President of Uruguay
The President of Uruguay known as the President of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay is the head of state and head of government of Uruguay. His or her rights are determined in the Constitution of Uruguay. Conforms with the Secretariat of the Presidency, the Council of Ministers and the director of the Office of Planning and Budget, the executive branch. In case of absence, his office is exercised by the vice president. In turn, the president of the republic is the commander in chief of the armed forces. According to the current Constitution Constitution of Uruguay of 1967 or Constitution of Uruguay of 1997, the president is elected by direct popular vote for a term of five years, he is ineligible for immediate reelection. The president and vice president run on a single ticket submitted by their party. In case no candidate obtains an absolute majority of votes, a runoff is held between the top two candidates. In this case, the candidate who obtains a plurality in the runoff wins the election. According to Article 168 of the Constitution, the president, acting with the respective minister or ministers, or the Council of Ministers, includes, is assigned: The preservation of order and tranquility within and security without.
The command of all armed forces. The promulgation of all laws, issuing special regulations necessary for its implementation; the delivery, to the General Assembly of Uruguay at the opening of regular sessions, the state of the Republic address. The right to veto laws it dislikes; the right to propose bills or amendments to laws enacted. The dismissal of public employees for misfeasance, malfeasance or nonfeasance. Management of diplomatic relations and, with consent of the legislature, the right to declare war; the right to declare a state of emergency. The preparation of the state budget. Negotiation of treaties with the ratification of the legislature. Since 1990, the president's term has begun and ended on March 1; this same date for ending the presidency happened during the National Council of Government and it has been not unusual since 1839. The current president is Tabaré Vásquez. History of Uruguay List of Presidents of Uruguay Politics of Uruguay Politics Data Bank at the Social Sciences School – Universidad de la República
Politics of Uruguay
The politics of Uruguay abide by a presidential representative democratic republic, under which the President of Uruguay is both the head of state and the head of government, as well as a multiform party system. The president exercises executive power and legislative power and is vested in the two chambers of the General Assembly of Uruguay; the Judiciary branch is independent from that of the legislature. The Colorado and National parties have been locked in a power struggle, with the predominance of the Colorado party throughout most of Uruguay's history; the elections of 2004, brought the Encuentro Progresista-Frente Amplio-Nueva Mayoría, a coalition of socialists, former Tupamaros, social democrats, Christian Democrats among others to power with majorities in both houses of parliament. A majority vote elected President Tabaré Vázquez. In 2009, the Broad Front once again won the elections with a plurality of the votes. A presidential runoff was triggered because their candidate, José Mujica, only received 47.96 percent of the vote.
The Broad Front's candidate beat Luis Alberto Lacalle of the Nacional Party in second round of voting. In addition to the presidency, the Broad Front won a simple majority in the Uruguayan Senate and Congress; until 1919, from 1934 to 1952, Uruguay's political system, based on the 1830 Constitution, was presidential with a strong executive power, similar to that of the United States. It was characterized by the rivalry between the two traditional parties, the Colorado Party and the Blanco Party, conservative; the whites represented the interests of rural property, the Church and the military hierarchy, while colorados were supported by urban movable property and reformist intellectuals. In the 19th century, the country had similar characteristics to other Latin American countries: caudillism, civil wars and permanent instability, foreign capitalism's control of important sectors of the economy, high percentage of illiterate people, land oligarchy, etc, yet Montevideo became a refuge for Argentine exiles fleeing the dictatorship of Juan Manuel de Rosas and maintained a reputation as a welcoming place for ideas of "advanced" political and social protest.
In 1842, the newspaper Le Messager devoted a special issue to the memory of Charles Fourier. During the Great War, Garibaldi's red shirts fought in Montevideo against Rosas' attacking forces. In 1875, workers founded an Internationale. At the beginning of the 20th century, Uruguay became the most politically and advanced state on the continent; the liberal José Batlle y Ordóñez was the main architect of this transformation. A system of proportional representation is adopted to allow for the representation of minorities, it calls for the abolition of the death penalty, the fight against administrative corruption and the introduction of secularism and women's right to vote. On the economic level, he states that "industry must not be allowed to destroy human beings, but that on the contrary the State must regulate it in order to make the lives of the masses happier. "It thus undertakes an economic policy of a dirigiste nature and nationalizes many sectors of the economy. The "batllism" takes the form of social measures: institutionalization of free and compulsory primary education, support for trade unions and recognition of the right to strike, maternity leave, an eight-hour day, etc.
All this legislation, well advanced at the time, made Uruguay a progressive social democracy. Uruguay adopted its first constitution in 1830, following the conclusion of a three-year war in which Argentina and Uruguay fought as a regional federation: the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. Sponsored by the United Kingdom, the 1828 Treaty of Montevideo built the foundations for a Uruguayan state and constitution. A constitution proposed under the military dictatorship government was rejected by a referendum in 1980. Uruguay's Constitution of 1967 created a strong presidency, subject to legislative and judicial balance. Many of these provisions were suspended in 1973 but reestablished in 1985; the president, both the head of state and the head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, with the vice president elected on the same ticket. The President must act together with the Council of Ministers, which comprises cabinet ministers, appointed by the president. Thirteen ministers head various executive departments.
The ministers can be removed by the General Assembly by a majority vote. The General Assembly has two chambers; the Chamber of Representatives has 99 members, elected for a five-year term by proportional representation with at least two members per department. The Chamber of Senators has 31 members; the Supreme Court is the highest court. The Uruguayan constitution allows citizens to challenge laws approved by Parliament by use of a referendum or to propose changes to the Constitution by the use of a plebiscite; the Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Uruguay as "full democracy" in 2016. Uruguay or Uruguayan organizations participate in the following international organizations: The Food and Agriculture Organization Group of 77 Inter-American Development Bank International Atomic Energy Agency International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Wo
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle skeletal muscle. Humans have been eating beef since prehistoric times. Beef is a source of high-quality protein and nutrients. Beef skeletal muscle meat can be used as is by cutting into certain parts roasts, short ribs or steak, while other cuts are processed. Trimmings, on the other hand, are mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages; the blood is used in some varieties called blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include other muscles and offal, such as the oxtail, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, the heart, the brain, the kidneys, the tender testicles of the bull; some intestines are cooked and eaten as is, but are more cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is similar. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies; the meat from older bulls, because it is tougher, is used for mince. Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot, where they are fed a ration of grain, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend.
Beef is the third most consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef. According to the data from OECD, the average Uruguayan ate over 42 kg of beef or veal in 2014, representing the highest beef/veal consumption per capita in the world. In comparison, the average American consumed only about 24 kg beef or veal in the same year, while African countries, such as Mozambique and Nigeria, consumed the least beef or veal per capita. In 2015, the world's largest exporters of beef were India and Australia. Beef production is important to the economies of Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina and Nicaragua; the word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow, from Middle English cou. After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England used French words to refer to the meats they were served.
Thus, various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal by the peasants, but the meat was called boef by the French nobles — who did not deal with the live animal — when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals and their meat, found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, deer/venison, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry. Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times. People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids, which originated in the Americas. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent, it is unknown when people started cooking beef. Cattle were used across the Old World as draft animals, for milk, or for human consumption. With the mechanization of farming, some breeds were bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais cattle, or to improve the texture of meat, giving rise to the Murray Grey and Wagyū.
Some breeds have been selected for both milk production, such as the Brown Swiss. In the United States, the growth of the beef business was due to expansion in the Southwest. Upon the acquisition of grasslands through the Mexican–American War of 1848, the expulsion of the Plains Indians from this region and the Midwest, the American livestock industry began, starting with the taming of wild longhorn cattle. Chicago and New York City were the first to benefit from these developments in their stockyards and in their meat markets. Beef cattle are raised and fed using a variety of methods, including feedlots, free range, ranching and Intensive animal farming. Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat butchering; these are basic sections from which other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterize cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, sometimes use the same name for a different cut.
Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas is a Uruguayan politician serving as the 41st and current President of Uruguay since 2015. He served as President from 2005 to 2010 as the 39th officeholder. A physician, he is a member of the leftist Broad Front coalition. Vázquez was first elected President on 31 October 2004, took office on 1 March 2005, relinquished the office on 1 March 2010. José Mujica was elected, serving from 2010 to 2015. Vázquez was re-elected to take office for the second time in 2015. Born in the Montevideo neighbourhood of La Teja, Tabaré Vázquez studied medicine at the Universidad de la República Medical School, graduating as an oncology specialist in 1972. In 1976, he received a grant from the French government, allowing him to obtain additional training at the Gustave Roussy Institute in Paris. From 1990 to 1995, Vázquez was the Frente Amplio coalition's first Mayor of Montevideo. In 1994, he made an unsuccessful run for president as the Frente Amplio candidate, receiving 30.6% of the vote.
In 1996, he was elected leader of the Frente Amplio, replacing the historic leader of the left-wing coalition, Liber Seregni. He ran again in 1999, receiving 45.9 percent of the vote in the runoff election, losing to Jorge Batlle. Vázquez is married to María Auxiliadora Delgado and has three biological children with her and an adopted son. In the 2004 elections, he won 50.45% of the valid votes, with 1,124,761 votes on the first ballot--enough to win the presidency in a single round. To date, he is the only president since the institution of a two-round system in 1999 to win without the need for a runoff, he took office in early 2005. He became the first Uruguayan president from a left-wing party, thus the first one who did not belong to the traditional right-wing conservative parties, the National and Colorado parties. With his own Broad Front holding a majority in Parliament, Vázquez was thought to have few obstacles to start with, he had the support of the President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva a centre-left democratic socialist.
Vázquez is a notable football fan. During his ten-year stint as president of the Club Progreso team, it won the professional national championship in 1989. Among the most complex issues that have dominated his administration is an ongoing conflict with Argentina over potential contamination from pulp mills being built on the Uruguayan side of the Uruguay River. Vazquez has tried to create new cultural links outside the region. Vazquez was the first Uruguayan President to visit New Zealand and South Korea, has established contacts with other countries in Southeast Asia. While he maintained cordial relations with the United States, hosting U. S. President George W. Bush, Vázquez did not sign Bush's failed Free Trade Area of the Americas. In June 2008 President Vázquez visited Cuba. While in Cuba, Vázquez and the Presidential party engaged in a number of high-profile events, including a summit with President Raúl Castro; this visit attracted a measure of censure from the Uruguayan Opposition, from Pedro Bordaberry and others, who were critical of Vázquez for having chosen to be in Cuba during a commemoration – which Vázquez himself initiated – for the victims of the 1973–1985 dictatorship.
In 2007 the loading of Iranian arms onto a Uruguayan Navy vessel visiting Venezuela, in contravention of a UN-sponsored arms embargo, provoked international comment. Internal controversy regarding this event was centred on protests to Vázquez's Government from the Uruguayan opposition National Party. In February 2010 the Vázquez Government was cooperating with an investigation to explain how two Northrop F-5E jet engines valued at many millions of US dollars had surfaced in Uruguay. In June 2009 President Vázquez, courting diplomatically the Bolivian President Evo Morales, announced his support for the delisting of coca leaves from the category of a'dangerous drug'. President Vázquez began his tenure with a 77% approval rating, his approval recovered, reaching 80% by his last term in office. While his decision not to sign the failed Free Trade Area of the Americas treaty in 2006 alienated conservative voters, other moves by his administration concerning economic policy have met with resistance from trade unions and the left.
Furthermore, many believe that Vázquez's opposition to legalising abortion and threats to veto any pro-choice legislation passed by the government – a position that stands in contrast with the opinions of the majority of his governing coalition – have made a modest dent in his public support. In October 2006, President Vázquez was still more popular than his government with a 62% approval rating. However, a considerable drop in the government's popularity was registered by an Equipos/MORI poll in late April 2007, showing that 44% of Uruguayans approved of his administration. A new poll by Factum showed a 57% approval by June 2008, indicating a significant recovery from a year earlier. In January 2008, two members of the ruling coalition, former Senator José Korzeniak and Foreign Secretary Reinaldo Gargano, made
Bernardo Prudencio Berro was the President of Uruguay from 1860 to 1864. Berro was a member of the National Party. Berro first served as head of state of Uruguay in a provisional government for several weeks in 1852, during a brief period in which the National Party came to power, he led the National Party's return to power in 1860 and made attempts to unite the country's political factions, efforts not opposed by members of his own Party and Government. Berro and former president Venancio Flores were both assassinated on February 19, 1868. History of Uruguay Paraguayan War "Bernardo Prudencio Berro Larrañaga". Euskomedia. Retrieved October 4, 2013. Uruguay Country Study, click on "Caudillos and political instability" for information on Berro
José Batlle y Ordóñez
José Pablo Torcuato Batlle y Ordóñez was an Uruguayan politician who created the modern Uruguayan welfare state by his reforms. In 1898, for a few weeks he served as interim president and was elected to the presidency for two terms, from 1904 until 1907 and from 1911 to 1915 Batlle family are some of the most prominent members of the Colorado Party, he was the son of former President Lorenzo Batlle y Grau. His children César and Lorenzo were engaged in politics, he was the uncle of another Uruguayan President, Luis Batlle Berres and the great-uncle of President Jorge Batlle. He was a prominent journalist, who founded El Día newspaper in 1886. Batlle used his newspaper as a political platform for criticizing his opponents and promoting his reformist agenda. In 1904 Batlle's government forces ended the intermittent Uruguayan Civil War which had persisted for many years, when the opposing National Party leader Aparicio Saravia was killed at the battle of Masoller. Without their leader, Saravia's followers abandoned their fight, starting a period of relative peace.
During Batlle y Ordóñez's term in office, secularization became a major political issue. Uruguay banned crucifixes in hospitals by 1906, eliminated references to God and the Gospel in public oaths. Divorce laws were established during this time, he led Uruguay's delegation to the Second Hague Conference and was noted for his peace proposals there. Much of the time between his two terms Batlle spent travelling in Europe and picking up ideas for new political and social reforms, which he introduced during his second term. In 1913, Batlle proposed a reorganization of the government which would replace the presidency by a nine-member National Council of Administration, similar to the Swiss Federal Council. Batlle’s proposal for a collective leadership body was defeated in 1916 referendum, but he managed to establish a model in which executive powers were split between the Presidency and the National Council of Administration when a variant of his proposal was implemented with the Constitution of 1918.
During Batlle's second term, he began a new movement and referred to as Batllismo: concerted state action against foreign economic imperialism. During this time he fought for such things as unemployment compensation, eight-hour workdays, universal suffrage; as President, Battle introduced a wide range of reforms in areas such as social security and working conditions. All of this brought a great government involvement into the economy. Private monopolies were turned into government monopolies and tariffs were imposed on foreign products, including machinery and raw material imports; the growth of the meat processing industry stimulated the livestock industry, Uruguay's main source of wealth. Education started a process of great expansion since the mid-to-late 19th century, it became the key to success for the middle class community. The state created more high schools through the country; the university was opened to women, the enrollment increased throughout the country. In 1920 Batlle killed Washington Beltrán Barbat, a National Party deputy, in a formal duel that stemmed from vitriolic editorials published in Batlle's'El Día' newspaper and Beltrán's'El País'.
His son Washington Beltrán would become President of Uruguay. He served twice as Chairman of the National Council of Administration. A public park and a neighborhood in Montevideo are named after him. There is a town in Lavalleja Department named after him. Batllism List of political families Batllism Reforms in the era of Battlism Batlle y Ordóñez and the Modern State
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro