São Carlos

São Carlos is a Brazilian municipality in the interior of the state of São Paulo, 254 kilometers from the city of São Paulo. With a population of 249,415 inhabitants, it is the 13th largest city in the state in terms of the number of residents, being in the center of the state of São Paulo; the municipality is formed by the headquarters and the districts of Água Vermelha, Bela Vista São-Carlense, Santa Eudóxia and Vila Nery. The city is an important regional industrial center, with the economy based on industrial activities and farming, such as the production of sugar cane, orange and chicken. Served by road and rail systems, São Carlos houses several multinational companies. Given local and, in some ways, regional needs, there is a network of commerce and services distributed in street stores, convenience stores and a mall of the Iguatemi network. In the field of research, besides the universities, two centers of technical development of Embrapa are present in the municipality. São Carlos is the first city in South America in numbers of doctors per inhabitant, according to a survey done since 2006 by UFSCar.

In all, there are 1,700 PhDs. In Brazil, the ratio is one PhD per 5423 inhabitants; the city is home to several public higher education institutions, such as the Federal University of São Carlos, two campi of the University of São Paulo, the Federal Institute of São Paulo and FATEC, as well as a private higher education institution. This makes intense the university activity in the city. For this reason, São Carlos has a floating population of more than twenty-nine thousand graduates and graduate students from other cities and states; the region started to be settled in the end of the 18th century, with the opening of a road that led to the gold mines in Cuiabá and Goiás. Leaving from Piracicaba, passing through Rio Claro, the hills, fields and by typical vegetations of the Brazilian countryside, settlers established in the region. São Carlos' history started in 1831. On the city's foundation date, 4 November 1857, the population resided in some houses around the chapel and the inhabitants were Arruda Botelho's family heirs, who were the first owners of the "Pinhal" alloments.

Between 1831 and 1857 the pioneer coffee farms were formed, starting the first economic activity in the city. The coffee crops came to the "Pinhal" farm in 1840 and spread throughout the fertile lands around, becoming the main export item; the city foundation is credited to Antônio Carlos de Arruda Botelho, Count of Pinhal, an influent farmer and entrepreneur. São Carlos was elevated to village in 1865, when ruling chamber, was created. In 1874, the village had 6,897 inhabitants, as a humble highlight of its fast growth and regional importance, it became a city in 1880 and in 1886, with a population of 16,104, its urban structure was settled. The city arises on the coffee crops expansion context, relevant to the last two decades of the 19th century and to the first two of the 20th century; the arrival of the railway in 1884 provided an efficient system to transport the coffee production to the Santos harbor and boosted the economy of the region. The railway contributed to the political and economic consolidation of the central area of the city.

When slavery ended, government created incentives to bring in immigrants. São Carlos had received German nationals brought by the Count of Pinhal in 1876. Between 1880 and 1904, the city was one of the most important immigration centers in São Paulo state, the majority of them being Italians – Northern Italians, they worked in manufacturing factories, as well as trading activities. In the beginning of the 20th century, countless cultural societies developed social activities aiming to promote literacy. Vittorio Emanuele Society in 1900 and Dante Alighieri in 1902 were but a few of them; the Italian presence was so significant that during the first half of the 20th century, the Italian government had a consulate branch in São Carlos. With the Wall Street crash of 1929, coffee production went through a crisis, which made many immigrants leave rural areas for factories, wood artifact production and construction. Farmers had applied the profits obtained with coffee in the constitution of several types of companies in São Carlos: banks, cable cars, water pumps, theaters and schools.

This established a foundation for industrialization in the city. With the arrival of immigrants from other urban centers from the 1930s – 1940s, their expertise was used to consolidate industrialization as the main economic activity in the city, its peak years were the 1950s, when São Carlos became a manufacturing center, with relevant industrial expression in São Paulo state. The industrial sector developed through workshops that incorporated the coffee industry; the manufacture of processing machinery, fertilizers, furniture, cigars, as well as activities such as tailory, foundries, weaving and pencil production expanded the economy of São Carlos in the 1930s. In the 1950s and 1960s, with the expansion of refrigeration, new factories of machinery and tractors arrived. Numerous small- and medium-sized companies which provided products and services were established. In the second half of the 20th century, the city received a boost of technological and higher educational development when in 1953 the Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, or the Engineering School of the University of São Paulo, was created.

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Des Tüfels Segi

Des Tüfels Segi is an Alemannic German satirical didactic poem of the early 15th century, most written during the years 1414–1420. The contents involve a long treatise on the estates of traditional feudalism; the poem takes the form of a dialogue between the devil. The theme of enumerating the various classes of society as all subject to sin and damnation is related to the Danse Macabre theme which first developed at about the time of the poem's composition; the text survives in divergent forms in four manuscripts. A third ms. is both of intermediate age, Augsburg. The Ring Karl August Barack, Des Teufels Netz: satirisch-didaktisches Gedicht aus der ersten Hälfte des fünfzehnten Jahrhunderts. Scan at WikiCommons Heinrich Werner, Des Teufels Netz. Überlieferung und Handschriftenverhältnis, Diss. Halle 1911. Gudrun Friebertshäuser, Untersuchungen zu »Des Teufels Segi«, Diss. Freiburg i. Br. 1966. Anke Ehlers, Des Teufels Netz. Untersuchung zum Gattungsproblem, 1973. Karin Lerchner, Des Teufels Netz, 2VL 9, 723-727.

Franz-Josef Schweizter, Das Lehrgedicht »Des Teufels Netz« und die Konzilien von Konstanz und Basel, in: Flüeler, Laster im Mittelalter, Volume 23 of Scrinium Friburgense / Scrinium Friburgense, ISSN 1422-4445, Walter de Gruyter, 2009, 125–135. Albrecht Classen: Death, the Devil, the Clerical Author; the Late Medieval German Didactic Debate Poem Des Teufels Netz and the World of Craftmanship, in: Death in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. The Material and Spiritual Conditions of the Culture of Death, hg. von Albrecht Classen, Berlin/Boston 2016, S. 277–296. Descriptions of all known manuscripts at Des Teufels Netz - Donaueschingen 113