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Jordanes

Jordanes written Jordanis or, Jornandes, was a Gothic 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat who became an historian in life. Jordanes wrote Romana, about the history of Rome, but his best-known work is his Getica, written in Constantinople about 551 AD. Along with Isidore of Seville's Historia Gothorum, it is one of only two extant ancient works dealing with the early history of the Goths. Jordanes was asked by a friend to write Getica as a summary of a multi-volume history of the Goths by the statesman Cassiodorus that existed but has since been lost. Jordanes was selected for his known interest in history, his ability to write succinctly, because of his own Gothic background, he had been a high-level notarius, or secretary, of a small client state on the Roman frontier in Scythia Minor, modern southeastern Romania and northeastern Bulgaria. Other writers, such as Procopius, wrote works which are extant on the history of the Goths; as the only surviving work on Gothic origins, Getica has been the object of much critical review.

Jordanes wrote in Late Latin rather than the classical Ciceronian Latin. According to his own introduction, he had only three days to review what Cassiodorus had written, meaning that he must have relied on his own knowledge. Jordanes writes about himself in passing: The Sciri and the Sadagarii and certain of the Alani with their leader, Candac by name, received Scythia Minor and Lower Moesia. Paria, the father of my father Alanoviiamuth, was secretary to this Candac as long. To his sister's son Gunthigis called Baza, the Master of the Soldiery, the son of Andag the son of Andela, descended from the stock of the Amali, I Jordanes, although an unlearned man before my conversion, was secretary. Paria was Jordanes's paternal grandfather. Jordanes writes that he was secretary to Candac, dux Alanorum, an otherwise unknown leader of the Alans. Jordanes was notarius, or secretary to Gunthigis Baza, a nephew of Candac and a magister militum of the leading Ostrogoth clan of the Amali; this was ante conversionem meam.

The nature and details of the conversion remain obscure. The Goths had been converted with the assistance of Ulfilas, made bishop on that account. However, the Goths had adopted Arianism. Jordanes' conversion may have been a conversion to the trinitarian Nicene creed, which may be expressed in anti-Arianism in certain passages in Getica. In the letter to Vigilius he mentions that he was awakened vestris interrogationibus - "by your questioning". Alternatively, Jordanes' conversio may mean that he had become a monk, or a religiosus, or a member of the clergy; some manuscripts say that he was a bishop, some say bishop of Ravenna, but the name Jordanes is not known in the lists of bishops of Ravenna. Jordanes wrote his Romana at the behest of a certain Vigilius. Although some scholars have identified this person with Pope Vigilius, there is nothing else to support the identification besides the name; the form of address that Jordanes uses and his admonition that Vigilius "turn to God" would seem to rule out this identification.

In the preface to his Getica, Jordanes writes that he is interrupting his work on the Romana at the behest of a brother Castalius, who knew that Jordanes possessed the twelve volumes of the History of the Goths by Cassiodorus. Castalius wanted a short book about the subject, Jordanes obliged with an excerpt based on memory supplemented with other material to which he had access; the Getica sets off with a geography/ethnography of the North of Scandza. He lets the history of the Goths commence with the emigration of Berig with three ships from Scandza to Gothiscandza, in a distant past. In the pen of Jordanes, Herodotus's Getian demigod. Jordanes tells how the Goths sacked "Troy and Ilium" just after they had recovered somewhat from the war with Agamemnon, they are said to have encountered the Egyptian pharaoh Vesosis. The less fictional part of Jordanes's work begins when the Goths encounter Roman military forces in the third century AD; the work concludes with the defeat of the Goths by the Byzantine general Belisarius.

Jordanes concludes the work by stating that he writes to honour those who were victorious over the Goths after a history spanning 2,030 years. Several Romanian and American historians wrote about Jordanes's error when considering that Getae were Goths. Much of the historical data about Dacians and Getae were wrongly attributed to Goths. Christensen A. S. Troya C. and Kulikowski M. demonstrated in their works that Jordanes developed in Getica the history of Getic and Dacian peoples mixed with a lot of fantastic deeds. Caracalla received "Geticus Maximus" and "Quasi Gothicus" titles following battles with Getae and Goths. History of the Roman Empire Mierow, Charles Christopher, The Gothic History of Jordanes: In English with an Introduction and a Commentary, 1915. Reprinted 2006. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-77-0. Carlo Troya. Storia d'Italia del medio-evo. Tip. del Tasso stamp. Reale. Pp. 1331–. Retrieved 5 April 2013. Kulikowski, Rome’s Gothic Wars, p. 130. Arne Søby Christensen, Cassiodorus and the History of the Goths.

Studies in a Migration Myth, 2002, ISBN 978-87-7289-710-3 Kai Brodersen, Könige im Karpatenbogen: Zur historischen Bedeutung von Jordanes' Herrscherliste. In: Zeitschrift für Siebenbürgische Landeskunde 36 pp. 129–146 Works by Jordanes at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jordanes at Internet Archive Jordanes, The Origins and Deeds of the Goths, translated by Charles C. Mierow. Alternative. James J. O'Donell, "The Aims

George FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton

George Henry FitzRoy, 4th Duke of Grafton, KG, styled Earl of Euston until 1811, was a British peer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1782 to 1811 when he succeeded to the Dukedom. Euston was 3rd Duke of Grafton and his wife Anne Lidell, he was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, where he became a close friend of the William Pitt the Younger. He married Lady Charlotte Maria Waldegrave, daughter of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave, on 16 November 1784 at Navestock, Essex. From 1782-84, Euston was Member of Parliament for Thetford, in 1784, he and Pitt were elected as MPs for Cambridge University. Euston held that seat until he succeeded his father in the dukedom in 1811, he was appointed a deputy lieutenant of Northamptonshire on 9 May 1803. Grafton was succeeded by his son Henry, he and his wife Charlotte had eleven children: Lady Maria Anne, married Sir William Oglander, 6th Baronet and had issue. Lady Georgiana, unmarried Lady Elizabeth Anne, married her first cousin John Henry Smyth and had issue.

Henry, styled Earl of Euston 5th Duke of Grafton Lord Charles FitzRoy, married Lady Anne Cavendish and had issue. Lady Isabella Frances, married Henry Joseph St. John Lord William FitzRoy Lord Hugh FitzRoy Lord Richard FitzRoy Lord Richard FitzRoy Lord James FitzRoy Reynolds, K. D. "FitzRoy, George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9634. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Grafton

Vincenz Fettmilch

Vincenz Fettmilch was a grocer and gingerbread baker who led the Fettmilch uprising of the guilds in 1612–1616 to get rid of foreigners in the city, whom they viewed as competition and usurers. Fettmilch settled in Frankfurt in 1602. On August 22, 1614 he led a mob that stormed the Judengasse and plundered the city's 1,380 Jews, forcing them to leave the city until the emperor intervened, on February 28, 1616 Fettmilch and six others were executed in Frankfurt's Rossmarkt square. On the same day the exiled Jews were led back into Frankfurt by imperial soldiers. Above the gates to the Judengasse a stone imperial eagle was mounted bearing an inscription reading "Protected by the Roman Imperial Majesty and the Holy Empire"; the first act of the returning Jews was returning the desecrated synagogue and devastated cemetery to religious use. The anniversary of the return was celebrated yearly thereafter as the "Purim Vinz". After this, pogroms became less common in Germany until the Hep-Hep riots of 1819.

Jewish Museum Frankfurt Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Frankfort-on-the-Main". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. BusinessWeek "T:-)M's Night Shift". Www.folkworld.de. Retrieved 2017-01-28. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Frankfort-on-Main". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Stadtgeschichte-ffm.de