Refugees of the Syrian Civil War
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War or Syrian refugees are citizens and permanent residents of Syrian Arab Republic, who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011 and have sought asylum in other parts of the world. In 2016, from an estimated pre-war population of 22 million, the United Nations identified 13.5 million Syrians requiring humanitarian assistance, of which more than 6 million are internally displaced within Syria, around 5 million are refugees outside of Syria. The vast majority of the latter are hosted by countries neighboring Syria. Among countries of the Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan, a coordination platform including neighboring countries and Egypt, the UN Refugee Agency counted 5,165,502 registered refugees, as of August 2017. Turkey is the largest host country of registered refugees with over 3.5 million Syrian refugees. The UNHCR counted 1 million asylum applicants in Europe, as of August 2017. Humanitarian aid to internally displaced persons within Syria and Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries is planned through the UNHCR.
By 2016, various nations had made pledges to the UNHCR to permanently resettle 170,000 registered refugees. Human rights in Syria under the rule of the Ba'ath Party is considered to be in exceptionally poor conditions by international observers and has been deteriorating further since 2008; the 2010–11 Arab Spring uprisings in Tunisia, Libya and Yemen inspired major protests in Syria. The Syrian Army intervened in March 2011, the Syrian government crackdown increased in violence, escalating to major military operations to suppress resistance. In April, hundreds died in clashes between the Syrian Army and opposition forces, which included armed protestors and defected soldiers; as Syria descended into civil war, it became divided into a complex patchwork of shifting alliances and territories between the Assad government, rebel groups, the majority-Kurdish SDF, Salafi jihadist groups. Up to half a million people died including around a hundred thousand civilians. By May 2011, thousands of people had fled from the war to neighbouring countries, with larger numbers displaced within Syria itself.
As armies assaulted various locations and battled, entire villages were trying to escape, with thousands of refugees a day crossing borders. Other reasons for displacement in the region adding to the Syrian Civil War, target the refugees of the Iraqi Civil War, Kurdish refugees, Palestinian refugees. "The Syria crisis has become the biggest humanitarian emergency of our era, yet the world is failing to meet the needs of refugees and the countries hosting them", the UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres said in 2014. The UNHCR reported that the total number of refugees worldwide exceeds 50 million for the first time since World War II due to the Syrian civil war; the number of refugees that crossed the Turkish border reached 10,000–15,000 by mid 2011. More than 5,000 returned to Syria between July and August, while most were moved to newly built camps that hosted 7,600 refugees by November. By the end of 2011, the number of refugees was estimated at 5,500–8,500 in Lebanon, with around 2,500 registered, around 1,500 registered in Jordan, thousands had found shelter in Libya.
By April 2012, in the early insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War preceding 10 April ceasefire under the Kofi Annan peace plan, UN reported 200,000 or more Syrians internally displaced, 55,000 registered refugees and an estimated 20,000 not yet registered. 25,000 were 10,000 in Lebanon, 7,000 in Jordan, 800 in Iraq. Within Syria, there were 100,000 refugees from Iraq, 70,000 more returned to Iraq. In mid 2012, when the peace plan failed and the UN for the first time proclaimed Syria to be in a state of civil war, the number of registered refugees increased to more than 110,000. Over 2 days in July, 19,000 Syrians fled from Damascus into Lebanon, as violence inside the city escalated; the first Syrian refugees migrated by sea to the European Union, small numbers found asylum in various countries such as Colombia. Some refugees were turned away from Jordan. By the end of 2012, the UNHCR reported that the number of refugees jumped to well over 750,000 with 135,519 in Turkey. In 2014, the deteriorating humanitarian situation in neighboring Iraq prompted an influx of Iraqi refugees into north-eastern Syria.
By the end of August, the UN estimated 6.5 million people had been displaced within Syria, while more than 3 million had fled to countries such as Lebanon and Turkey. With the beginning of 2015, the European Union struggled to cope with the migrant crisis, its countries entering negotiations and heated political debate over closing or reinforcing borders and quota systems for resettlement of refugees and migrants from different parts of the world; the image of a drowned Syrian toddler's body washed up on a Turkish beach becomes a seminal moment in the refugee crises and global response. National debates and media coverage about the Syrian refugee crises increase markedly, bringing considerable attention to the human costs of the Syrian Civil War, the responsibilities of host countries, pressures forcing re
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Jordanian Americans are Americans who are descended from the Jordanian people. According to surveys conducted in 2011 with respect to the American population, there some 72,730 people descend from Jordanians; the history of the Jordanian immigration to the United States is recent. It seems that the first Jordanians who emigrated to this country did it shortly after the Second World War in small groups; those first Jordanians settled in Chicago esp. in Near West and Southwest Sides section," New York City, the Southwest and West Coast states at the end of 1950, when about 1,000 Jordanians lived in the country. These early migrants were forced to work as immigrants because of poverty that Jordan suffered at the time, caused by the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, which took place in this small country, they were a group of hard workers. Some of these Jordanians opened retail stores while others managed to earn degrees in business and engineering. Many men returned with their families to Jordan after working or studying in Chicago and New York for several years.
In those early years, people in the Jordanian East Bank and West Bank Palestinians could travel to the United States with Jordanian passports, creating the undefined category "Palestinian – Jordanian." In the 1950s, 5,762 Jordanians immigrated to the United States. In the mid 1960s, due to U. S. immigration laws and the remained of the Six-Day War of 1967 in Jordan, the number of Jordanians who emigrated to the United States doubled: 11,727 Jordanians immigrated. At this time the majority chose to settle in Western cities and in the southwest of the country, except the wealthy Jordanians who felt more comfortable in the suburbs of large cities. In the 1970s, 27,535 Jordanians arrived, reflecting an era of civil strife in Jordan. In the 1980s, immigration averaged. By the Jordanian community in the United States had grown at a rapid pace, it represented a large population; this was in large part related to the Arab-Israeli war in Jordan as well as the Black September of 1971. Therefore, a substantial number of Jordanians who settled in the United States at this time were war refugees.
The total number of Jordanian immigrants from 1820 to 1984 was 56,720. Jordanian emigration was due to internal strife in his country, well as economic issues. In the U. S. they remained economic issues and the salaries were higher than in Jordan. The New York City Metropolitan Area, notably including Paterson, New Jersey, attracts the highest number of legal Jordanian immigrants admitted to the United States; the Little Ramallah community of South Paterson in New Jersey is home to a growing Jordanian immigrant population. The Jordanian American community in Washington, DC, held a candlelight vigil after the death of King Hussein. Chicago maintains today, a large Jordanian population, together with other Arabs, they practice the worship, celebrate the holidays and mobilize politically through of network and organizations like the Professional Association or the Arab American Action Network, the various Islamic cultural centers and area churches and mosques. Since World War II until the 1980s, most Jordanians immigrants were people married, whose ages are comprised between 20 and 39 years.
They had an above-average educational level of persons of the east bank of the Arabian Peninsula. More than 30 percent of those working in the United States were university graduates, 40 percent were in professional positions. Many immigrants stayed in United States of four and a half to eight years returned to Jordan; the United States salaries were higher than those in Jordan, this attracted immigrants. More than other Middle Eastern immigrants, Jordanians tended to take their families with them when working in the United States. Since the 1980s, many Jordanians have remained in the United States and have formed cohesive communities; as a result, they are much less Americanized, than groups with longer histories American. Guided by family and friends, these new Americans find comfort in neighborhoods established by others people from their home country. Continued use of their native language and dialect sustains ties with their homeland and delays acculturation. Language is a key factor in the acculturation process.
Those who are fluent in English have greater communication and interaction with the majority population. Other factors that can accelerate acculturation include the job; the most part how much contact with the larger community occurs on the job. People from urban areas of Jordan be adjust more to America's cities than some people from rural areas. Children adapt more to new surroundings and, as other immigrant groups, tend to assimilate faster than their parents. Jordanian Americans have access to national newspapers published in Arabic. There is sometimes a local Arabic newspaper in a community with a large Arab population, such as Detroit. Basically the Jordanians speak Arabic, but there are many Jordanians that speak English, so Jordan's radio and television stations offer some English programming. Jordanian Americans hold careers in education, business and science; the male-female breakdown in the Jordanian American work force is similar. Many Jordanians come to the United States to pursue advanced degrees in engineering.
Most of the Jordanian students in Western Europe and the United States receive financing from their families, but some obtain assistance from the government of Jordan. Students from Western European and American schools tend to gain the more desirable and prestigious positions on their return home; the perceived higher quality of education in the We
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens and institutions, is regarded as a duty of government. Conceived as protection against military attack, national security is now understood to include non-military dimensions, including the security from terrorism, economic security, energy security, environmental security, food security, cyber security etc. National security risks include, in addition to the actions of other nation states, action by violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations, the effects of natural disasters. Governments rely on a range of measures, including political and military power, as well as diplomacy to enforce national security, they may act to build the conditions of security regionally and internationally by reducing transnational causes of insecurity, such as climate change, economic inequality, political exclusion, nuclear proliferation. The concept of national security remains ambiguous, having evolved from simpler definitions which emphasised freedom from military threat and from political coercion.
Among the many definitions proposed to date are the following, which show how the concept has evolved to encompass non-military concerns: "A nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate ínterests to avoid war, is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war.". "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation." "National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked." "National security is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and territory. "National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy and wellbeing." "National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and the military might."
" measurable state of the capability of a nation to overcome the multi-dimensional threats to the apparent well-being of its people and its survival as a nation-state at any given time, by balancing all instruments of state policy through governance... and is extendable to global security by variables external to it." " may be understood as a shared freedom from fear and want, the freedom to live in dignity. It implies social and ecological health rather than the absence of risk... a common right." Potential causes of national insecurity include actions by other states, violent non-state actors, organised criminal groups such as narcotic cartels, the effects of natural disasters. Systemic drivers of insecurity, which may be transnational, include climate change, economic inequality and marginalisation, political exclusion, militarisation. In view of the wide range of risks, the security of a nation state has several dimensions, including economic security, energy security, physical security, environmental security, food security, border security, cyber security.
These dimensions correlate with elements of national power. Governments organise their security policies into a national security strategy; some states appoint a National Security Council to oversee the strategy and/or a National Security Advisor. Although states differ in their approach, with some beginning to prioritise non-military action to tackle systemic drivers of insecurity, various forms of coercive power predominate military capabilities; the scope of these capabilities has developed. Traditionally, military capabilities were land- or sea-based, in smaller countries they still are. Elsewhere, the domains of potential warfare now include the air, space and psychological operations. Military capabilities designed for these domains may be used for national security, or for offensive purposes, for example to conquer and annex territory and resources. In practice, national security is associated with managing physical threats and with the military capabilities used for doing so; that is, national security is understood as the capacity of a nation to mobilise military forces to guarantee its borders and to deter or defend against physical threats including military aggression and attacks by non-state actors, such as terrorism.
Most states, such as South Africa and Sweden, configure their military forces for territorial defence. Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver, Jaap de Wilde and others have argued that national security depends on political security: the stability of the social order. Others, such as Paul Rogers, have added that the equitability of the interna
Embassy of Jordan, Washington, D.C.
The Embassy of Jordan in Washington, D. C. is the diplomatic mission of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the United States. It is located at 3504 International Drive Northwest, Washington, D. C. in the Cleveland Park neighborhood. The Ambassador is Dina Kawar. Official site wikimapia