Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, the "Century of Philosophy". Some consider Descartes' 1637 statement "I think" to have sparked the period. Others cite the publication of Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica. French historians traditionally date the Enlightenment from 1715 to 1789, from the beginning of the reign of Louis XV until the French Revolution. Most end it with the turn of the 19th century. Philosophers and scientists of the period circulated their ideas through meetings at scientific academies, Masonic lodges, literary salons, coffeehouses and in printed books and pamphlets; the ideas of the Enlightenment undermined the authority of the monarchy and the Church and paved the way for the political revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment; the Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of knowledge and advanced ideals such as liberty, toleration, constitutional government and separation of church and state.
In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy—an attitude captured by the phrase Sapere aude; the Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes and Spinoza; the major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Hume, Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Voltaire. Some European rulers, including Catherine II of Russia, Joseph II of Austria and Frederick II of Prussia, tried to apply Enlightenment thought on religious and political tolerance, which became known as enlightened absolutism. Benjamin Franklin visited Europe and contributed to the scientific and political debates there and brought the newest ideas back to Philadelphia.
Thomas Jefferson followed European ideas and incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence. One of his peers, James Madison, incorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in 1787; the most influential publication of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopédie. Published between 1751 and 1772 in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert and a team of 150 scientists and philosophers, it helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond. Other landmark publications were Voltaire's Dictionnaire Letters on the English; the ideas of the Enlightenment played a major role in inspiring the French Revolution, which began in 1789. After the Revolution, the Enlightenment was followed by the intellectual movement known as Romanticism. René Descartes' rationalist philosophy laid the foundation for enlightenment thinking, his attempt to construct the sciences on a secure metaphysical foundation was not as successful as his method of doubt applied in philosophic areas leading to a dualistic doctrine of mind and matter.
His skepticism was refined by John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding and David Hume's writings in the 1740s. His dualism was challenged by Spinoza's uncompromising assertion of the unity of matter in his Tractatus and Ethics; these laid down two distinct lines of Enlightenment thought: first, the moderate variety, following Descartes and Christian Wolff, which sought accommodation between reform and the traditional systems of power and faith, second, the radical enlightenment, inspired by the philosophy of Spinoza, advocating democracy, individual liberty, freedom of expression and eradication of religious authority. The moderate variety tended to be deistic, whereas the radical tendency separated the basis of morality from theology. Both lines of thought were opposed by a conservative Counter-Enlightenment, which sought a return to faith. In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas.
The philosophic movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, for science based on experiments and observation. The political philosopher Montesquieu introduced the idea of a separation of powers in a government, a concept, enthusiastically adopted by the authors of the United States Constitution. While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution. Francis Hutcheson, a moral philosopher, described the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method
Concepción del Uruguay
Concepción del Uruguay is a city in Argentina. It is located in the Entre Ríos province, on the western shore of the Uruguay River, some 320 kilometers north from Buenos Aires, its population is about 80,000 inhabitants. The city was founded on June 1783 by Tomás de Rocamora. Rich in ancient monuments, it is sometimes referred to as La Histórica due to is participation in the national formation process; the Palacio San José, the old personal residence of caudillo Justo José de Urquiza is located only 23 km from Concepción. A populated area known as Arroyo de China, was recorded in 1778 and located north of the namesake creek in what are now the neighborhoods of Puerto Viejo and La Concepción in the extreme south of the city; the same year the first chapel was erected at a place. Commissioned by the viceroy of Vértiz and Juan Jose Salcedo, Thomas Rocamora founded the town of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception of Uruguay on 25 June 1783, lifting the first town north of the existing population to what is now the administrative and commercial centre of the city.
There are discussions about the full name of the city, as some versions say it was Concepción del Uruguay. In 1810, aware of the movement, raised in Buenos Aires, the city was the first to join the cause of the Revolution. In 1814 the Supreme Director Gervasio Antonio Posadas, using the extraordinary powers given by the Constituent Assembly, named Concepción del Uruguay as the capital of the province of Entre Ríos at the time of its creation. On June 29, 1815, General José Gervasio Artigas convened the first congress independence, held in the city with the name of Congress East, it was meant for the declaration of independence Argentina and the adoption of the flag created by Belgrano straddles the currency punzó-red diagonal stripe symbolizing federalism. It was decided not to attend Congress of Tucumán to be held the following year as a sign of protest toward Directory to promote the Portuguese invasion in Banda Oriental and attacks on federal deputies. On February 1, 1820, General Francisco Ramírez, allied with the governor of Santa Fe Estanislao López, who commanded the federal army defeated José Rondeau at the battle of Cepeda, shortly after signing the Treaty of Pilar.
Subsequently, Ramírez was distanced from López and September 29 of that year, proclaimed the Republic of Entre Ríos, which included addition to the existing provinces of Corrientes and Misiones, Concepción being the capital of Uruguay. But the life of this republic would be short-lived, since they would disband with the death of Ramírez on July 10, 1821. In 1826, General Justo José de Urquiza, in his role as the governor of Entre Rios, promoted the law that gave Concepción del Uruguay range city. In 1848 Urquiza created in the City College of Uruguay, first in the country of secular character. In 1851, at the foot of the pyramid's central Plaza, General Francisco Ramirez, the pronouncement of Urquiza took place against Juan Manuel de Rosas, an act that would lead to the battle of Caseros on February 3, 1852, in which Urquiza was the winner and which paved the way for enactment of the National Constitution the following year. In 1852, troops from Buenos Aires led by General Madariaga disembark frustrated with the aim of taking the city.
The Provincial Convention gathered in the city in 1860 to punish the provincial Constitution again declare the provincial capital, which would function until the year of the centennial, 1883, when the capital was moved to the city of Paraná. On January 1, 1873 the town was formally created; the same year, during the boom of normalcy, Sarmiento created in the city the second Normal School in the country, after the first of Paraná and women. June 30, 1887 was enabled the rail link across the line, integrated into the General Urquiza Rail with the cities of Paraná, Nogoyá and Rosario del Tala; that year was reformed port, which in 1910 reached their best time from his office be one of the most important country. Throughout the twentieth century, the city continued to hold importance to cultural and economic level, adding to the processes of industrialization underway in the country and settling their major industries. In 1994, the swearing of the Constitutional Reform was held at the Palacio San José.
To distinguish its citizens from Uruguayan nationals, people from Concepción del Uruguay are called uruguayenses, while Uruguayans are known as uruguayos. Today the city has three major industries: the port, the industrial park and the state administration; the Uruguay Department produces 47% of the nation's poultry, Concepción del Uruguay together with Gualeguay and Colón make up 85% of Argentine chicken exports. The city has four universities, of which three are public and the other one is private, they totalled ten faculties. In turn, two of the aforementioned institutions have headquarters in the city of his rectory, confirming its importance as the largest educational center in the region. Municipal information: Municipal Affairs Federal Institute, Municipal Affairs Secretariat, Ministry of Interior, Argentina. Information and history Concepción National University On its foundation Tourism in Concepción
Battle of Montevideo (1807)
The Battle of Montevideo was a battle between the British and Spanish Empires during the Napoleonic Wars, in which British forces captured the city of Montevideo. It formed part of the British invasions of the River Plate. Locally, it is remembered as the Siege of Montevideo. In the early morning of 3 February 1807, 3,000 British troops under Brigadier General Sir Samuel Auchmuty attacked the city of Montevideo; the city's capture was preceded, on 20 January, by an action outside the town, the Battle of El Cristo del Cardal, in which the 60th Rifles and the 95th Foot distinguished itself by an outflanking movement which turned the tide of the battle in favour of the British. About 800 local combatants non-professional soldiers, became casualties, of whom about 200 were killed. Total British casualties were about 70 wounded. Montevideo was put under siege from that date and its capture began at about 2:00 A. M. 3 February, having been preceded by several days of bombardment of the weakest part of the defensive wall at a point close to the site of the modern Anglican cathedral.
Once the breach was large enough, the assault began under heavy fire from two contiguous bastions held by the defenders, was hampered by hides the defenders added to the wall to fill the breach. Casualties amongst the British soldiers were heavy as the troops sought an entry point, while being caught in a constant cross-fire; the breach was located first by Captain Renny, 40th Regiment of Foot, killed in the act of attempting to get through the breach. Lieutenant Harry Smith of the 95th Regiment of Foot was the second to locate the breach; this was Lieutenant Smith's first campaign and he would become famous as Lieutenant General Sir Harry Smith. Once inside the walls, the British continued to meet heavy resistance, but they spread out and forced back the defenders. At this point in the battle two leading British officers, Lieutenant-Colonel Brownrigg, 11th Foot, commanding the light infantry detachment, Lieutenant-Colonel Vassal 38th Foot, were mortally wounded. A forlorn hope was formed by a small detachment of the 54th Foot.
This was followed by the combined, elite light infantry and grenadier companies of the regiments involved, as well as the 95th. Next in line were the 38th Foot, followed by the 40th Foot. Two cavalry detachments, from the 17th Light Dragoons and 20th Light Dragoons and 21st Light Dragoons, formed the reserve and rearguard, together with the 47th Regiment of Foot and a small detachment of recruits for the 71st Regiment of Foot. A detachment of Royal Marines was present. Reinforcements for the defenders came en route from Buenos Aires, so that the rapid success of the operation was essential. Meanwhile, at the other side of the peninsula, on which the Old City of Montevideo stands, the 87th Foot were waiting together with a company of the 95th at the city's second main gate, the San Pedro gate. On hearing the noise of battle inside the walls, the 87th were unable to wait for the gate to be opened for them by their comrades, according to the plan of attack. After scaling the wall, they attacked the defenders from behind.
During the operation, the 87th captured a flag from one of the defending formations, now displayed as the'Flag of Montevideo' in the museum of the Royal Irish Fusiliers at Armagh, Northern Ireland. The 95th occupied the tower of the city's cathedral, were able to use the modern Baker rifle to great effect against the city's main fortress, the Ciudadela. This, together with the general British advance through the city, led Governor Ruiz Huidobro to accept Auchmuty's offer of unconditional surrender at about 5:00 A. M. In his dispatch, which announced the city's capture, Auchmuty paid tribute to Ruiz Huidobro, by extension his force, who "defended the town and citadel of Monte Video with great spirit." He made mention of the Frenchman Hipolite Mordeille, prominent throughout the defence. Mordeille's corps had been entrusted with the defence of the breach, being "best calculated for that arduous service, in which they were nearly annihilated", in the British commander's opinion. Mordeille himself was killed.
Although there was some looting, suppressed by the British officers, by 8:00 A. M. it was reported by a local resident that civilians were going about their normal business in the streets and mixing with British troops. The occupation of the city by the British army lasted until September 1807, when troops were withdrawn in compliance with the agreement signed following the surrender of British forces in Buenos Aires in July 1807. Auchmuty and the forces under him, as well as the supporting Royal Navy forces, received votes of thanks from the British Parliament on 16 April 1807. In addition, the 38th, 40th, 87th and 95th Regiments of Foot, were awarded the battle honour'Monte Video', which their successor regiments inherited. José BATLLE y CARREÓ.'Memorias' in. George BRUCE. Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles.. Ernestina COSTA. English Invasion of the River Plate. Ian FLETCHER; the Waters of Oblivion: The British Invasion of the Rio de la Plata. Juan Carlos LUZURIAGA. Una Gesta Heroica: Las Invasiones Inglesas y la defensa del Plata.
Antonio N. PEREIRA. La Invasion inglesa del Rio de la Plata. Carlos ROBERTS. Las invasiones inglesas
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Ferdinand VII was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death. He was known to his detractors as the Felon King. After being overthrown by Napoleon in 1808 he linked his monarchy to counter-revolution and reactionary policies that produced a deep rift in Spain between his forces on the right and liberals on the left. Back in power in 1814, he reestablished the absolutist monarchy and rejected the liberal constitution of 1812. A revolt in 1820 led by Rafael de Riego forced him to restore the constitution thus beginning the Liberal Triennium: a three year period of liberal rule. In 1823 the Congress of Verona authorized a successful French intervention restoring him to absolute power for the second time, he jailed many of its editors and writers. Under his rule, Spain lost nearly all of its American possessions, the country entered into civil war on his death, his reputation among historians is low. Historian Stanley Payne writes: He proved in many ways the basest king in Spanish history.
Cowardly, grasping and vengeful, seemed incapable of any perception of the commonwealth. He thought only in terms of his power and security and was unmoved by the enormous sacrifices of Spanish people to retain their independence and preserve his throne. Ferdinand was the eldest surviving son of Maria Luisa of Parma. Ferdinand was born in the palace of El Escorial near Madrid. In his youth Ferdinand occupied the position of an heir apparent, excluded from all share in government by his parents and their favourite advisor and Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy. National discontent with the government produced a rebellion in 1805. In October 1807, Ferdinand was arrested for his complicity in the El Escorial Conspiracy in which the rebels aimed at securing foreign support from the French Emperor Napoleon; when the conspiracy was discovered, Ferdinand submitted to his parents. Following a popular riot at Aranjuez Charles IV abdicated in March 1808. Ferdinand turned to Napoleon for support, he abdicated on 6 May 1808 and thereafter Napoleon kept Ferdinand under guard in France for six years at the Château de Valençay.
Historian Charles Oman records that the choice of Valençay was a practical joke by Napoleon on his former foreign minister Talleyrand, the owner of the château, for his lack of interest in Spanish affairs. While the upper echelons of the Spanish government accepted his abdication and Napoleon's choice of his brother Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, the Spanish people did not. Uprisings broke out throughout the country. Provincial juntas were established to control regions in opposition to the new French king. After the Battle of Bailén proved that the Spanish could resist the French, the Council of Castile reversed itself and declared null and void the abdications of Bayonne on 11 August 1808. On 24 August, Ferdinand VII was proclaimed king of Spain again, negotiations between the Council and the provincial juntas for the establishment of a Supreme Central Junta were completed. Subsequently, on 14 January 1809, the British government acknowledged Ferdinand VII as king of Spain. Five years after experiencing serious setbacks on many fronts, Napoleon agreed to acknowledge Ferdinand VII as king of Spain on 11 December 1813 and signed the Treaty of Valençay, so that the king could return to Spain.
The Spanish people, blaming the policies of the Francophiles for causing the Napoleonic occupation and the Peninsular War by allying Spain too to France, at first welcomed Fernando. Ferdinand soon found that in the intervening years a new world had been born of foreign invasion and domestic revolution. In his name Spain fought for its independence and in his name as well juntas had governed Spanish America. Spain was no longer the absolute monarchy. Instead he was now asked to rule under the liberal Constitution of 1812. Before being allowed to enter Spanish soil, Ferdinand had to guarantee the liberals that he would govern on the basis of the Constitution, only gave lukewarm indications he would do so. On 24 March the French handed him over to the Spanish Army in Girona, thus began his procession towards Madrid. During this process and in the following months, he was encouraged by conservatives and the Church hierarchy to reject the Constitution. On 4 May he ordered its abolition and on 10 May had the liberal leaders responsible for the Constitution arrested.
Ferdinand justified his actions by claiming that the Constitution had been made by a Cortes illegally assembled in his absence, without his consent and without the traditional form. Ferdinand promised to convene a traditional Cortes, but never did so, thereby reasserting the Bourbon doctrine that sovereign authority resided in his person only. Meanwhile, the wars of independence had broken out in the Americas, although many of the republican rebels were divided and royalist sentiment was strong in many areas, the Manila galleons and the Spanish treasure fleets - tax revenues from the Spanish Empire - were interrupted. Spain was all but bankrupt. Ferdinand's restored autocracy was guided by a small camarilla of his favorites, although his government seemed unstable. Whimsical and ferocious by turns, he changed his ministers every few months. "The king," wrote Friedrich von Gentz in 1814, "himself enters the houses of his prime ministers, arrests them, hands them over to their cruel enemies.
Mariano Moreno was an Argentine lawyer and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution. Moreno was born in Buenos Aires in 1778, his father was Manuel Moreno y Argumosa, born in Santander, who arrived in the city in 1776 and married María del Valle. Mariano had thirteen brothers. During his youth he studied Latin and philosophy at San Carlos Royal College, followed by college studies of law at Chuquisaca. During these studies, he learned the new ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment, he married María Guadalupe Cuenca and returned to Buenos Aires, becoming a prominent lawyer for the Cabildo. Unlike most other criollos, he rejected the Carlotist project and the administration of Santiago de Liniers, joining instead the ill-fated mutiny of Álzaga against him, he worked for Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. He wrote the economic paper The Representation of the Landowners, which persuaded the viceroy to open trade with Britain.
Although he was not prominently involved in the May Revolution that deposed Cisneros, he was appointed as secretary of war of the new government, the Primera Junta. Along with Juan José Castelli, he promoted harsh policies against the supporters of the former government and the strengthening of the new one; these policies were detailed in the Operations plan. Moreno organized military campaigns to Paraguay and Upper Peru and ensured the execution of Santiago de Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, he established the first Argentine newspaper, La Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, translated Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract into Spanish. When the Junta achieved the first military victories, President Cornelio Saavedra opposed Moreno, favoring moderate policies instead. Allied with Gregorio Funes, Saavedra expanded the number of members of the Junta to leave Morenism in a minority. With disputes still going on, Moreno was appointed to a diplomatic mission to Britain but died at sea on the way there.
His brother Manuel Moreno alleged. His supporters were still an influential political party for some years after his death. Historians hold several perspectives about the role and historical significance of Moreno, from hagiography to repudiation, he is considered the precursor of Argentine journalism. Mariano Moreno was the eldest of 14 children of poor parents, Manuel Moreno y Argumosa and Ana María Valle, he studied at Colegio Grande de San Carlos, but without living in it, as his family could not afford the price. He graduated with an honorary diploma, he met influential people within the literary field, who helped him to continue his studies at the University of Chuquisaca when his father could not afford the cost. This was the only big university in South America at the time, he studied the books of Montesquieu, Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, other European philosophers of the Age of Enlightenment. He studied French languages as well, to understand authors from Britain and France; this allowed him to work as a translator, he spent several years working with Rousseau's The Social Contract.
Moreno was convinced that society could be changed by the power of reason. He studied philosophical texts of the Spanish Enlightenment under the tutelage of the priest Terrazas and aspired to implement the new ideas in his country, he wrote a thesis with strong criticism of the native slavery at the mines of Potosí, influenced by the Spanish jurist Juan de Solorzano Pereira, the foremost publisher of Indian Law, Victoria Villalva, fiscal of the Audiencia of Charcas and defender of the indigenous cause. He started his professional career between 1803 and 1804, in the office of Augustine Gascón, officiating as labor counselor for Indians; as a result, he confronted powerful people like the mayors of Chayanta. He left the city after being threatened and returned to Buenos Aires in 1805 with his wife Maria Guadalupe Cuenca and their newborn son. Once in the city, he became a reporter of the hearings of the Royal Audiencia, a local appeallate court; the Buenos Aires Cabildo, the local council, hired him as an advisor as well.
He defended Melchor Fernández, aggrieved by Bishop Benito Lue y Riega, in one of his first cases. In another of his early disputes, he backed the Cabildo in denying the appointment as an ensign of the young Bernardino Rivadavia. A British army invaded Buenos Aires in 1806. Although Moreno was not involved with the military counter-offensive which drove them out, he opposed the British presence in Buenos Aires, he wrote a diary that noted all the events, so that, in the future, his countrymen would know the circumstances that allowed such an invasion. The British made a new attack in this time invading Montevideo, they published a bilingual English–Spanish newspaper known as "The Southern Star" or "La estrella del sur". It advocated free trade, a British goal, promoted American independence under British protection; the Royal Audiencia of Buenos Aires banned the newspaper and requested Moreno to write articles refuting those of the British publication. Moreno refused because, although he did not accept British rule, he agreed with some of their criticisms of the Spanish government.
Fearing a new attack to Buenos Aires, Moreno left the city with his whole family and relocated in the countryside. His house in Buenos Aires, left unoccupied, was used to keep prisoner William Carr Beresford, the Britis
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars. Guerrilla groups are a type of violent non-state actor; the Spanish word "guerrilla" is the diminutive form of "guerra". The term became popular during the early-19th century Peninsular War, when the Spanish and Portuguese people rose against the Napoleonic troops and fought against a superior army using the guerrilla strategy. In correct Spanish usage, a person, a member of a "guerrilla" unit is a "guerrillero" if male, or a "guerrillera" if female; the term "guerrilla" was used in English as early as 1809 to refer to the fighters, to denote a group or band of such fighters. However, in most languages guerrilla still denotes the specific style of warfare; the use of the diminutive evokes the differences in number and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional army of the state. Guerrilla warfare is a type of asymmetric warfare: competition between opponents of unequal strength.
It is a type of irregular warfare: that is, it aims not to defeat an enemy, but to win popular support and political influence, to the enemy's cost. Accordingly, guerrilla strategy aims to magnify the impact of a small, mobile force on a larger, more-cumbersome one. If successful, guerrillas weaken their enemy by attrition forcing them to withdraw. Tactically, guerrillas avoid confrontation with large units and formations of enemy troops, but seek and attack small groups of enemy personnel and resources to deplete the opposing force while minimizing their own losses; the guerrilla prizes mobility and surprise, organizing in small units and taking advantage of terrain, difficult for larger units to use. For example, Mao Zedong summarized basic guerrilla tactics at the beginning of the Chinese "Second Revolutionary Civil War" as:"The enemy advances, we retreat. At least one author credits the ancient Chinese work The Art of War with inspiring Mao's tactics. In the 20th century, other communist leaders, including North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh used and developed guerrilla warfare tactics, which provided a model for their use elsewhere, leading to the Cuban "foco" theory and the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.
In addition to traditional military methods, guerrilla groups may rely on destroying infrastructure, using improvised explosive devices, for example. They also rely on logistical and political support from the local population and foreign backers, are embedded within it, many guerrilla groups are adept at public persuasion through propaganda. Many guerrilla movements today rely on children as combatants, porters, informants, in other roles, which has drawn international condemnation. There is no accepted definition of "terrorism", the term is used as a political tactic by belligerents to denounce opponents whose status as terrorists is disputed. Contrary to some terrorist groups, guerrillas work in open positions as armed units, try to hold and seize land, do not refrain from fighting enemy military force in battle and apply pressure to control or dominate territory and population. While the primary concern of guerrillas is the enemy's active military units, terrorists are concerned with non-military agents and target civilians.
Guerrilla forces principally fight in accordance with the law of war. In this sense, they respect the rights of innocent civilians by refraining from targeting them. According to the Ankara Center for Crisis and Policy Studies, terrorists do not limit their actions and terrorise civilians by putting fear in people's hearts and kill innocent foreigners in the country. Irregular warfare, based on elements characteristic of modern guerrilla warfare, has existed throughout the battles of many ancient civilizations; the growth of guerrilla warfare in the 20th century was inspired in part by theoretical works on guerrilla warfare, starting with the Manual de Guerra de Guerrillas by Matías Ramón Mella written in the 19th century and, more Mao Zedong's On Guerrilla Warfare, Che Guevara's Guerrilla Warfare, Lenin's text of the same name, all written after the successful revolutions carried by them in China and Russia, respectively. Those texts characterized the tactic of guerrilla warfare as, according to Che Guevara's text, being"used by the side, supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression".
The Chinese general and strategist Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War or 600 BC to 501 BC, was the earliest to propose the use of guerrilla warfare. This directly inspired the development of modern guerrilla warfare. Guerrilla tactics were employed by prehistoric tribal warriors against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the other hand, did not emerge until 3100 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism and religious fundamentalism have played an important role in shaping insurgencies and guerrilla warfare; the Moroccan national hero Mohamed ben Abdelkrim el-Khattabi, along with his father, unified the Moroccan