The Jordanian dinar has been the currency of Jordan since 1950. The Jordanian dinar is widely used alongside the Israeli shekel in the West Bank; the dinar is divided into 100 qirsh or 1000 fulus. It is pegged to the US dollar. From 1927 to 1950, the Palestine Currency Board issued the Palestine pound as the official currency in both Mandatory Palestine and the Emirate of Transjordan. After Jordan became an independent kingdom on 25 May 1946, the idea of issuing a national currency arose and led to the passing of the Provisional Act No. 35 of 1949. Under this Act, the Jordan Currency Board was formed, which became the sole authority entitled to issue Jordanian currency in the kingdom; the London-based entity consisted of four members. As of 1 July 1950, the Jordanian dinar became the kingdom’s official currency, use of the Palestine pound ceased in the kingdom on 30 September 1950. Although issued by the Jordan Currency Board, the notes bear the country's official name, "The Hashemite Kingdom of the Jordan".
After the West Bank was annexed by Jordan in 1950, the Jordanian dinar became legal tender there and replaced the Palestine pound. Until 1992, coins were denominated in Arabic using fils, qirsh and dinar but in English only in fils and dinar. Since 1992, the fils and dirham are no longer used in the Arabic and the English denominations are given in dinar and either qirsh or piastres. Coins were introduced in 1949 in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 fils; the first issue of 1 fils were mistakenly minted with the denomination given as "1 fil". 20 fils coins were minted until 1965, with 25 fils introduced in 1968 and 1⁄4 dinar coins in 1970. The 1 fils coin was last minted in 1985. In 1996, smaller 1⁄4 dinar coins were introduced alongside 1 dinar coins. Rub'a is Arabic for "piece of four" or "quarter". Nusf is Arabic for "piece of two" or "half". In 1949, banknotes were issued by the government in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 dinars. From 1959, the Central Bank of Jordan took over note production.
20 dinar notes were introduced in 1977, followed by 50 dinars in 1999. 1⁄2 dinar notes were replaced by coins in 1999. Since October 23, 1995, the dinar was pegged to the IMF's special drawing rights, while in practice, it was fixed at 1 U. S. dollar = 0.709 dinar most of the time, which translates to 1 dinar = 1.41044 dollars. The Central Bank buys U. S. dollars at 0.708 dinar per dollar, sells U. S. dollars at 0.710 dinar per dollar. A sample exchange rate of Jordanian dinars to US dollars: Economy of Jordan Economy of the Palestinian territories Coins of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Banknotes of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan The banknotes of Jordan
Ruby Charlotte Margaret Hunter was an Aboriginal Australian singer and guitarist. She was a Ngarrindjeri woman, who performed with her partner, Archie Roach AM, whom she met at the age of 16, while both were homeless teenagers. Born near the mouth of the Murray River in the Coorong region of South Australia, Hunter was forcibly taken from her family at the age of eight as part of the Stolen Generation. Hunter first performed in public in 1988 during a festival at Bondi Pavilion in Sydney, where she performed "Proud, Proud Woman," the first song she had written. In 1990, she wrote the autobiographical "Down City Streets", performed by Roach on his debut solo album Charcoal Lane. In 1994, Hunter became the first Indigenous Australian woman to record a solo "rock" album, the first Aboriginal woman signed to a major record label, when she released her debut album Thoughts Within, she received two ARIA Award nominations, for Best Indigenous Release for Thoughts Within in 1995, Best Blues & Roots Album for Feeling Good in 2000, respectively.
Hunter won Deadlys in 2000 for Female Artist of the Year, 2003 for Outstanding Contribution to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Music and 2004 for Excellence in Film & Theatrical Score. She made her acting debut in One Night the Moon. With Roach and Paul Grabowsky, she wrote and performed the concert "Ruby's Story", which tells her life story through song and spoken word. Hunter was the author of Butcher paper, black board and chalk, a children's song-book which features Aboriginal songs about land and life. Many of the songs were written through song writing and music workshops held by Hunter and Roach with children across Cape York in Queensland. In 2005, Hunter was invited by Deborah Conway to take part in the Broad Festival project, with three other Australian female artists, where they performed their own and each other's songs. With Hunter and Conway were Sara Storer, Katie Noonan and Clare Bowditch; as a child, Hunter lived with her brothers, Wally and Robert, sister Iris, with their grandmother and grandfather at the Aboriginal reserve at Point McLeay on Lake Alexandrina in the Coorong region of South Australia.
One day, Wally was taken off the street by government officials, the men took the rest of the children from their home, under the pretext that they were being taken to the circus. Thereafter Ruby lived in institutions and foster care, as one of the Stolen Generations, before drifting to Adelaide, staying for a spell at the Salvation Army People's Palace, where she met Roach, they had two sons and fostered three children. Hunter died of a heart attack on 17 February 2010, aged 54, her partner Archie Roach established. The foundation is dedicated to creating opportunities for Aboriginal people through the promotion and support of Aboriginal arts and culture. AlbumsThoughts Within – Mushroom Feeling Good – Mushroom Ruby with Archie Roach, Australian Art Orchestra & Paul Grabowsky – Australian Art Orchestra Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to Australian Aboriginal Music Pioneer singer Ruby Hunter dies ABC Queensland Musicians Ruby Hunter and Archie Roach Ruby Hunter on MySpace Ruby Hunter's Discography A Conversation with Archie Roach and Ruby Hunter on Radio Netherlands
Gmina Nawojowa is a rural gmina in Nowy Sącz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland. Its seat is the village of Nawojowa, which lies 8 kilometres south-east of Nowy Sącz and 81 km south-east of the regional capital Kraków; the gmina covers an area of 51.13 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 7,644. Gmina Nawojowa contains the villages and settlements of Bącza Kunina, Homrzyska, Popardowa, Żeleźnikowa Mała, Żeleźnikowa Wielka and Złotne. Gmina Nawojowa is bordered by the city of Nowy Sącz and by the gminas of Kamionka Wielka, Łabowa, Piwniczna-Zdrój, Rytro and Stary Sącz. Polish official population figures 2006