jones Beach State Park and enters a piece of the town of Oyster Bay. Passing south of Guggenheim Pond, the Ocean continues east as the four-lane arterial it was in the park, soon entering Tobay Beach Park, where the median expands for a short distance. In the center of the park, the parkway reaches the parking lots on the westbound lanes and the Tobay Beach bathhouse on the eastbound lanes. A cross under is provided under the lanes of the Ocean for people to safely cross the parkway.
A short distance from the bathhouse, the Ocean Parkway leaves Tobay Beach Park and enters the Suffolk County town of Babylon. Entering the hamlet of West Gilgo Beach, the parkway runs alongside many beachfront residences, with an intersection from the westbound lanes to the community. Soon entering Gilgo Beach, the Ocean passes several more bayside residences along the Great South Bay; the parkway expands to six lanes as it passes the access to Gilgo Beach and the cross under between the parking lot and the beach. Near the cross under, the parking lot is accessed via a tolled entrance from the westbound lanes; as the Ocean Parkway leaves Gilgo Beach, the six-lane parkway crosses into Gilgo State Park. Through Gilgo State Park, the Ocean Parkway develops a grassy median between the six lanes. Passing another section of the Great South Bay, the parkway soon leaves the park, where the median returns thins out and access is provided to another beach and recreational facilities as the road passes the Cedar Beach Golf Course.
Entering another section of Gilgo State Park, the Ocean Parkway evens out eastward before leaving the park for the hamlet of Oak Beach. Crossing north of several oceanside residences, the parkway soon crosses between the Atlantic Ocean and Oak Island as it reaches the center of the hamlet. Before paralleling Captree Island, the parkway expands with a wider median once again, entering Captree State Park. A short distance into the park, the Ocean Parkway enters a cloverleaf interchange with the Robert Moses Causeway. After the causeway, the Ocean Parkway reduces to four lanes as it crosses into the town of Islip, reaching the tollbooths that mark the eastern terminus of the Ocean. On the other side of the tollbooths, the right-of-way enters another roundabout and connects to another beach and the local marina in Captree State Park. There had been plans to extend the parkway to nearby Fire Island, two attempts were made to authorize construction. However, residents resisted the plan: the first time for economic reasons, the second for environmental reasons.
Although in 1964, Robert Moses Causeway was extended from its original terminus on Captree Island to Fire Island leading to the potential extension of Ocean Parkway, park legislation in the 1960s blocked further plans to extend the parkway. In December 2010, Suffolk County Police found four decomposed bodies along the westbound shoulder of Ocean Parkway near Oak Beach while searching for Shannan Gilbert, a missing escort from New Jersey last seen in the area with a client on May 1, 2010. However, the remains were identified as other missing women who advertised prostitution services on Craigslist. In late March and early April 2011, four more sets of human remains were found by police during additional searches along the parkway. Police have not identified the bodies. An investigation is ongoing to determine; the eastbound direction of the parkway was damaged by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. The westbound side of the road is expected to be reconfigured into a two-lane, two-way highway until the eastbound lanes are repaired.
All exits are unnumbered. New York Roads portal Ocean Parkway at Alps' Roads Ocean Parkway Article from NYCROADS Web Site Jones Beach State Park Captree State Park Ocean Parkway
A causeway is a track, road or railway on top of an embankment across "a low, or wet place, or piece of water". It can be constructed of earth, wood, or concrete. One of the earliest known wooden causeways is the Sweet Track in the Somerset Levels, that dates from the Neolithic age. Timber causeways may be described as both boardwalks and bridges; when first used, the word appeared in a form such as "causey way" making clear its derivation from the earlier form "causey". This word seems to have come from the same source by two different routes, it derives from the Latin for heel and most comes from the trampling technique to consolidate earthworks. The construction of a causeway utilised earth, trodden upon to compact and harden it as much as possible, one layer at a time by slaves or flocks of sheep. Today, this work is done by machines; the same technique would have been used for road embankments, raised river banks, sea banks and fortification earthworks. The second derivation route is the hard, trodden surface of a path.
The name by this route came to be applied to a firmly-surfaced road. It is now little-used except in dialect and in the names of roads which were notable for their solidly-made surface; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica states "causey, a mound or dam, derived, through the Norman-French caucie, from the late Latin via calciata, a road stamped firm with the feet."The word is comparable in both meanings with the French chaussée, from a form of which it reached English by way of Norman French. The French adjective, chaussée, carries the meaning of having been given a hardened surface, is used to mean either paved or shod; as a noun chaussée is used on the one hand for a metalled carriageway, on the other for an embankment with or without a road. Other languages have a noun with similar dual meaning. In Welsh, it is sarn; the Welsh is relevant here, as it has a verb, meaning to trample. The trampling and ramming technique for consolidating earthworks was used in fortifications and there is a comparable, outmoded form of wall construction technique, used in such work and known as pisé, a word derived not from trampling but from ramming or tamping.
The Welsh word'cawsai' translates directly to the English word'causeway'. A transport corridor, carried instead on a series of arches approaching a bridge, is a viaduct; the distinction between the terms causeway and viaduct becomes blurred when flood-relief culverts are incorporated, though a causeway refers to a roadway supported by earth or stone, while a bridge supports a roadway between piers. Some low causeways across shore waters become inaccessible; the Aztec city-state of Tenochtitlan had causeways supporting aqueducts. One of the oldest engineered roads yet discovered is the Sweet Track in England. Built in 3807 or 3806 BC, the track was a walkway consisting of planks of oak laid end-to-end, supported by crossed pegs of ash and lime, driven into the underlying peat; the modern embankment may be constructed within a cofferdam: two parallel steel sheet pile or concrete retaining walls, anchored to each other with steel cables or rods. This construction may serve as a dyke that keeps two bodies of water apart, such as bodies with a different water level on each side, or with salt water on one side and fresh water on the other.
This may be the primary purpose of a structure, the road providing a hardened crest for the dike, slowing erosion in the event of an overflow. It provides access for maintenance as well as a public service. Notable causeways include those that connect Singapore and Malaysia and Saudi Arabia and Venice to the mainland, all of which carry roadways and railways. In the Netherlands there are a number of prominent dikes which double as causeways, including the Afsluitdijk and Markerwaarddijk. In Louisiana, two long bridges, called the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, stretch across Lake Pontchartrain for 38 km, making them the world's longest bridges, they are the oldest causeways on the Gulf Coast that have never been put out of commission for an extended period of time following a Hurricane. In the Republic of Panama a causeway connects the islands of Perico and Naos to Panama City on the mainland, it serves as a breakwater for ships entering the Panama Canal. Causeways are common in Florida, where low bridges may connect several man-made islands with a much higher bridge in the middle so that taller boats may pass underneath safely.
Causeways are most used to connect the barrier islands with the mainland. The Churchill Barriers in Orkney are of the most notable sets of causeways in Europe. Constructed in waters up to 18 metres deep, the four barriers link five islands on the eastern side of the natural harbour at Scapa Flow, they were built during World War II as military defences for the harbour, on the orders of Winston Churchill. The Estrada do Istmo connecting the islands of Taipa and Coloane in Macau was built as a causeway; the sea on both sides of the causeway became shallower as a result of silting, mangroves began to conquer the area. Land reclamation took place on both sides of the road and the area has subsequently been named Cotai and b
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assembling of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is used in decorative art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae; some floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, called "pebble mosaics". Mosaics have a long history, starting in Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium BC. Pebble mosaics were made in Tiryns in Mycenean Greece. Early Christian basilicas from the 4th century onwards were decorated with ceiling mosaics. Mosaic art flourished in the Byzantine Empire from the 6th to the 15th centuries. Mosaic fell out of fashion in the Renaissance, though artists like Raphael continued to practise the old technique. Roman and Byzantine influence led Jewish artists to decorate 5th and 6th century synagogues in the Middle East with floor mosaics. Mosaic was used on religious buildings and palaces in early Islamic art, including Islam's first great religious building, the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus.
Mosaic went out of fashion in the Islamic world after the 8th century. Modern mosaics are made by professional artists, street artists, as a popular craft. Many materials other than traditional stone and ceramic tesserae may be employed, including shells and beads; the earliest known examples of mosaics made of different materials were found at a temple building in Abra and are dated to the second half of 3rd millennium BC. They consist of pieces of colored stones and ivory. Excavations at Susa and Chogha Zanbil show evidence of the first glazed tiles, dating from around 1500 BC. However, mosaic patterns were not used until the times of Roman influence. Bronze age pebble mosaics have been found at Tiryns. Mythological subjects, or scenes of hunting or other pursuits of the wealthy, were popular as the centrepieces of a larger geometric design, with emphasized borders. Pliny the Elder mentions the artist Sosus of Pergamon by name, describing his mosaics of the food left on a floor after a feast and of a group of doves drinking from a bowl.
Both of these themes were copied. Greek figural mosaics could have been copied or adapted paintings, a far more prestigious artform, the style was enthusiastically adopted by the Romans so that large floor mosaics enriched the floors of Hellenistic villas and Roman dwellings from Britain to Dura-Europos. Most recorded names of Roman mosaic workers are Greek, suggesting they dominated high quality work across the empire. Splendid mosaic floors are found in Roman villas across North Africa, in places such as Carthage, can still be seen in the extensive collection in Bardo Museum in Tunis, Tunisia. There were two main techniques in Greco-Roman mosaic: opus vermiculatum used tiny tesserae cubes of 4 millimeters or less, was produced in workshops in small panels which were transported to the site glued to some temporary support; the tiny tesserae allowed fine detail, an approach to the illusionism of painting. Small panels called emblemata were inserted into walls or as the highlights of larger floor-mosaics in coarser work.
The normal technique was opus tessellatum, using larger tesserae, laid on site. There was a distinct native Italian style using black on a white background, no doubt cheaper than coloured work. In Rome and his architects used mosaics to cover some surfaces of walls and ceilings in the Domus Aurea, built 64 AD, wall mosaics are found at Pompeii and neighbouring sites; however it seems that it was not until the Christian era that figural wall mosaics became a major form of artistic expression. The Roman church of Santa Costanza, which served as a mausoleum for one or more of the Imperial family, has both religious mosaic and decorative secular ceiling mosaics on a round vault, which represent the style of contemporary palace decoration; the mosaics of the Villa Romana del Casale near Piazza Armerina in Sicily are the largest collection of late Roman mosaics in situ in the world, are protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The large villa rustica, owned by Emperor Maximian, was built in the early 4th century.
The mosaics were covered and protected for 700 years by a landslide that occurred in the 12th Century. The most important pieces are the Circus Scene, the 64m long Great Hunting Scene, the Little Hunt, the Labours of Hercules and the famous Bikini Girls, showing women undertaking a range of sporting activities in garments that resemble 20th Century bikinis; the peristyle, the imperial apartments and the thermae were decorated with ornamental and mythological mosaics. Other important examples of Roman mosaic art in Sicily were unearthed on the Piazza Vittoria in Palermo where two houses were discovered; the most important scenes there depicted are an Orpheus mosaic, Alexander the Great's Hunt and the Four Seasons. In 1913 the Zliten mosaic, a Roman mosaic famous for its many scenes from gladiatorial contests and everyday life, was discovered in the Libyan town of Zliten. In 2000 archaeologists working
St Mark's Campanile
St Mark's Campanile is the bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, located in the Piazza San Marco. It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the city; the tower is 98.6 metres tall, stands alone in a corner of St Mark's Square, near the front of the basilica. It has a simple form, the bulk of, a fluted brick square shaft, 12 metres wide on each side and 50 metres tall, above, a loggia surrounding the belfry, housing five bells; the belfry is topped by a cube, alternate faces of which show the Lion of St. Mark and the female representation of Venice; the tower is capped by a pyramidal spire, at the top of which sits a golden weathervane in the form of the archangel Gabriel. The campanile reached its present form in 1514; the current tower was reconstructed in its present form in 1912 after the collapse of 1902. The initial 9th-century construction, initiated during the reign of Pietro Tribuno and built on Roman foundations, was used as a watch tower or lighthouse for the dock, which occupied a substantial part of the area, now the Piazzetta.
Construction was finished during the reign of Domenico Morosini. Adjoining the base of the campanile is the loggetta built by Sansovino, completed in 1549 and rebuilt in 1912 after it had been destroyed by the fall of the campanile. One of the models for the tower was the St. Mercuriale's Campanile, in Forlì; the campanile suffered damage by lightning on many occasions. It was damaged in 1388, set on fire and destroyed in 1417 and damaged by a fire in 1489 that destroyed the wooden spire; the campanile assumed its definitive shape in the sixteenth century thanks to the restorations made to repair further damage caused by the earthquake of March 1511. These works, initiated by the architect Giorgio Spavento executed under the direction of Bartolomeo Bon of Bergamo, added the belfry, realized in marble; the work was completed on 6 July 1513, with the placement of the gilded wooden statue of the Archangel Gabriel in the course of a ceremony recorded by Marin Sanudo. In the following centuries numerous other interventions were made to repair the damage from fires caused by lightning.
It was damaged in 1548 and 1565. In 1653, Baldassarre Longhena took up the restorations; the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1658. More work was done after a fire caused by a lightning strike on 13 April 1745, which caused some of the masonry to crack, killed several people as a result of falling stonework; the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1761 and 1762. In 1776 it was equipped with a lightning rod. In 1820, the statue of the angel was replaced with a new one by Luigi Zandomeneghi. In July 1902, the north wall of the tower began to show signs of a dangerous crack that in the following days continued to grow. On Monday, 14 July, around 9:45 am, the campanile collapsed also demolishing the loggetta. Only the caretaker's cat was killed; because of the campanile's position, the resulting damage was limited. Apart from the loggetta, only a corner of the Biblioteca Marciana was destroyed; the pietra del bando, a large porphyry column from which laws used to be read, protected the basilica itself.
The same evening, the communal council approved over 500,000 Lire for the reconstruction of the campanile. It was decided to rebuild the tower as it was, with some internal reinforcement to prevent future collapse, plus installing an elevator. Royal Privy Councillor and scaffolding specialist Georg Leib of Munich was the first to donate his scaffolding to rebuild St. Mark's Campanile, on 22 July 1902. Work lasted until 6 March 1912; the work was carried out by the construction firm of G. A. Porcheddu; the new campanile was inaugurated on 25 April 1912, on the occasion of Saint Mark's feast day 1000 years after the foundations of the original building had been laid. The original Campanile inspired the designs of other towers worldwide in the areas belonging to the former Republic of Venice. Identical, albeit smaller, replicas of the campanile exist in the Slovenian town of Piran and in the Croatian town of Rovinj. Other replicas include the clock tower at King Street Station in Seattle; the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, a landmark skyscraper located at One Madison Avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, US, was designed by the architectural firm of Napoleon LeBrun & Sons, who based the external form and shape of the skyscraper on this Campanile.
Replicas of the current tower sit on the complex of The Venetian, the Venice-themed resort on the Las Vegas Strip, its sister resort The Venetian Macao, in the Italy Pavilion at Epcot, a theme park at Walt Disney World in Lake Buena Vista, in the nearly empty New South China Mall in Dongguan, China. There is a mill chimney in Darwen, Lancashire, modelled on the Campanile in St. Mark's Square, called India Mill. Another one is in the Venice Grand Canal in Taugig City; the Venetian Towers in Barcelona, are modelled on the Campanile. The Custom House Tower in Boston, MA is modelled on the Campanile; the Italianate-style tower at Jones Beach S
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Rosebud Yellow Robe
Rosebud Yellow Robe was a Native American folklorist and author. Rosebud was influenced by her father Chauncey Yellow Robe, used storytelling and books to introduce generations of children to Native American folklore and culture. Rosebud was a public celebrity to thousands of children who visited the Indian Village at Jones Beach, New York, every summer from 1930 to 1950, known for her beauty and intelligence. From the late 1930s through the 1950s, Yellow Robe was a broadcast celebrity with the CBS Broadcast Center in New York City and appeared as a regular on NBC children's programs. In years, Rosebud continued her storytelling and lectures at the American Museum of Natural History and the Donnell Library of New York. In 1994, Yellow Robe's career as an educator was honored in a performance of "Rosebud's Song" by the National Dance Institute at New York City's Madison Square Garden. Rosebud Yellow Robe was born on February 26, 1907, in Rapid City, South Dakota, the eldest of three daughters of Chauncey Yellow Robe and Lillian Belle Sprenger.
Rosebud was named after the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota. Chauncey Yellow Robe was a well known educator and Native American activist. In 1905, Yellow Robe married Lillian Belle Sprenger, of Swiss-German ancestry from Tacoma, Washington. Lillian was a volunteer nurse at the Rapid City Indian School. "Lillie" was born in Minnesota in 1885 and moved with her family to Tacoma, where she was reared and went to school. Her family had emigrated to the U. S. from the German-speaking city of Neftenbach, Switzerland, in 1854. The Rapid City Indian School was created in 1898 for Indian children from the Northern plains, including those from the Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho and Flathead tribes, it was one of the off-reservation Indian Boarding Schools established by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and was sometimes called "School of the Hills." It closed its doors as a school in 1933 and became a sanatorium for the treatment of tuberculosis for the Sioux. Her parent's marriage was an inspiration for Rosebud's ability to cross cultural bridges.
Chauncey taught her and her sisters Chauncina and Evelyn in Lakota tradition. On occasion, elderly Indians would visit the grounds of the Indian School and tell stories in the Lakota language. Chauncey would have Rosebud listen though she could not understand a word, he would retell the stories in English. Chauncey chose to send his daughters to the Rapid City public schools for their academic orientation, instead of the Indian School which focused on vocational courses in agriculture and domestic arts. Rosebud enjoyed the Indian School's library and programs. Chauncey spent many hours with his children telling the tales he was told by his grandmother and grandfather. Rosebud Yellow Robe was one of the first Native American students at the University of South Dakota in Vermillion, South Dakota. Rosebud attended the university from 1925 to 1927, took part in productions and presentations about Native American dances. On April 6, 1927, Rosebud’s mother Lillie died at the age of forty-two, in Chauncey's words, "in the prime of her life and beautiful womanhood."
Rosebud was prompted her to take over the care of her two younger sisters. On August 4, 1927, U. S. President Calvin Coolidge and his wife visited the Black Hills of South Dakota. During the visit, Coolidge was adopted as an honorary member of the Sioux tribe in recognition of his support for the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, granting full U. S. citizenship to all American Indians and permitting them to retain tribal land and cultural rights. The ceremony was presided over by Rosebud. Chauncey conferred upon President Coolidge the name "Leading Eagle", while Rosebud placed a handmade Lakota warbonnet on the President's head. At the time, Rosebud was a student at the University of South Dakota. Rosebud's image was reported by the press and she became an instant national celebrity. "Rosebud's grace and beauty were not lost on the press reporters, who commented on the'beautiful Indian maiden'." Thereafter, she was sought after by theatrical agents. In 1928, Cecil B. DeMille, tried to persuade her to take the title role in his movie, but she declined.
Rosebud's friends said she was a dead ringer for silent screen star Dolores Del Rio, who got the role of the heroine in the "Indian love lyric." The event and publicity fueled Chauncey's interest in politics. After the national publicity of President Coolidge's adoption, Yellow Robe was drawn to New York City at the age of 20 to pursue a theatrical career. Rosebud developed a dance act and performed in American Indian costume on stages in theaters and hotels, she was popular, many recognized her from the newsreel and newspaper coverage. Influenced by her father Chauncey Yellow Robe, Rosebud deplored inaccurate portrayals and images offered by radio shows and silent films. Yellow Robe believed most Anglos were ignorant of what Indians were capable of achieving, used storytelling and books to introduce generations of children to Native American folklore and culture. Rosebud lived in New York for sixty-five years. In 1927, Yellow Robe caught the attention of newspaper reporter and journalist Arthur Seymour while covering the President Coolidge's visit to the Black Hills.
Seymour was a sophisticated New Yorker, 25 years older than Rosebud. He and Yellow Robe courted, they married in 1929 and settled in New York City. Seymour and Rosebud had a daughter that same year whom they named Tahcawin de Cinq-Mars Moy (referred to as "