Jordan the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and the east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and Israel and the Palestinian West Bank to the west; the Dead Sea is located along its western borders and the country has a 26-kilometre coastline on the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia and Europe; the capital, Amman, is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon and Edom. Rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire. After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France; the Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the Hashemite Emir, Abdullah I, the emirate became a British protectorate.
In 1946, Jordan became an independent state known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan, but was renamed in 1949 to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in 1967. Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in 1988, became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in 1994. Jordan is the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation; the sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers. Jordan is a small, semi-arid landlocked country with an area of 89,342 km2 and a population numbering 10 million, making it the 11th-most populous Arab country. Sunni Islam, practiced by around 95% of the population, is the dominant religion in Jordan and coexists with an indigenous Christian minority. Jordan has been referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region, it has been unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in 2010.
From as early as 1948, Jordan has accepted refugees from multiple neighbouring countries in conflict. An estimated 2.1 million Palestinian and 1.4 million Syrian refugees are present in Jordan as of a 2015 census. The kingdom is a refuge to thousands of Iraqi Christians fleeing persecution by ISIL. While Jordan continues to accept refugees, the recent large influx from Syria placed substantial strain on national resources and infrastructure. Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy; the Jordanian economy, one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The country is a major tourist destination attracting medical tourism due to its well developed health sector. Nonetheless, a lack of natural resources, large flow of refugees and regional turmoil have hampered economic growth. Jordan takes its name from the Jordan River. While several theories for the origin of the river's name have been proposed, it is most plausible that it derives from the Semitic word Yarad, meaning "the descender", reflecting the river's declivity.
Much of the area that makes up modern Jordan was called Transjordan, meaning "across the Jordan", used to denote the lands east of the river. The Old Testament refers to the area as "the other side of the Jordan". Early Arab chronicles referred to the river as corresponding to the Semitic Yarden. Jund Al-Urdunn was a military district around the river in the early Islamic era. During the Crusades in the beginning of the second millennium, a lordship was established in the area under the name of Oultrejordain; the oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least 200,000 years. Jordan is rich in Paleolithic remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged. Past lakeshore environments attracted different hominids, several remains of tools have been found from this period; the world's oldest evidence of bread-making was found in a 14,500 years old Natufian site in Jordan's northeastern desert. The transition from hunter-gatherer to establishing populous agricultural villages occurred during the Neolithic period.'Ain Ghazal, one such village located in today's eastern Amman, is one of the largest known prehistoric settlements in the Near East.
Dozens of plaster statues of the human form dating to 7250 BC or earlier were uncovered there and they are among the oldest found. Other than the usual Chalcolithic villages such as Tulaylet Ghassul in the Jordan Valley, a series of circular stone enclosures in the eastern basalt desert−whose purpose remains uncertain–have baffled archaeologists. Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age. Wadi Feynan became a regional center for copper extraction, exploited on a large-scale to produce bronze. Trade and movement of people in the Middle East peaked and refining civilizations. Villages in Transjordan expanded in areas with reliable water resources and agricultural land. Ancient Egyptians controlled both banks of the Jordan River. During the Iron Age after the withdrawal of the Egyptians, Transjordan was home to Ammon and Moab, they spoke Semitic languages of the Canaani
Frederick Allan Frank is an American singer and performer from Peoria, Illinois. Frank attended Quincy College, it was there. Following college, he traveled Europe and formed the short-lived band Deliverance in Hamburg, Germany. After the disbanding of Deliverance, he relocated to Los Angeles where he began working in the Aerospace and Defense industry while still writing songs in his spare time, he began songwriting full-time. In 2000, Frank won first place for Best Country song in the Unisong International Song Contest. In 2007 he began working his own material, in 2009 he released his first full-length album entitled The Road So Far on the independent label, Apple Farm Music; the Road So Far Official Website MySpace page Facebook page
Pattaya Kelappu is a 2008 Tamil action comedy film written and directed by Ponnambalam, making his directorial debut. The film features Sriman and Ponnambalam in lead roles, with Janagaraj, Pandu, Vasu Vikram, Kazan Khan and Crane Manohar playing supporting roles; the film had musical score by E. L. Indhrajith; the film began production in 2004 and was released in 2008. Ananthakrishnan is a jobless young graduate, looking for a job in the city. Ananthakrishnan comes across three good-for-nothings Saamy and Mano ). Having sympathy for him, the three friends decide to help him. Ananthakrishnan moves in with them, the house is owned by the old man Arunachalam and he accommodated them for free. Meanwhile, Dhanam after finishing her studies in the city returns to her native place; when she arrives at her village, her servant told her that her uncle killed her father and he is willing to marry her for stealing her property. A shocked Dhanam goes back to the city and her friend Deepa hosts her. One day, Arunachalam receives a demand draft of five lakhs of rupees on behalf of Anandakrishnan and Ananthakrishnan withdraws money from the bank.
Thereafter, a rowdy named Anandakrishnan stated that the demand draft belonged to him and asks for the money but they confess that they have spent it all. In anger, Anandakrishnan threatens to kill them. Ananthakrishnan and his friends don't know what to do and luckily, the man is found dead a few days later. Anandakrishnan congratulates them for the job done and offers them another mission: to catch Dhanam and to bring her to him. Anandakrishnan will bring her to her uncle. Dhanam is none other than Ananthakrishnan's lover. Saamy and Mano kidnap the innocent Dhanam with ease; when Anandakrishnan's henchmen carry Dhanam in their van, with a Kerchief covering his face, stops their van and beats them up thus saving his lover Dhanam. Ananthakrishnan and Dhanam decide to get married in a hurry but Anandakrishnan intercepts them and Dhanam is forced to give her property. Dhanam's uncle tries to stop the marriage but Anandakrishnan becomes a good person and decided to support the young lovers. During their fight, the police shoot dead Dhanam's uncle.
Anandakrishnan gives back the property to Dhanam and surrenders to the police. The film ends with Payal getting married. In 2004, Ponnambalam who had appeared in supporting roles began working in Pattaya Kelappu produced by his home production Annai Vannamathi Films and said that his debut is targeted at the mass audiences in the urban and rural milieu. Sriman who acted as the hero in the Telugu action film Dharma, signed to play the hero and hoped that the film will break the jinx. Payal was chosen to play the female lead role; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer E. L. Indhrajith; the soundtrack, released in 2004, features 5 tracks with lyrics written by Muthu Vijayan