Club Deportivo Saski-Baskonia, S. A. D. Commonly known as Saski Baskonia and as Kirolbet Baskonia for sponsorship reasons, is a professional basketball team, based in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; the team plays in the EuroLeague. Baskonia has been a successful team in Spain, winning three ACB championships, six Spanish Cups and four Spanish Supercups. On the European level, Baskonia is one of the most important teams as it is present in the EuroLeague since 2000–01 season. Baskonia has been runners-up of the EuroLeague twice, in 2001 and 2005; the club was founded in 1959 as the basketball section of Club Deportivo Vasconia. It first played at Spain's highest level in 1972, emerged as a major force in Spanish basketball in the 1990s. Baskonia's first trophy of any kind came in 1995, the Spanish King's Cup, when Pablo Laso and Velimir Perasović led the team to an historical win; the club was making noise internationally too, reaching the FIBA Saporta Cup final in both 1994 and 1995. When it hosted the same title game in 1996, Baskonia pleased its many fans by downing PAOK behind 31 points from Ramón Rivas.
Baskonia made its first Spanish Championship playoff final in 1998 and added a second Spanish King's Cup title in 1999. They found quick success in the newly reborn EuroLeague. With a deep roster featuring Elmer Bennett, Saulius Štombergas, Victor Alexander, Fabricio Oberto and a young Luis Scola, Baskonia reached the 2001 EuroLeague Finals, before losing to Kinder Bologna in the fifth and final game on the road. With winning momentum and the additions of Dejan Tomašević and Andrés Nocioni, Baskonia celebrated the next season with another Spanish King's Cup trophy and its first Spanish League title ever. Baskonia snatched two more Spanish King's Cups, in 2004 and 2006, as Luis Scola and Pablo Prigioni played decisive roles, success followed the team in the EuroLeague. Baskonia's arrival to its first EuroLeague Final Four in 2005 couldn’t have been louder, as the team upset favored host CSKA Moscow in the semifinals, but couldn’t overcome defending champ Maccabi in the title game. Back home, Baskonia again reached the Spanish League finals.
Baskonia returned to the EuroLeague Final Four in 2006, but once again Maccabi stood in its way, this time in the semifinal. The team made it to the Spanish League finals, but was swept there; the next season, Baskonia won its EuroLeague regular season and Top 16 groups before sweeping Olympiacos in the Quarterfinal Playoffs, as Scola became the EuroLeague Basketball's top all-time scorer at that time. Nonetheless, eventual champion Panathinaikos downed Baskonia in the semifinals and once home again in Spain, Baskonia lost in the playoff semifinals. Through outstanding scouting and shrewd management, Baskonia built a squad that went to four straight EuroLeague Final Fours. Baskonia advanced to the EuroLeague Final Four in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, losing to Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv in the 2005 final, 2006 semifinals, to Panathinaikos in the 2007 semifinals, to CSKA Moscow in the 2008 semifinals. In the 2009–10 season, Baskonia won the Spanish Liga ACB championship after sweeping Regal FC Barcelona in the league's finals, 3–0.
In 2016, Baskonia returned the EuroLeague Final Four for the first time in eight years, as the club made it to the 2016 Final Four. Here the team was defeated after overtime in the semi-final by Fenerbahçe. In the third place game, Baskonia lost to Russian side Lokomotiv Kuban. In the following two season, the team was eliminated in the EuroLeague playoffs. In the 2016–17 season, the EuroLeague adopted a new league-style format in which a round-robin season of sixteen teams was played. Baskonia was one of the ten teams with A-licences. In the first season in the new format, Baskonia was eliminated in the quarter-finals by CSKA Moscow, 0–3. In the 2017–18 season, the club was defeated by Fenerbahçe, losing the quarter-final series 1–3; the club was referred to for years as Tau Cerámica, a Spanish brand name of ceramics manufacturer TAULELL, which name sponsored the club from 1987–2009. TAULELL used another of its brand names, Taugrés, as the name of the team, before changing the name to Tau Cerámica in 1997.
Tau, Taugrés and Tau Vitoria were frequently used to refer to the team. Baskonia, Saski Baskonia, Saski Baskonia, S. A. D. Refer to the name of the actual sports club itself. In 2009, the Spanish credit union Caja Laboral became the new name sponsor of the club and increased the amount of money that the name sponsor contributes to the sports club's budget. In 2016, Laboral Kutxa end its sponsorship naming to Baskonia. Baskonia has received diverse sponsorship names along the years: Caja Álava Taugrés / Tau Cerámica Caja Laboral / Laboral Kutxa Kirolbet Since 1991, Baskonia has played its home games at the Fernando Buesa Arena, which has a seating capacity of 15,504 people for basketball games; the arena was called the Pabellón Araba, from 1991 to 2000. The arena was extensively renovated and expanded in the year 2012. Source: baskonistas.com Spanish LeagueWinners: 2001–02, 2007–08, 2009–10 Runners-up: 1997–98, 2004–05, 2005–06, 2008–09Spanish CupWinners: 1995, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009 Runners-up: 1994, 2003, 2008Spanish SupercupWinners: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008.
Runners-up: 2011, 2018Association CupWinners: 19852nd DivisionWinners: 1971–72Basque CupWinners: 2011, 2012 EuroLeagueRunners-up: 2000–01, 2004–05 3rd place: 2005–06 4th place: 2006–07, 2007–08, 2015–16 Final Four: 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2016FIBA Saporta CupWinners: 1995–96 MVP Ramón Rivas Runners-up: 1993–94, 1994–
2006 FIBA World Championship
The 2006 FIBA World Championship was the 15th FIBA World Championship, the international basketball world championship for men's teams. The tournament was hosted by Japan and held from August 19 to September 3, 2006, it was co-organised by the International Basketball Federation, Japan Basketball Association and the 2006 Organizing Committee. For the first time since 1986, the World Championship was contested by 24 nations, eight more than in 2002; as a result, group rounds were conducted in four cities, with the knockout rounds being hosted by Saitama City. The tournament was won by Spain, who, in the championship final, beat Greece, 70–47, to finish the tournament having won all nine games played. For Spain, it was a record breaking performance at the FIBA World Championship and something the country had never seen before, it was the first time Spain had won Gold in the FIBA World Championship along with it being the first time Spain had won a medal at the FIBA world championship. Pau Gasol became the first Spaniard to win the MVP award.
It was the first time a country has won all nine of its games since 1994 when the United States won all nine games and took the gold medal home. The bronze medal was won by the United States, who defeated Argentina, 96–81, in the third place game, after a crushing loss by Greece. Up to 2014, including the 2014 tournament, it has been the only tournament where neither Yugoslavia or the USA have reached the final. At the start of tournament, all 24 participating countries had 12 players on their roster; the following national teams competed: Japan qualified as the host country, Italy, Puerto Rico and Montenegro, Turkey gained FIBA wild-card invitations. Argentina qualified as the champion of the 2004 Olympics; the remaining 18 countries qualified through their continents' qualifying tournaments. The draw for 2006 World Championship was held in Tokyo on 15 January 2006. In the preliminary rounds, Group A played at Sendai, Group B at Hiroshima, Group C at Hamamatsu and Group D at Sapporo; the Medal Rounds were played at Saitama.
August 19, 2006 August 20, 2006 August 21, 2006 August 23, 2006 August 24, 2006 August 19, 2006 August 20, 2006 August 21, 2006 August 23, 2006 August 24, 2006 August 19, 2006 August 20, 2006 August 22, 2006 August 23, 2006 August 24, 2006 August 19, 2006 August 20, 2006 August 22, 2006 August 23, 2006 August 24, 2006 All times are local. Venue: Saitama Super Arena Since the inaugural competition one of the two teams competing for the title had been either the USA or Yugoslavia. After the latter's breakup, a Former Yugoslav Republic, has taken its place in the final; the 2006 final was the first. The final was an unexpectedly one-sided affair, with Spain dominating from the beginning and limiting Greece to just 47 points, fewer than the Greeks had scored in any single game in the tournament, less than half what Greece had scored against the USA in the semifinals. Spain won despite having lost power forward Pau Gasol, named the tournament's most valuable player, to injury in a semifinal match against Argentina.
Teams that were eliminated at the round of 16 are tied for 9th. Teams that were 5th at their preliminary rounds are tied for 17th. Teams that were 6th at their preliminary rounds are tied for 21st. Pau Gasol Jorge Garbajosa Carmelo Anthony Manu Ginóbili Theodoros Papaloukas For the World Championship, FIBA selected 40 professional referees. • McDonald's FIBA World Championship 2006 official website FIBA official website EuroBasket.com FIBA Basketball World Cup Page
A silver medal in sports and other similar areas involving competition is a medal made of, or plated with, silver awarded to the second-place finisher, or runner-up, of contests or competitions such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. The outright winner receives the third place a bronze medal. More silver is traditionally a metal sometimes used for all types of high-quality medals, including artistic ones. In 1896, winners' medals were in fact silver; the custom of gold-silver-bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 games and has been copied for many other sporting events. Minting the medals is the responsibility of the host city. From 1928 to 1968 the design was always the same: the obverse showed a generic design by Florentine artist Giuseppe Cassioli with text giving the host city. From 1972–2000, Cassioli's design remained on the obverse with a custom design by the host city on the reverse. Noting that Cassioli's design showed a Roman amphitheatre for what was a Greek games, a new obverse design was commissioned for the Athens 2004 Games.
Winter Olympics medals have been of more varied design. In The Open Championship golf tournament, the Silver Medal is an award presented to the lowest scoring amateur player at the tournament. In many sports with an elimination tournament, including those with a third place playoff, silver is the only medal given to a team that loses, whereas gold and bronze are earned by teams winning their final matches. Notable athletes such as Jocelyne Larocque removed their runners-up/silver medals right after receiving them; some countries present civilian decorations known as Silver Medals. These include: Austria′s Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria Italy′s Silver Medal of Military Valor South Africa′s Silver Medal for Merit The Civil Air Patrol′s Silver Medal of Valor in the United States; the Zoological Society of London awards a Silver Medal "to a Fellow of the Society or any other person for contributions to the understanding and appreciation of zoology, including such activities as public education in natural history, wildlife conservation."
The Royal Academy of Engineering awards a Silver Medal "for an outstanding and demonstrated personal contribution to UK engineering, which results in successful market exploitation, by an engineer with less than 22 years in full-time employment or equivalent." Runner-up Medal Designs for all Olympic Games
The small forward known as the three, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. Small forwards are shorter and leaner than power forwards and centers, but taller and larger than either of the guard positions; the small forward is considered to be the most versatile of the five main basketball positions. In the NBA, small forwards range from 6' 6" to 6' 10" while in the WNBA, small forwards are between 5' 11" to 6' 2". Small forwards are responsible for scoring points, defending and as secondary or tertiary rebounders behind the power forward and center, although a few have considerable passing responsibilities. Many small forwards in professional basketball are prolific scorers; the styles with which small forwards amass their points vary widely. Some players at the position are accurate shooters, others prefer to initiate physical contact with opposing players, still others are slashers who possess jump shots. In some cases, small forwards position as off-the-ball specialists.
Small forwards who are defensive specialists are versatile as they can guard multiple positions using their size and strength
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Real Madrid Baloncesto
Real Madrid Baloncesto is a Spanish professional basketball team, founded in 1931, as a division of the Real Madrid C. F. multi sports club. They play domestically in the Liga ACB, internationally in the EuroLeague; as successful as the Real Madrid athletic association's football club, the basketball team has been the most successful of its peers in both Spain and Europe. The Real Madrid squads have won a record 34 Spanish League championships, including in 7-in-a-row and 10-in-a-row sequences, they have won a record 27 Spanish Cup titles, a record 10 EuroLeague Championships, a record 4 Saporta Cups. Madrid has won a record 5 Intercontinental Cups, they have won 3 Triple Crowns; some of the club's star players over the years have included: Arvydas Sabonis, Dražen Petrović, Rudy Fernandez, Serge Ibaka, Dražen Dalipagić, Nikola Mirotic, Juan Antonio Corbalán, Fernando Martín, Alberto Herreros, Dejan Bodiroga, Luka Dončić. Real Madrid has a developmental basketball team that plays in the amateur level Spanish 4th-tier Liga EBA, called Real Madrid B.
With a record of success that exceeds that of any other team in European basketball, Real Madrid has always lived willingly with high expectations. For at least half a century, Madrid has been a standard-bearer in European basketball, accumulating a record ten continental titles, based on its dominance in the 1960s, its early dominance in Spain has resulted in another untouchable cache of 34 national domestic league and 27 national cup trophies. And every time that Madrid did not play in Europe's top-tier level competition, it won a different continental trophy – four Saporta Cups, a Korać Cup, a ULEB Cup – as a stepping-stone back to the big time. Players like Emiliano Rodríguez, Clifford Luyk, Wayne Brabender, Walter Szczerbiak, Juan Antonio Corbalán, Dražen Petrović, Mirza Delibašić, Arvydas Sabonis, Dejan Bodiroga have turned Real Madrid into one of the biggest basketball clubs in the world. Madrid won as many as 7 EuroLeague titles between 1964 and 1980, becoming a European basketball club legend, when it took the club 15 years to win it again, it found success in other European competitions, too.
Madrid downed Olimpia Milano in the 1984 Cup Winners' Cup, on free throws made by Brian Jackson Petrović had 62 points in the 1989 Cup Winners' Cup final, against Snaidero Caserta. Madrid added a 1988 Korać Cup title, against Cibona Zagreb. Real Madrid won the 1992 Saporta Cup trophy against PAOK, on a buzzer-beating jumper by Rickey Brown, it was not until Sabonis arrived in Madrid, when Real won its last EuroLeague title in 1995, by beating Olympiacos in the final. Madrid next won the 1997 Saporta Cup title against Verona, but no more European-wide trophies came for the club in the next decade. Madrid still found success at home, winning Spanish League titles in 2000 and 2005, it all changed in 2007. With the help of players like Louis Bullock, Felipe Reyes, Álex Mumbrú, Madrid added a new trophy to its roll of honours, the ULEB Cup, as it won 12 of its last 13 games, downed Lietuvos Rytas, by a score of 75–87, in the 2007 ULEB Cup Final. Moreover, Madrid finished in 2nd place in the 2006–07 Spanish League regular season, stayed strong in its play in Palacio Vistalegre, during the Spanish league playoffs.
In Pablo Laso's era, Real Madrid Baloncesto managed to find consistent success. Spanish top-tier level players of the time, like Sergio Rodríguez and Rudy Fernández, were acquired by the club. ACB Rising Star winner Nikola Mirotić was a part of the team's mix, along with Sergio Llull and Felipe Reyes, to give Real Madrid a strong home grown core of players; this group of players gave Real Madrid Baloncesto 5 Copa del Reys titles, 4 Spanish Super Cup titles, 4 Liga ACB titles, 2 EuroLeague championship, an FIBA Intercontinental Cup championship. On May 17, 2015, after waiting 20 years to win another EuroLeague championship, Real Madrid won the 2015 EuroLeague championship against Olympiacos. Madrid's Andrés Nocioni was named the Final Four MVP; this title was called La Novena. Following the EuroLeague title, the 2014–15 ACB season's championship was won by Real; because Real won the national Spanish Cup and the national Spanish Supercup that season, the club won its first "Quadruble crown". On September 27, 2015, 34 years after their last FIBA Intercontinental Cup title, Real Madrid won their fifth FIBA Intercontinental Cup trophy, after defeating the Brazilian League club Bauru.
Sergio Llull was named the MVP of the tournament. Real Madrid thus made it a record five FIBA Intercontinental Cup titles won, with the Intercontinental Cup title, became the only European basketball club to win five official titles in a single season competition. On 20 May 2018, Real Madrid conquered again the EuroLeague; the considered major leader of the team that season would be a Slovenian guard/forward named Luka Dončić, who became the designated MVP of the EuroLeague on all accounts at 19 years old. Estadio Chamartín, outdoor basketball court under the stands of Real Madrid football stadium. Frontón Recoletos, first indoor court, an adapted basque pelota fronton located in Salamanca district. Frontón Jai Alai, first big court and official headquarters of the club a converted fronton located in Los Jerónimos neighborhood. Colegio Maravillas, used during the construction of the new pavilion. Pabellón de la Ciudad Deportiva del Real Madrid, first pavillion owned by the club, located in its tra
The Toronto Raptors are a Canadian professional basketball team based in Toronto, Ontario. The Raptors compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member club of the league's Eastern Conference Atlantic Division. Founded in 1995 as part of the NBA's expansion into Canada, the Raptors are the only Canadian-based team in the league, they play their home games at the Scotiabank Arena. Like most expansion teams, the Raptors struggled in their early years, but after the acquisition of Vince Carter through a draft day trade in 1998, the team set league-attendance records and made the NBA playoffs in 2000, 2001, 2002. Carter was instrumental in leading the team to their first playoff series win in 2001, where they advanced to the Eastern Conference semifinals. During the 2002–03 and 2003–04 seasons, they failed to make significant progress, Carter was traded in 2004 to the New Jersey Nets. After Carter left, Chris Bosh emerged as the team leader. In the 2006–07 season, Bryan Colangelo was appointed as General Manager, through a combination of Bosh, 2006 first overall draft pick Andrea Bargnani, a revamp of the roster, the Raptors qualified for their first playoff berth in five years, capturing the Atlantic Division title.
In the 2007–08 season, they advanced to the playoffs, but failed to reach the post-season in each of the next five seasons. Colangelo overhauled the team's roster for the 2009–10 season in a bid to persuade pending free agent Bosh to stay, but Bosh departed to sign with the Miami Heat in July 2010, ushering in yet another era of rebuilding for the Raptors. Masai Ujiri replaced Colangelo in 2013, helped herald a new era of success, led by backcourt duo Kyle Lowry and DeMar DeRozan; the Raptors returned to the playoffs the following year and became a consistent playoff team in every year of Ujiri's tenure. Under Ujiri, the team won five Division titles and registered their most successful regular season in 2018. However, the team's failure to reach beyond the conference finals prompted Ujiri to fire head coach Dwane Casey shortly after the playoffs concluded and conduct the high-profile trade of DeRozan for Kawhi Leonard and Danny Green that summer, as well as Marc Gasol before the trade deadline.
The Toronto Raptors were established on November 4, 1993, when the NBA, as part of its expansion into Canada, awarded its 28th franchise to a group headed by Toronto businessman John Bitove for a then-record expansion fee of $125 million USD. Bitove and Allan Slaight of Slaight Communications each owned 44 per cent, with the Bank of Nova Scotia, David Peterson, Phil Granovsky being minority partners. Wagering on NBA games in Ontario nearly cost Toronto the expansion franchise, due to strict league rules at the time that prohibited gambling. However, an agreement was reached whereby the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation, the provincial lottery corporation that regulates gambling in Ontario, agreed to stop offering wagering on all NBA games in exchange for a donation by the Raptors of $5 million in its first three years and $1 million annually afterwards to its charitable foundation to compensate OLG for its loss of revenue; the Raptors, along with the Vancouver Grizzlies, played their first game in 1995, were the first NBA teams based in Canada since the 1946–47 Toronto Huskies of the Basketball Association of America, though the Buffalo Braves had played a total of 16 regular season games at Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto from 1971 to 1975.
The Raptors marked a return of professional basketball to the city after a 48-year absence. Initial sentiment was in favour of reviving the Huskies nickname, but team management realized it would be nearly impossible to design a logo that did not resemble that of the Minnesota Timberwolves; as a result, a nationwide contest was held to help develop their colours and logo. Over 2,000 entries were narrowed down to eleven prospects: Beavers, Dragons, Hogs, Scorpions, T-Rex, Tarantulas and Towers; the final selection—Toronto Raptors—was unveiled on Canadian national television on May 15, 1994: the choice was influenced by the popularity of the 1993 film adaption of the 1990 science fiction novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton. The name "Raptor" is a common informal name for the Velociraptor, a swift medium-sized dromaeosaurid theropod non-avian dinosaur. On May 24, 1994, the team's logo and first General Manager, Isiah Thomas, were revealed at a press conference; as part of the deal, Thomas received an option to purchase part of the team for under market value.
He would purchase 4.5 per cent in May 1995 and a further 4.5 per cent in December 1995, half each from Bitove and Slaight, decreasing their share to 39.5 per cent. The team's colours of bright red, purple and silver were revealed; the team competed in the Central Division, before the inaugural season began, sales of Raptors merchandise ranked seventh in the league, marking a successful return of professional basketball to Canada. As General Manager, Isiah Thomas staffed the management positions with his own personnel, naming long-time Detroit Pistons assistant Brendan Malone as the Raptors' head coach; the team's roster was filled as a result of an expansion draft in 1995. Following a coin flip, Toronto was given first choice and selected Chicago Bulls point guard and three-point specialist B. J. Armstrong. Armstrong refused to report for training, Thomas promptly traded him to the Golden State Warriors for power forwards Carlos Rogers and Victor Alexander. Thomas selected a wi