Joseph Bové is a French farmer and syndicalist, member of the alter-globalization movement, spokesman for Via Campesina. He was one of the twelve official candidates in the 2007 French presidential election, he served in the European Parliament as a member of the European Greens in the 2009-2014 term, for the 2014-2019 term. José Bové was raised in many different places; as a child he lived including the United States. Bové speaks English fluently, as his parents moved with him to Berkeley, California when he was three, they were invited to be researchers at the University of Berkeley. After they returned to France, they lived in Paris. Bové attended a Jesuit secondary school near Paris. While at university, he associated with pacifists; when asked to serve in the army, he fled France. In 1976 Bové joined the Fight for the Larzac, a movement protesting the proposed expansion of a military camp on the Larzac plateau, it would have changed the ecology of the area. He joined a band of peasants illegally building a sheep barn.
The protest succeeded, the government cancelled the military plan. As a result of that experience, Bové became a sheep farmer there. Bové continued both as an activist. In 1987, he formed an agricultural union, it promotes the quality of life for the environment, promoting organic farming. In opposition to many companies in the profit-oriented agro-industry, Bové is a prominent opponent of genetically modified organisms. In 1995 he joined Greenpeace on their ship, the Rainbow Warrior, in a voyage to protest nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific Ocean, he has been part of the anarchist organization Alternative Libertaire. Bové and the Confédération gained national and international attention in 1999 by dismantling a McDonald's franchise, under construction in Millau. Considered by his supporters to be non-violent, Bové designed this protest against new US restrictions on importing Roquefort cheese and other products, which were harming the farmers who live from these products, to raise awareness about McDonald's' use of hormone-treated beef.
Bové was sentenced to three months' imprisonment for his role. The European Union imposed restrictions on importing hormone-treated beef. However, the World Trade Organization, of which both the US and France are members, disallowed this restriction. After the EU refused to comply and remove the restrictions, the United States placed punitive tariffs on the importation of certain European goods, including Roquefort cheese, in retaliation. During an interview by Lynn Jeffress for Z magazine in June 2001, Bové explained why he destroyed the McDonald's, saying: "This is a fight against free trade global capitalism. It's about the logic of a certain economic system, not an American system, it can be a struggle against any country, this one or that one." Bové has participated in numerous anti-globalization movements. In June 1997 he took part in the first anti-GM mowing; the same year that he took part in destruction of the McDonald's, he attended the protests in Seattle against the World Trade Organization meeting.
Bové became a figure of anti-globalization. Since he has redoubled his efforts in the world peasant and anti-globalization movements, he has said that he does not oppose the WTO and global rules, agrees there is a need for such forms. But his resistance, as stated by his followers, is directed against the lack of democracy in how these rules are developed and implemented. Bové is a founding member of ATTAC. In 2001 Bové took part in a major action destroying genetically modified crops in Brazil. In 2005 he campaigned for a "No" vote in the French referendum on the EU Constitution. In April 2002 Bové was at the head of an activist group arriving in the West Bank to protest the massive Israeli Army operation conducted at that time, it caused many Palestinian casualties. The group entered Yassir Arafat's headquarters at the time besieged by Israeli forces. Bové joined with members of the newly established International Solidarity Movement, who were acting as "human shields" at the Palestinian Presidential Compound so as to deter the army from breaking in.
After spending a day in the besieged headquarters, Bové came out and was promptly arrested and deported by Israeli police. Upon his return to France, he was met by dozens of pro-Israeli and pro-Palestinian demonstrators, who scuffled at Paris' Orly airport. In an interview in 2002 with TV channel Canal Plus, Bové said he believed that the wave of attacks against French synagogues was being either arranged or fabricated by Mossad. "Who profits from the crime?" Bové asked. "The Israeli government and its secret services have an interest in creating a certain psychosis, in making believe that there is a climate of antisemitism in France, in order to distract attention from what they are doing." Considerable outrage was expressed after his remarks, he apologized for the statement. His visit to Arafat was denounced in a speech by the head of France's CRIF, an umbrella group for Jewish organisations. Bové has intervened to support the movements of the Tahitians and the Kanaks, the indigenous Melanesian people of New Caledonia.
On 23 April 2004 he announced that he would join
In artificial intelligence research, the situated approach builds agents that are designed to behave successfully in their environment. This requires designing AI "from the bottom-up" by focussing on the basic perceptual and motor skills required to survive; the situated approach gives a much lower priority to abstract reasoning or problem-solving skills. The approach was proposed as an alternative to traditional approaches. After several decades, classical AI technologies started to face intractable issues when confronted with real-world modeling problems. All approaches to address these issues focus on modeling intelligences situated in an environment, they have become known as the situated approach to AI. During the late 1980s, the approach now known as Nouvelle AI was pioneered at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory by Rodney Brooks; as opposed to classical or traditional artificial intelligence, Nouvelle AI purposely avoided the traditional goal of modeling human-level performance, but rather tries to create systems with intelligence at the level of insects, closer to real-world robots.
But at least at MIT new AI did lead to an attempt for humanoid AI in the Cog Project. The conceptual shift introduced by nouvelle AI flourished in the robotics area, given way to behavior-based artificial intelligence, a methodology for developing AI based on a modular decomposition of intelligence, it was made famous by Rodney Brooks: his subsumption architecture was one of the earliest attempts to describe a mechanism for developing BBAI. It is popular in robotics and to a lesser extent to implement intelligent virtual agents because it allows the successful creation of real-time dynamic systems that can run in complex environments. For example, it underlies the intelligence of the Sony and many RoboCup robot teams. Realizing that in fact all these approaches were aiming at building not an abstract intelligence, but rather an intelligence situated in a given environment, they have come to be known as the situated approach. In fact, this approach stems out from early insights of Alan Turing, describing the need to build machines equipped with sense organs to learn directly from the real-world instead of focusing on abstract activities, such as playing chess.
Classically, a software entity is defined as a simulated element, able to act on itself and on its environment, which has an internal representation of itself and of the outside world. An entity can communicate with other entities, its behavior is the consequence of its perceptions, its representations, its interactions with the other entities. Simulating entities in a virtual environment requires simulating the entire process that goes from a perception of the environment, or more from a stimulus, to an action on the environment; this process is called the AI loop and technology used to simulate it can be subdivided in two categories. Sensorimotor or low-level AI deals with either the animation problem. Decisional or high-level AI deals with the action selection problem. There are two main approaches in decisional AI; the vast majority of the technologies available on the market, such as planning algorithms, finite state machines, or expert systems, are based on the traditional or symbolic AI approach.
Its main characteristics are: It is top-down: it subdivides, in a recursive manner, a given problem into a series of sub-problems that are easier to solve. It is knowledge-based: it relies on a symbolic description of the world, such as a set of rules. However, the limits of traditional AI, which goal is to build systems that mimic human intelligence, are well-known: a combinatorial explosion of the number of rules occurs due to the complexity of the environment. In fact, it is impossible to predict all the situations that will be encountered by an autonomous entity. In order to address these issues, another approach to decisional AI known as situated or behavioral AI, has been proposed, it does not attempt to model systems that produce deductive reasoning processes, but rather systems that behave realistically in their environment. The main characteristics of this approach are the following: It is bottom-up: it relies on elementary behaviors, which can be combined to implement more complex behaviors.
It is behavior-based: it does not rely on a symbolic description of the environment, but rather on a model of the interactions of the entities with their environment. The goal of situated AI is to model entities; this is achieved thanks to both the intrinsic robustness of the control architecture, its adaptation capabilities to unforeseen situations. In artificial intelligence and cognitive science, the term situated refers to an agent, embedded in an environment; the term situated is used to refer to robots, but some researchers argue that software agents can be situated if: they exist in a dynamic environment, which they can manipulate or change through their actions, which they can sense or perceive. Examples might include web-based agents, which can alter data or trigger processes over the Internet, or virtual-reality bots which inhabit and change virtual worlds, such as Second Life. Being situated is considered to be part of being embodied, but it is useful to consider each perspective individually.
The situated perspective emphasizes that intelligent behavior derives from the environment and the agent's interac
Shem-Tob ben Isaac Shaprut of Tudela was a Spanish Jewish philosopher and polemicist. He is confused with the physician Shem-Tob ben Isaac of Tortosa, who lived earlier, he may be confused with another Ibn Shaprut, Hasdai Ibn Shaprut, who corresponded with the king of the Khazars in the 900's. While still a young man he was compelled to debate in public, on original sin and redemption, with Cardinal Pedro de Luna, afterward Antipope Benedict XIII; this disputation took place in Pamplona, December 26, 1375, in the presence of bishops and learned theologians. A devastating war which raged in Navarre between the Castilians and the English obliged Ibn Shaprut, with many others, to leave the country, he settled at Tarazona, in Aragon, where he practised his profession of physician among both Jews and Christians. As a Talmudic scholar he carried on a correspondence with Sheshet. At Tarazona he completed a polemical work against baptized Jews; as a model and guide for this work, which consists of fourteen chapters, or "gates," and is written in the form of a dialogue, he took the polemical Sefer Milhamot Adonai of Jacob ben Reuben, falsely attributed to David Ḳimḥi.
Ibn Shaprut's work, however, is not a partial reproduction of the Milḥamot, as has been incorrectly stated. In the fifteenth chapter, which Ibn Shaprut added he criticizes a work written by Alfonso do Valladolid against Jacob ben Reuben; the thirteenth chapter contains a interesting fragment by a 14th-century Schopenhauer, who wrote under the pseudonym "Lamas". The Eben Boḥan has been preserved in several manuscripts; as part of The Touchstone in order to assist the Jews in defense against conversion and polemical writings, Ibn Shaprut edited or translated portions of the Four Gospels into Hebrew, accompanying them with pointed observations. Ibn Shaprut wrote a commentary to the first book of Avicenna's canon entitled "En Kol," on music for which he made use of the Hebrew translation of Sulaiman ibn Yaish and that of Allorqui, which he criticizes severely, he wrote a super commentary, entitled "Ẓafnat Pa'aneaḥ," to Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Pentateuch. One work of Ibn Shaprut has been printed: "Pardes Rimmonim," The Orchard of Pomegranates explanations of difficult Talmudic aggadot Shem-Tob's Hebrew Gospel of Matthew is not a separate translation, certainly not by Ibn Shaprut himself, but a complete commentary, in Hebrew, on the gospel of Matthew found in The Touchstone.
On the basis that it constitutes an earlier independent text, it has been excised and edited as a separate edition by George Howard, Hebrew Gospel of MatthewIn 1879 the German orientalist Adolf Herbst published two other Jewish Hebrew translations of Matthew used by Italian and Spanish Jews to combat attempts to conversion, as Des Schemtob ben Schaphrut hebraeische Übersetzung des Evangeliums Matthaei nach den Drucken des S. Münster und J. du Tillet-Mercier neu herausgegeben.. However these two manuscripts have no direct connection to Ibn Shaprut, they are a Spanish manuscript published and edited by the cartographer Sebastian Münster and a related Italian Jewish manuscript purchased by Bishop Jean du Tillet and published by the Hebraist Jean Mercier. Moritz Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2548-2557. Bibl. xv. 82, xix. 43. Uebers. Pp. 689 et seq.. H. Hamberger, Hist. Wörterb. P. 301. Viii. 23 et seq.. 145 et seq.. 219 et seq.. Jud. iii. 259 et seq. José-Vicente Niclós: Šem t.ob ibn Šaprut. «La piedra de toque».
Una obra de controversia judeo-cristiana. Introducción, edición crítica, traducción y notas al libro I. Bibliotheca Hispana Bíblica 16. Madrid 1997. Jewishencyclopedia.com SourceRichard Gottheil Meyer Kayserling This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore. "article name needed". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
The Holsteiner is a breed of horse originating in the Schleswig-Holstein region of northern Germany. It is thought to be the oldest of warmblood breeds. Though the population is not large, Holsteiners are a dominant force of international show jumping, are found at the top levels of dressage, combined driving, show hunters, eventing. Holsteiners are medium-framed horses averaging between 16 to 17 hands at the withers. Approved stallions mares a minimum of 15.2 hands. The type, or general appearance, exhibited by Holsteiners should be that of an athletic riding horse; as a breed, Holsteiners are known rather high-set necks and powerful hindquarters. The heavy neck was perpetuated in modern Holsteiners with the help of Ladykiller xx and his son, Landgraf. In centuries past, Holsteiners retained the hallmark Roman nose of the Baroque horse, but today it has been replaced by a smaller head with large, intelligent eyes; these conformational characteristics give most Holsteiners elegant movement. Before the onset of mechanization, these horses were used in agriculture, as coach horses, for riding.
The closed stud book and careful preservation of female family lines has ensured, in an era of globalization, the horses of Holstein have a unique character. While the active gaits, arched neck, attractive manner in harness of the early foundation bloodstock have been retained, the breed survived because of the willingness of its breeders to conform to changing market demands; the high-headed jump and leg faults were corrected with supple, basculing jumping technique and structurally correct improvement sires. In the past 15 or 20 years more pronounced refinement and aesthetic appeal have occurred; the easiest way to identify a Holsteiner is by the hot brand on the left hip, given to foals when they are inspected for their papers and passport. Foals outside of the main registry can receive an alternate brand. In most cases, the last two digits of the life number are part of the brand. Many male Holsteiners have names beginning in the letters "C" or "L" due to the dominance of male lines perpetuated by Cor de la Bryére, Cottage Son xx, Ladykiller xx.
However, since Holsteiners from those families are used to add jumping ability to other warmblood breeding programs, non-Holstein warmbloods often have those initials. Fillies, are named by year with I and J being the same year and Q and X not being used. For example, fillies born in 2008 and 1986 had names beginning in the letter "A"; the use of the sire's name as part of the name of his offspring is discouraged. Holsteiners in general have round, elastic strides with impulsion from the haunches and natural balance. In motion, Holsteiners retain the character of their coach driving forebears exhibiting more articulation of the joints than is common among other warmbloods; the acknowledged specialization for jumping capacity in the breed sometimes means the quality of the walk and trot suffer, though this is not the rule. The canter, light, soft and dynamic, is the best gait of the Holsteiner; the strongest asset of the Holsteiner breed is their jumping ability. The average Holsteiner exhibits great power and scope, correct technique.
The scope and power were inherited from the heavier old Holsteiners, but they lacked carefulness, adjustability and technique. Improvement sires like Cor de la Bryére successively eliminated these flaws, making the Holsteiner breed internationally known for Olympic-caliber jumping. Werner Schockemöhle, a leading breeder of warmblood sport horses in neighboring Oldenburg said no breeding community in the world has a better knowledge of the show-jumping horse than the breeders of Holstein. Similar to horse breeds in the nearby areas of Oldenburg and Friesland, traditional Holsteiners were dark-colored and minimally marked; this tendency has evolved into a preference for black, dark bay, brown, though lighter shades such as chestnuts and grays are permitted. Horses with large white spots suggestive of pinto patterning or any of the traits associated with leopard-spotting are excluded from the registry. Despite the fact that palomino and buckskin are not acceptable colors for the Holsteiner, the Thoroughbred improvement sire, Marlon xx was himself a dark buckskin that left the registry with a number of palomino and buckskin offspring.
There are lazy Holsteiners and sensitive, spooky Holsteiners. Some families, like that of Capitol I, are known for an uncomplicated temperament. Amateurs can find uncomplicated, steady mounts, professionals can find bold, sensitive rides. Many Holsteiners are well-balanced, strong-nerved and bold; some critics of the breed, or particular lineages within it, find that strong selection for jumping performance results in capable high-level jumpers, but at the cost of rideability. The Holsteiner breed has been bred in the northernmost region of Germany, Schleswig-Holstein, for over 700 years; the windswept coastal marshes where the breed originated are characterized by rich, wet soil that could dry out and turn concrete-like in a matter of hours. Since the first century, these fertile marshes were said to be home to an autochthonous horse, small and suited to the climate. Organized horse breeding in Holstein was first conducted in the monasteries of Uetersen. Monks were the most literate members of Middle Ages societies, so accurate record-keeping depended on them.
From the small native horses of the Haseldorf marshes, the Uetersen monks began to develop larger horses suitable for riding i
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Sudingphaa was a Tungkhungia king of the Ahom dynasty, who ruled at the climactic of the Ahom kingdom. His reign witnessed the invasion of Burmese on Assam and its subsequent occupation by British East India Company, he was installed as King twice. His first reign ended when Ruchinath Burhagohain deposed him and installed Purandar Singha in his stead, his second reign ended with his defeat at the hands of the invading Burmese army. He continued his militant efforts to regain his kingdom as well as to keep Purandar Singha at bay, he submitted himself to Burmese who induced him to believe that they will make him king. Instead he was placed in confinement at Rangpur. After the defeat of Burmese in the First Anglo-Burmese War and subsequent peace Treaty of Yandabo on 24 February 1826 CE, Assam passed into the hand of British. Most of the members of Ahom Royal family were granted pensions. Chandrakanta Singha received a pension of 500 rupees, he first lived in Kaliabor and on at Guwahati. He visited Calcutta.
He died in 1839 CE soon after his return to Guwahati. Chandrakanta Singha was the second son of Numali Rajmao. Kadamdighala Gohain was the grandson of the younger brother of Rudra Singha. Kadamdighala Gohain was holding the titular rank of Charingia Raja when the reigning monarch Gaurinath Singha died at Jorhat, in 1795 AD. Due to his personal friendship and because of his support to Purnananda Burhagohain in suppressing the Moamoria rebellion, the Burhagohain raised the elder son of Kadamdighala Gohain named Kinaram Gohain as the new king of the Ahom Kingdom, a mere baby of less than two years old. In 1795 Kinaram Gohain was proclaimed Swargadeo Kamaleswar Singha, the sovereign of Ahom Kingdom in Assam. Chandrakanta was born at Jorhat in 1797 AD, two years after his elder brother's accession to throne. Chandrakanta Gohain was raised in the Royal Palace at Jorhat. During his childhood, he made friends with the sons of junior officers and palace servants. Prominent among them was Satram, the son of a royal poultry keeper and he exerted great influence over Chandrakanta Gohain.
Meanwhile, Kadamdighala Gohain Charing Raja died in 1799 AD and Prince Chandrakanta Gohain was given the titular rank of Charing Raja, which he held till his accession to the throne. Kamaleswar Singha died of smallpox disease at the age of sixteen in January 1811. Purnananda Burhagohain nominated Chandrakanta as the new king of the Ahom Kingdom, merely fourteen years old. During the coronation ceremony, young Chandrakanta was nervous at the presence of so many people in the audience hall, he refused to sit on the throne. The nobles hesitantly agreed and accordingly the coronation ceremony was completed, he was proclaimed Swargadeo Chandrakanta Singha, the sovereign of Ahom Kingdom. The Tai-Ahom priest conferred on Chandrakanta Singha the name Sudingphaa; the expensive Singarigharutha ceremony, the traditional Tai-Ahom custom of crowning the monarch, was withheld, owing to the poor financial condition of the state. Being still a boy Chandrakanta Singha was unable to take much part in the government of the country, the control remained with the Purnananda Burhagohain.
Purnananda Burhagohain transacted all the business in the name of the king without making any attempt to eclipse the king or obscure his name. He took the king around to important localities to give confidence to the people and instill in their minds respect for Ahom monarchy. While the Purnananda Burhagohain handled the affairs of state, the young king Chandrakanta Singha spend his time in amusement and fun in the royal palace in Jorhat among his friends and palace maids; as Chandrakanta grew up, he began to feel unrest at Purnananda Burhagohain's influence. With the help of his trusted friend Satram, raised to the rank of Charingia Phukan, Chandrakanta tried to free himself from Purnananda Burhagohain's influence and control. Chandrakanta listened to Satram's advice in preference to nobles, at last took to receiving them in audience with Satram seated at his side; the nobles protested, but in vain, things went from bad to worse. Backed by Satram and other associates, the young King flouted Purnananda Burhagohain's opposition to his marriage with Padmavati, the daughter of a Bhakat or disciple of Bengena-atia Satra, a commoner and raised her to the rank of Parvatia Konwari or Chief Queen, thus violated the time-honored custom according to which royal partners had to be selected from the principal Ahom families.
In response to King's arrogant behavior, the nobles led by the Purnananda Burhagohain protested by refusing to grant the customary salute given to Chief Queen in the audience hall, thereby increasing the friction between two sides. Satram was of the same age as the King. Satram, himself held high ambitions and was aware of the fact that as long as Purnananda Burhagohain exercised absolute control over state affairs, his ambitions will never be fulfilled. Therefore, he began to gather support against the Burhagohain from various quarters of the Ahom nobility. First of all, he misinterpreted Purnananda Burhagohain's motives and actions and poisoned the ears of Chandrakanta Singha. Badan Chandra Borphukan, the viceroy of Guwahati, was made to believe that Purnananda Burhagohain was his enemy and the Burhagohain was planning to destroy him. Badan Chandra's daughter Pijou Gabharu, who had ma