Bartolomé Mitre Martínez was an Argentine statesman, military figure, author. He was the President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868. Mitre was born in Buenos Aires to a Greek family named Mitropoulos; as a liberal, he was an opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he was forced into exile. He worked as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay as a supporter of General Fructuoso Rivera, who named Mitre Lieutenant Colonel of the Uruguayan Army in 1846. Mitre lived in Bolivia and Chile, in the latter country, he collaborated with legal scholar and fellow Argentine exile Juan Bautista Alberdi in the latter's periodical, El Comercio of Valparaíso. Mitre returned to Argentina after the defeat of Rosas at the 1852 Battle of Caseros, he was a leader of the revolt of Buenos Aires Province against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system in the Revolution of 11 September 1852, was appointed to important posts in the provincial government after the Province seceded from the Confederation. The civil war of 1859, after the revolt of Buenos Aires against Justo José de Urquiza's federal system, resulted in Mitre's defeat by Urquiza at the Battle of Cepeda, in 1860.
Issues of customs revenue sharing were settled, Buenos Aires reentered the Argentine Confederation. Victorious at the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Mitre obtained important concessions from the national army, notably the amendment of the Constitution to provide for indirect elections through an electoral college. In October 1862, Mitre was elected president of the republic, national political unity was achieved. During the Paraguayan War, Mitre was named the head of the allied forces. Mitre was the founder of La Nación, one of South America's leading newspapers, in 1870, his opposition to Autonomist Party nominee Adolfo Alsina, whom he viewed as a veiled Buenos Aires separatist, led Mitre to run for the presidency again, though the seasoned Alsina outmaneuvered him by fielding Nicolás Avellaneda, a moderate lawyer from remote Tucuman Province where the independence of Argentina had been declared in 1816. The electoral college met on 12 April 1874, awarded Mitre only three provinces, including Buenos Aires.
Mitre took up arms again. Hoping to prevent Avellaneda's 12 October inaugural, he mutineered a gunboat. Following the 1890 Revolution of the Park, he broke with the conservative National Autonomist Party and co-founded the Civic Union with reformist Leandro Alem. Mitre's desire to maintain an understanding with the ruling PAN led to the Civic Union's schism in 1891, upon which Mitre founded the National Civic Union, Alem, the Radical Civic Union, he dedicated much of his time in years to writing. According to some of his critics, as a historian Mitre took several questionable actions ignoring key documents and events on purpose in his writings; this caused his student Adolfo Saldías to distance himself from him, for future revisionist historians such as José María Rosa to question the validity of his work altogether. He wrote poetry and fiction, translated Dante's La divina commedia into Spanish, he was an active freemason, the grandfather of poet, Margarita Abella Caprile. On his death in 1906, he was interred in La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
19 January 2006 marked the centenary of Mitre's death. Mitre ranks as an important South-American historiographer, he wrote the best accounts of South America's wars of independence and published many works, amongst which are: Historia de Belgrano y de la independencia argentina Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana Rimas Ulrich Schmidl, primer historiador del Rio de la Plata There is an abridged translation of the Historia de San Martín, entitled The Emancipation of South America by W. Pilling. Mitre's speeches were collected as Arengas. J. J. Biedma, El Teniente General Bartolomé Mitre, in Bartolomé Mitre, volume iii. William H. Katra, The Argentine Generation of 1837: Echeverría, Sarmiento, Mitre. Works by Bartolomé Mitre at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bartolomé Mitre at Internet Archive Works by Bartolomé Mitre at LibriVox
Córdoba is a city in the geographic center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about 700 km northwest of the Buenos Aires. It is the capital of Córdoba Province and the second most populous city in Argentina after Buenos Aires, with about 1,330,023 inhabitants according to the 2010 census, it was founded on 6 July 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, who named it after Spain. It was one of the first Spanish colonial capitals of the region, now Argentina; the National University of Córdoba is the oldest university of the country and the seventh to be inaugurated in Spanish America. It was founded in 1613 by the Jesuit Order; because of this, Córdoba earned the nickname La Docta. Córdoba has many historical monuments preserved from Spanish colonial rule buildings of the Roman Catholic Church; the most recognizable is the Jesuit Block, declared in 2000 as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO which consists of a group of buildings dating from the 17th century, including the Colegio Nacional de Monserrat and the colonial university campus.
The campus belongs today to the historical museum of the National University of Córdoba, the second-largest university in the country since the early 20th century, in terms of the number of students and academic programs. Córdoba is known for its historical movements, such as Cordobazo and La Reforma del'18. In 1570, Viceroy Francisco de Toledo entrusted the Spanish settler Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera, with the task of populating and founding a settlement in the Punilla Valley. Cabrera sent an expedition of 48 men to the territory of the Comechingones, he divided the principal column that entered through the north of the provincial territory at Villa María. The one hundred man expedition set foot on what today is Córdoba on 24 June 1573. Cabrera called the nearby river San Juan; the settlement was founded on 6 July of the same year and named Córdoba de la Nueva Andalucía in honour of ancestors of the founder's wife from Córdoba, Spain. The foundation of the city took place on the left bank of the river on Francisco de Torres' advice.
The settlement was inhabited by aboriginal people called Comechingones, who lived in communities called Ayllus. After four years, having repelled attacks by the aborigines, the settlement's authorities moved it to the opposite bank of the Suquía River in 1577; the Lieutenant Governor at the time, Don Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, planned the first layout of the city as a grid of seventy blocks. Once the city core had been moved to its current location, it acquired a stable population, its economy blossomed due to trade with the cities in the north. In 1599, the religious order of the Jesuits arrived in the settlement, they established a Novitiate in 1608 and, in 1610, the Colegio Maximo, which became the University of Córdoba in 1613, the fourth-oldest in the Americas. The local Jesuit Church remains one of the oldest buildings in South America and contains the Monserrat Secondary School, a church, residential buildings. To maintain such a project, the Jesuits operated five Reducciones in the surrounding fertile valleys, including Caroya, Jesús María, Santa Catalina, Alta Gracia and Candelaria.
The farm and the complex, started in 1615, had to be vacated by the Jesuits following the 1767 decree by King Charles III of Spain that expelled them from the continent. They were run by the Franciscans until 1853, when the Jesuits returned to the Americas; the university and the high-school were nationalized a year later. Each Estancia has its own church and set of buildings, around which towns grew, such as Alta Gracia, the closest to the Block. In 1776, King Carlos III created the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, in which Córdoba stays in 1785 as the Government Intendency of Córdoba, including the current territories of the provinces of Córdoba, La Rioja and the region of Cuyo. According to the 1760 census, the population of the city was 22,000 inhabitants. During the May Revolution in 1810, the widespread opinion of the most notable citizens was of continuing respecting the orders of Fernando VII, attitude assumed by the local authorities, which led to the Liniers Counter-revolution; this position was not shared by the Dean Gregorio Funes, adhering to the revolutionary ideas, beside supporting contact with Manuel Belgrano and Juan José Castelli.
In March 1816, the Argentine Congress met in Tucumán for an independence resolution. Córdoba sent Eduardo Pérez Bulnes, Jerónimo Salguero de Cabrera, José Antonio Cabrera, to the Canon of the cathedral Michael Calixto of the Circle, all of them of autonomous position; the 1820s belonged to caudillos. Until 1820 a central government taken root in Buenos Aires existed, but the remaining thirteen provinces felt that after 9 July 1816 what had happened it was a change of commander; the Battle of Cepeda pitted the commanders of the Littoral against the inland forces. The Federales obtained the victory, for what the country remained since integrated by 13 autonomous provinces, on the national government having been dissolved. From this way the period known like about the Provincial Autonomies began. From this moment the provinces tried to create a federal system, integrating them without coming to good port, this for the regional differences of every province. Two Córdoba figures stood out in this period: Governor Juan Bautista Bustos, an official of the Army o
Argentine War of Independence
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown. On July 9, 1816, an assembly met in San Miguel de Tucumán, declared full independence with provisions for a national constitution; the territory of modern Argentina was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with its capital city in Buenos Aires, seat of government of the Spanish viceroy. Modern Uruguay and Bolivia were part of the viceroyalty, began their push for autonomy during the conflict, becoming independent states afterwards; the vast area of the territory and slow communications led most populated areas to become isolated from each other. The wealthiest regions of the viceroyalty were in Upper Peru. Salta and Córdoba had closer ties with Upper Peru than with Buenos Aires. Mendoza in the west had closer ties with the Captaincy General of Chile, although the Andes mountain range was a natural barrier.
Buenos Aires and Montevideo, who had a local rivalry, located in the La Plata Basin, had naval communications allowing them to be more in contact with European ideas and economic advances than the inland populations. Paraguay was isolated from all other regions. In the political structure most authoritative positions were filled by people designated by the Spanish monarchy, most of them Spanish people from Europe known as peninsulares, without strong compromises for American problems or interests; this created a growing rivalry between the Criollos, white people born in Latin America, the peninsulares, Spanish people who arrived from Europe. Despite the fact that all of them were considered Spanish, that there was no legal distinction between Criollos and Peninsulares, most Criollos thought that Peninsulares had undue weight in political matters; the ideas of the American and French Revolutions, the Age of Enlightenment, promoted desires of social change among the criollos. The full prohibition imposed by Spain to trade with other nations was seen as damaging to the viceroyalty's economy.
The population of Buenos Aires was militarized during the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Buenos Aires was captured in 1806, liberated by Santiago de Liniers with forces from Montevideo. Fearing a counter-attack, all the population of Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms was arranged in military bodies, including slaves. A new British attack in 1807 captured Montevideo, but was defeated in Buenos Aires, forced to leave the viceroyalty; the viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte was deposed by the criollos during the conflict, the Regiment of Patricians became a influential force in local politics after the end of the British threat. The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil generated military concern, it was feared that the British would launch a third attack, this time allied with Portugal. However, no military conflict took place, as when the Peninsular War started Britain and Portugal became allies of Spain against France; when the Spanish king Ferdinand VII was captured, his sister Carlota Joaquina sought to rule in the Americas as regent, but nothing came out of it because of the lack of support from both the Spanish Americans and the British.
Javier de Elío created a Junta in Montevideo and Martín de Álzaga sought to make a similar move by organizing a mutiny in Buenos Aires, but the local military forces intervened and thwarted it. Spain appointed a new viceroy, Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, Liniers handed the government to him without resistance, despite the proposals of the military to reject him; the military conflict in Spain worsened by 1810. The city of Seville had been invaded by French armies, which were dominating most of the Iberian Peninsula; the Junta of Seville was disestablished, several members fled to Cádiz, the last portion of Spain still resisting. They established a Council of Regency, with political tendencies closer to absolutism than the former Junta; this began the May Revolution in Buenos Aires, as soon. Several citizens thought that Cisneros, appointed by the disestablished Junta, did not have the right to rule anymore, requested the convening of an open cabildo to discuss the fate of the local government.
The military gave their support to the request. The discussion ruled the removal of viceroy Cisneros and his replacement with a government junta, but the cabildo attempted to keep Cisneros in power by appointing him president of such junta. Further demonstrations ensued, the Junta was forced to resign immediately, it was replaced by the Primera Junta. Buenos Aires requested the other cities in the viceroyalty to acknowledge the new Junta and send deputies; the precise purpose of these deputies, join the Junta or create a congress, was unclear at the time and generated political disputes later. The Junta was resisted by all the main locations around Buenos Aires: Córdoba, Montevideo and the Upper Peru. Santiago de Liniers came out of his retirement in Córdoba and organized an army to capture Buenos Aires, Montevideo had naval supremacy over the city, Vicente Nieto organized the actions at the Upper Peru. Nieto proposed to José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, viceroy of the Viceroyalty of Peru at the North, to annex the Upper Peru to it.
He thought that the revolution could be contained in Buenos Aires, before launching a definitive attack. Buenos Aires was declared a rogue city by the Council of Regency, which appointed Montevideo as capital of the viceroyalty
The Argentine Confederation was the last predecessor state of modern Argentina. It was the name of the country from 1831 to 1852, when the provinces were organized as a confederation without a head of state; the governor of Buenos Aires Province managed foreign relations during this time. Under his rule, the Argentine Confederation resisted attacks by Brazil, Uruguay and the UK, as well as other Argentine factions during the Argentine Civil Wars. Rosas was ousted from power in 1852 after the battle of Caseros. Urquiza convened the 1853 Constituent Assembly to write a national constitution. Buenos Aires resisted Urquiza and seceded from the Confederation in 1852, becoming the State of Buenos Aires. Modern Argentina is a small subset of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a colony of Spain which included present day Bolivia, part of Peru and most of Paraguay. Long after attaining independence, Argentina conquered large areas of indigenous land; the May Revolution in Buenos Aires began the Argentine War of Independence, the country was renamed the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
Modern Bolivia and Paraguay became new states. Uruguay was invaded and annexed by Brazil in 1816, until the Thirty-Three Orientals led an insurrection to rejoin the United Provinces; this began the Cisplatine War, which ended with the Treaty of Montevideo that made Uruguay a new state. When Argentine forces returned to Buenos Aires, Juan Lavalle led a military coup against governor Manuel Dorrego, he executed him and began a campaign against all federals, supported by José María Paz in Córdoba, who deposed Juan Bautista Bustos and took similar measures against federals. The rancher Juan Manuel de Rosas organized the resistance against Lavalle, forcing him out of government and restoring the Legislature. Paz organized the Unitarian League with the provinces that joined him, Rosas signed the Federal Pact with Entre Ríos and Santa Fe. All the unitarian provinces were defeated and joined the Pact, became the Argentine Confederation. Rosas declined a new term as governor after the victory over the unitarian league.
Rosas left Buenos Aires and waged the first campaign in the desert in the south, to prevent further malones from the indigenous peoples. The campaign combined military actions and negotiations, succeeded in preventing malones for several years. Despite being absent, the political influence of Rosas in Buenos Aires was still strong, his wife Encarnación Ezcurra was in charge of keeping good relations with the people of the city. On October 11, 1833, the city was filled with announcements of a trial against "The restorer of laws". A large number of gauchos and poor people instigated the Revolution of the Restorers, a demonstration at the gates of the legislature, praising Rosas and demanding the resignation of Governor Juan Ramón Balcarce; the troops who were organized to fight the demonstration instead joined it. The legislature gave up the trial, a month ousted Balcarce and replaced him with Juan José Viamonte. Still, the social unrest led many people to believe that only Rosas could secure order, that Viamonte or Manuel Vicente Maza would be unable to do so.
The murder of Facundo Quiroga in Córdoba increased this belief, so the legislature appointed him governor in 1835, with the sum of public power. Rosas faced a difficult military threat during first years of his second administration. First, the Peru–Bolivian Confederation in the North declared the War of the Confederation against Argentina and Chile. France made diplomatic requests which were denied by Rosas, subsequently imposed a naval blockade as a result. France invaded Martín García island and deposed the Uruguayan president Manuel Oribe, appointing instead the loyal Fructuoso Rivera, who declared war on Argentina in support of France. Domingo Cullen, from Santa Fe, promoted the secession of all provinces, leaving Buenos Aires alone in the conflict. Berón de Astrada, from Corrientes, opposed Rosas as well, Juan Lavalle organized an army to take Buenos Aires; the ranchers organized the "Freemen of the South" militia. Rosas overcame all these threats; the Peru–Bolivian Confederation was defeated by Chile and ceased to exist.
Cullen was defeated and shot, Astrada was defeated by Justo José de Urquiza. The ranchers were defeated as well; the diplomat Manuel Moreno channeled the protests of the British merchants in Buenos Aires who were impacted by the blockade. France lifted the blockade with the Mackau-Arana treaty. Lavalle sought to continue the conflict anyway, he retreated before reaching Buenos Aires, without starting any battles, escaped to the North. He was chased by Oribe, now in charge of Argentine armies, died in unclear circumstances. Despite the French defeat, Uruguay was still an open war theater. Manuel Oribe claimed to be the rightful president of Uruguay, waged the Uruguayan Civil War against Rivera. Rosas supported Oribe in the conflict. Oribe laid siege to Montevideo. Britain and France joined forces with Rivera, captured the Argentine navy, began a new naval blockade against Buenos Aires. Giuseppe Garibaldi helped to secure the Uruguay river, aided by Italian soldiers. A new expedition tried to
The Argentine Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Argentina. The National Senate was established by the Argentine Confederation on July 29, 1854, pursuant to Articles 46 to 54 of the 1853 Constitution. There are three for the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires; the number of senators per province was raised from two to three following the 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution, the change took effect following the May 14, 1995, general elections. Senators are elected to six-year terms by direct election on a provincial basis, with the party with the most votes being awarded two of the province's senate seats and the second-place party receiving the third seat. Senators were indirectly elected to nine-year terms by each provincial legislature; these provisions were abrogated by a 1994 constitutional amendment, direct elections to the Senate took effect in 2001. One-third of the members are elected every two years. One-third of the provinces hold senatorial elections every two years.
The Vice President of the Republic is ex officio President of the Senate, with a casting vote in the event of a tie. In practice, the Provisional President presides over the chamber most of the time; the Senate must obtain this being an absolute majority. It has the power to approve bills passed by the Chamber of Deputies, call for joint sessions with the Lower House or special sessions with experts and interested parties, submit bills for the president's signature; the Senate must introduce any changes to federal revenue sharing policies, ratify international treaties, approve changes to constitutional or federal criminal laws, as well as confirm or impeach presidential nominees to the cabinet, the judiciary, the armed forces, the diplomatic corps, among other federal posts. There are twenty-four standing committees made up of fifteen members each, namely: Agreements Constitutional Affairs Foreign Affairs and Worship Justice and Criminal Affairs General Legislation Budget and Finance Administrative and Municipal Affairs National Defense Domestic Security and Drug Trafficking National Economy and Investment Industry and Trade Regional Economies, Micro and Medium Enterprises Labor and Social Security Agriculture, Cattle Raising and Fishing Education, Culture and Technology Rights and Guarantees Mining and Fuels Health and Sports Infrastructure and Transport Systems and Freedom of Speech Environment and Human Development Population and Human Development Federal Revenue Sharing Tourism.
According to Section 55 of the Argentine Constitution, candidates for the Argentine Senate must: be at least 30 years old have been a citizen of Argentina for six years be native to the province of his office, or have been a resident of that province for two years. See List of current members of the Argentine SenateAll data from official website; the current members of the Senate were elected in 2013, 2015 and 2017. The titular President of the Senate is the Vice President of Argentina. However, day to day leadership of the Senate is exercised by the Provisional President. Current leadership positions include: List of current Argentine senators Argentine Chamber of Deputies List of former Argentine Senators List of legislatures by country senado.gov.ar – Senate of Argentina
Justo José de Urquiza
Justo José de Urquiza y García was an Argentine general and politician. He was president of the Argentine Confederation from 1854 to 1860. Justo José de Urquiza y García was born in Entre Ríos, the son of José Narciso de Urquiza Álzaga, born in Castro Urdiales and María Cándida García González, a Creole of Buenos Aires, he was governor of Entre Ríos during the government of Juan Manuel de Rosas, governor of Buenos Aires with powers delegated from the other provinces. Rosas presented a resignation to his charge but only as a political gesture, counting that the other governments would reject it. However, in 1851, resentful of the economic and political dominance of Buenos Aires, Urquiza accepted Rosas' resignation and resumed for Entre Rios the powers delegated in Buenos Aires. Along with the resuming of international commerce without passing through the port of Buenos Aires, Urquiza replaced the "Death to the savage unitarians!" Slogan with "Death to the enemies of national organization!", requesting the making of a national constitution that Rosas had long rejected.
Corrientes supported Urquiza's action, but Rosas and the other provinces condemned the "crazy, savage, unitarian" Urquiza. Supported by Brazil and the Uruguayan liberals, he created the "Big Army" and forced Manuel Oribe to capitulate, ending the long siege of Montevideo in October 1851, defeating Rosas on 3 February 1852 at the Battle of Caseros; the other provinces that supported Rosas against Urquiza's pronunciation changed sides and supported his project of creating a National Constitution. Urquiza began the task of national organization, he became provisional director of the Argentine Confederation in May 1852. In 1853, a constituent assembly adopted a constitution based on the ideas of Juan Bautista Alberdi, Urquiza was inaugurated president in March 1854. During his administration, foreign relations were improved, public education was encouraged, colonization was promoted, plans for railroad construction was initiated, his work of national organization was, hindered by the opposition of Buenos Aires, which seceded from the Confederation.
Open war broke out in 1859. Urquiza defeated the provincial army led by Bartolomé Mitre in October 1859, at the Battle of Cepeda, Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the Confederation. Constitutional amendments proposed by Buenos Aires were adopted in 1860 but the settlement was short-lived, further difficulties culminated in civil war. Urquiza met the army of Buenos Aires, again led by Mitre, in September 1861; the battle was indecisive. He retired to San José Palace, his residence in Entre Ríos, where he ruled until he was assassinated at age 69 by followers of dissident and political rival Ricardo López Jordán. Like many other nineteenth century Argentine patriots, Urquiza was a freemason, his imposing Palacio San José has been interpreted as containing many masonic symbols, created "to symbolize and reflect the construction of his other work: the Argentine State". There are many streets and squares all over Argentina that are named after Justo José de Urquiza, such as the Urquiza park in Rosario or the Urquiza park in Parana city.
There is a central street in Rosario called Urquiza, there is a commuter railway line in Buenos Aires named after him, the Urquiza Line
First Triumvirate (Argentina)
The First Triumvirate was the executive body of government that replaced the Junta Grande in the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. It started its functions on September 23, 1811, was replaced on October 8, 1812. After the defeat of the patriotic forces at the Battle of Huaqui on June 20, 1811, the damaged prestige of the Junta Grande received a fatal blow; the Junta's President, Cornelio Saavedra, decided to take responsibility of the Army of the North so he left office to be in charge of the Army. His departure gave room to the faction that supported liberal Mariano Moreno to take advantage of his absence and try to force the dissolution of the Junta. A Triumvirate was chosen to wield the executive power. However, this Triumvirate was controlled by a Junta Conservadora, composed by the members of the dissolved Junta; this government took actions of great transcendence. Some of which are: Declaration of the Freedom of Press. Approving of the Law of Individual Security. Creation of the Chamber of Appeals.
Regulation of the Institution and Administration of Justice. Created on January 13, 1812 the Intendency of the Buenos Aires Province. Ordered Manuel Belgrano to lead troops to protect Rosario from naval attacks dispatched by Spaniards from Montevideo. Approved the use of the White and Cerulean Blue Insignia by the Army on February 18, 1812. On the same day ordered Belgrano to take charge of the Army of the North. Ordered Lieutenant Colonel José de San Martín the formation of a special cavalry corp which would be known as Granaderos a Caballo. Commission of Immigration: Founded on September 4, 1812 and constituted the first established entity to foment immigration and colonization of the territory; the Wars of Independence impeded its functionality, but it was reactivated by Bernardino Rivadavia when in charge of the government of Buenos Aires, on 1824. Dissolved on August 20, 1830 by Juan Manuel de Rosas; the actions of its members was limited by successive struggles of power. With this government the morenistas neutralized their opposition, but the internal struggles, the menace of an invasion from Brazil and the military misadventures of Manuel Belgrano in the north undermined their power.
José de San Martín, with the members of the Logia Lautaro and the Sociedad Patriótica, formed by morenistas coincided on giving privilege to the organization of a liberation army and declaration of Independence. It was when the destitution of the Triumvirate members and to return to the line of action impulsed by the Society; the Lautaro Lodge, on the other hand, mobilized its troops and the Patriotic Society recurred to public petitions and mobilization of the population. The triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate. Feliciano Chiclana, Juan José Paso and Manuel de Sarratea. Secretaries without right to vote: Bernardino Rivadavia, Julián Pérez and Vicente López y Planes. Busaniche, José Luis. Historia argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Solar. Lozier Almazán, Bernardo. Martín de Álzaga. Buenos Aires: Ed. Ciudad Argentina. Mitre, Bartolomé. Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana. Buenos Aires: Ed. Eudeba. Segreti, Carlos S. A.. La aurora de la Independencia - Memorial de la Patria. Buenos Aires: Ed.
La Bastilla. Sierra, Vicente D.. Historia de la Argentina. Buenos Aires: Ed. Garriga. Ternavasio, Marcela. Gobernar la Revolución. Buenos Aires: Ed. Siglo Veintiuno. Bra, Gerardo. "El Motín de las Trenzas". Revista Todo es Historia. Fernández, Alejandro E.. "Un golpe militar en el camino hacia la independencia". Revista Todo es Historia. Heredia, Edmundo. "Expediciones reconquistadoras españolas al Río de la Plata". Revista Todo es Historia