Royal Governor of Chile
The Royal Governor of Chile ruled over the Spanish colonial administrative district called the Captaincy General of Chile, as a result the Royal Governor held the title of a Captain General. There were 66 such governors or captains during the Spanish conquest and the periods of Spanish-centered colonialism. Ambrosio O'Higgins, Marquis of Osorno: José de Rezabal y Ugarte: Gabriel de Avilés, 2nd Marquis of Avilés: Joaquín del Pino Sánchez de Rojas: José de Santiago Concha Jiménez Lobatón: Francisco Tadeo Diez de Medina Vidanges: Luis Muñoz de Guzmán: Juan Rodríguez Ballesteros: Francisco Antonio García Carrasco Díaz: Mateo de Toro Zambrano, 1st Count of la Conquista: Period of the Reconquista Española: Governors and Captains General José Antonio Pareja: Juan Francisco Sánchez: Gabino Gaínza y Fernández de Medrano: Mariano Osorio: Francisco Marcó del Pont Ángel Díaz y Méndez: Mariano Osorio
San Felipe, Chile
San Felipe is a commune and the capital city of the San Felipe de Aconcagua Province in central Chile's Valparaíso Region. It is located 88 km north of the national capital of Santiago; the commune spans an area of 185.9 km2. According to data from the 2002 Census of Population and Housing, the San Felipe commune had 64,126 inhabitants. At that time, there were 33,090 women; the demonym for a man from San Felipe is sanfelipeña for a woman. As a commune, San Felipe is a third-level administrative division of Chile, administered by a communal council, headed by a directly elected alcalde; the current alcalde is Patricio Freire Canto. The communal council has the following members: Eugenio Cornejo Correa Leonel Alegría Ibáñez Juan Manuel Millanao Calvin Dante Rodríguez Vásquez Ricardo Covarrubias Covarrubias Mario Sotolicchio Urquiza Within the electoral divisions of Chile, San Felipe is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mr. Marco Antonio Núñez and Mr. Gaspar Rivas as part of the 11th electoral district.
The commune is represented in the Senate by Ignacio Walker Prieto and Lily Pérez San Martín as part of the 5th senatorial constituency. Universidad de Playa Ancha de Ciencias de la Educación Universidad de Valparaiso Universidad de Viña del Mar Universidad de Aconcagua Municipality of San Felipe
Cádiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia. Cádiz, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Western Europe, with archaeological remains dating to 3100 years, was founded by the Phoenicians, it has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network, it is the site of the University of Cádiz. Situated on a narrow slice of land surrounded by the sea‚ Cádiz is, in most respects, a Andalusian city with a wealth of attractive vistas and well-preserved historical landmarks; the older part of Cádiz within the remnants of the city walls is referred to as the Old Town. It is characterized by the antiquity of its various quarters, among them El Pópulo, La Viña, Santa María, which present a marked contrast to the newer areas of town. While the Old City's street plan consists of narrow winding alleys connecting large plazas, newer areas of Cádiz have wide avenues and more modern buildings.
In addition, the city is dotted with numerous parks where exotic plants flourish, including giant trees brought to Spain by Columbus from the New World. Little remains of the Phoenician language, but numismatic inscriptions record that they knew the site as a Gadir or Agadir, meaning "The Wall", "The Compound", or "The Stronghold". Borrowed by the Berber languages, this became the agadir common in North African place names; the Carthaginians continued to use this name and all subsequent names have derived from it. The Greek cothon refers to a Carthaginian type of fortified basin that can be seen at ancient sites such as Motya. Attic Greek sources hellenized Gadir as tà Gádeira, neuter plural. Herodotus, using Ionic Greek, transcribed it a little differently, as Gḗdeira; as in Stephanus of Byzantium's notes on the writings of Eratosthenes, the name is given in the feminine singular form as hè Gadeíra. In Latin, the city was known as its Roman colony as Augusta Urbs Iulia Gaditana. In Arabic, the Latin name became Qādis.
The Spanish demonym for people and things from Cádiz is gaditano. In English, the name is pronounced variously; when the accent is on the second syllable, it is pronounced but, when the accent is on the first syllable, it may be pronounced as, as, or as. In Spanish, the accent is always on the first syllable but, while the usual pronunciation in Spain is, the local dialect says, or instead. More some English speakers may attempt to pronounce it as the Spanish to the British version of "Ibiza", leading to pronunciations of Cádiz with /s/ or /θ/ instead of /z/, but keeping the English vowels and the strong /d/. According to a 2016 census estimate, the population of the city of Cádiz was 118,919, that of its metropolitan area was 629,054. Cádiz is the seventeenth-largest Spanish city. In recent years, the city's population has declined. Between 1995 and 2006, it lost more than 14,000 residents, a decrease of 9%. Among the causes of this loss of population is the peculiar geography of Cádiz. There is a pronounced shortage of land to be developed.
The city has little vacant land, a high proportion of its housing stock is low in density. The older quarters of Cádiz are full of buildings that, because of their age and historical significance, are not eligible for urban renewal. Two other physical factors tend to limit the city's population, it is impossible to increase the amount of land available for building by reclaiming land from the sea. Because Cádiz is built on a sandspit, it is a costly proposition to sink foundations deep enough to support the high-rise buildings that would allow for a higher population density; as it stands, the city's skyline is not different from in the Middle Ages. A 17th-century watchtower, the Tavira Tower, still commands a panoramic view of the city and the bay despite its modest 45 meters height. Cádiz is the provincial capital with the highest rate of unemployment in Spain. This, tends to depress the population level. Young Gaditanos, those between 18 and 30 years of age, have been migrating to other places in Spain, as well as to other places in Europe and the Americas.
The population younger than twenty years old is only 20.58% of the total, the population older than sixty-five is 21.67%, making Cádiz one of the most aged cities in all of Spain. The population distribution of the municipality is uneven. In its inhabited areas, Cádiz is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe; the uninhabited Zona Franca industrial area, Bay of Cádiz Port Area, Bay of Cádiz Natural Park occupy 63
Priego de Córdoba
Priego de Córdoba is a town and municipality of Andalucia, in the extreme southeastern portion of the province of Córdoba, near the headwater of the Guadajoz River, on the northern slope of the Sierra de Priego. The population in 2015 was 22,936. Priego is a village found on the Ruta del Califato, it is called “City of the water” because of the many springs and "Jewel of the Baroque Native of Córdoba” for the multitude of its Baroque-style constructions. It has been referred to as “the lock and key to the Kingdom of Granada”; the oldest section of Priego is its Barrio de la Villa. It is bordered on one side by a high cliff; the alleys that wind through this part of the town are Moorish in style, decorated proudly by the populace with flower pots and religious icons. Some homes retain the ancient tunnel system; some of the best examples of the Spanish Baroque are found in the numerous churches in Priego. The oldest church was subsequently restored. There are ruins of a castle having been a fortified city of the Moors captured by the Christians under Ferdinand III in 1225, lost again in 1327, retaken in 1340 by Alfonso XI.
The view from the cliff, known as the "Adarve", is a favorite subject for paintings. From the "Adarve" one sees an over 180° degree expanse of valley and olive grove speckled mountains known as the "Subetica"; the oldest section of Priego is its Barrio de la Villa. It is bordered on one side by a high cliff; the alleys that wind through this part of the town are Moorish in style, decorated with flower pots and religious icons. Some homes still have the ancient tunnel system, its economy is based on agricultural products olive oil and cereals. The olive oil from Priego has been given its own denominational label; the olive oils have garnered many of the most prestigious prizes in international competitions."Venta del Barón" is the best olive oil in the world since 2014 2015 and 2016 The religious brotherhoods of Priego have a long history, some dating back to before the 16th century. The traditional displays of these brotherhoods in the religious processions of Holy Week are renowned for their grandeur and beauty.
The procession on Holy Thursday of the Brotherhood of the Column, the oldest and most prestigious of the town's brotherhoods, on Holy Friday the Brotherhood of the Nazarenos, in which the procession is of a hand carried float with Christ carrying the cross. The Nazareno is carried from a church in the center of Priego to a mountain top that overlooks Priego known as the Calavario. Once there a priest delivers a benediction; the population holds up pastries in the form of roosters or pigs, with a hard boiled egg in the center, known as'hornazos'. After the benediction it is considered good luck for the coming year to eat the pastry; the Barrio de la Villa was given the official title of Historic Centre of Priego in 1972. Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, Prime Minister and President of the Second Spanish Republic, was from Priego. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Priego de Cordoba". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. Cambridge University Press.
P. 316. El legado andalusí
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia. The collective term refers to a wide-ranging ethnicity composed of various groups who shared a common social and economic structure, as well as a common linguistic heritage as Mapudungun speakers, their influence once extended from the Aconcagua River to the Chiloé Archipelago and spread eastward to the Argentine pampa. Today the collective group makes up over 80% of the indigenous peoples in Chile, about 9% of the total Chilean population, they are concentrated in Araucanía. Many have migrated to the Buenos Aires area for economic opportunities; the Mapuche traditional economy is based on agriculture. In times of war, they would elect a toki to lead them, they are known for the textiles woven by women, which have been goods for trade for centuries, since before the arrival of European explorers. At the time of Spanish arrival the Araucanian Mapuche inhabited the valleys between the Itata and Toltén rivers.
South of it, the Huilliche and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago. In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, Mapuche groups migrated eastward into the Andes and pampas and establishing relationships with the Poya and Pehuenche. At about the same time, ethnic groups of the pampa regions, the Puelche and northern Aonikenk, made contact with Mapuche groups; the Tehuelche adopted the Mapuche language and some of their culture, in what came to be called Araucanization. Some Mapuche mingled with Spanish during colonial times, their descendants make up the large group of mestizos in Chile, but Mapuche society in Araucanía and Patagonia remained independent until the Chilean Occupation of Araucanía and the Argentine Conquest of the Desert in the late 19th century. Since Mapuche have become subjects, nationals and citizens of the respective states. Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.
The Spanish colonizers of South America referred to the Mapuche people as Araucanians. However, this term is now considered pejorative by some people; the name was derived from the placename rag ko, meaning "clayey water". The Quechua word awqa, meaning "rebel, enemy", is not the root of araucano. It's thought that the various Mapuche groups called themselves "Reche" during the Spanish conquest due to their supposed pure native blood, "Re" meaning pure and "Che" meaning peopleThe name "Mapuche" is used both to refer collectively to the Picunche and Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía, or at other times to the Moluche or Nguluche from Araucanía. However, Mapuche is a recent endonym meaning "People of the Land", is preferred to be used when referring to the "Mapuche" people after the Arauco War The Mapuche define themselves with territorial entities arranged along geographical line as: Pwelche or Puelche: "people of the east" occupied Pwel mapu or Puel mapu, the eastern lands. Pikunche or Picunche: "people of the north" occupied Pikun-mapu, the "northern lands".
Williche or Huilliche: "people of the south" occupied Willi mapu, the "southern lands". Pewenche or Pehuenche: "people of the pewen/pehuen" occupied Pewen mapu, "the land of the pewen tree". Lafkenche: "people of the sea" occupied Lafken mapu, "the land of the sea". Nagche: "people of the plains" occupied Nag mapu, "the land of the plains"; the ancient Mapuche Toqui like Lef-Traru, Kallfülikan or Pelontraru were Nagche. Wenteche: "people of the valleys" occupied Wente mapu, "the land of the valleys". Archaeological finds have shown the existence of a Mapuche culture in Chile and Argentina as early as 600 to 500 BC. Genetically Mapuches differ from the adjacent indigenous peoples of Patagonia; this suggests a "different origin or long lasting separation of Mapuche and Patagonian populations". Troops of the Inca Empire are reported to have reached the Maule River and had a battle with the Mapuches between the Maule River and the Itata River there; the southern border of the Inca Empire is believed by most modern scholars to have been situated between Santiago and the Maipo River or somewhere between Santiago and the Maule River.
Thus the bulk of the Mapuche escaped Inca rule. Through their contact with Incan invaders Mapuches would have for the first time met people with state organization, their contact with the Incas gave them a collective awareness distinguishing between them and the invaders and uniting them into loose geo-political units despite their lack of state organization. At the time of the arrival of the first Spaniards to Chile the largest indigenous population concentration was in the area spanning from Itata River to Chiloé Archipelago—that is the Mapuche heartland; the Mapuche population between Itata River and Reloncaví Sound has been estimated at 705,000–900,000 in the mid-16th century by historian José Bengoa. The Spanish expansion into Mapuche territory was an offshoot of the conquest of Peru. In 1541 Pedro de Valdivia founded Santiago; the northern Mapuche tribes, known Promaucaes and Picunches, fought unsuccessfully against Spanis
Rancagua is a city and commune in central Chile and part of the Rancagua conurbation. It is the capital of the Cachapoal Province and of the O'Higgins Region, located 87 km south of the national capital of Santiago, its first name was Santa Cruz de Triana. In 2012, its population was 232,211; the main economic activities range from mining, agriculture, food production and services to minor industrial activities. The city serves as the administrative and legal center of the region. Next to Machalí and Gultro forms the Rancagua conurbation. Rancagua was founded by José Antonio Manso de Velasco, who founded several cities in the central area of Chile; the city's original name was Villa Santa Cruz de Triana. However, before the Spaniards arrived the area was inhabited by local Picunche tribes and had fallen under the control of the Inca Empire, whose traces can still be found near the city today; the city is famous in Chilean history as the scene of the Disaster of Rancagua of 1814, when Chilean forces fighting for independence from Spain were defeated, marking the beginning of the period known as the Reconquista.
In recent years the city has become one of the most attractive cultural and tourist centers in the O'Higgins Region due to the vineyards in the area. There are some archeological sites such as Pukara de La Compañia and the nearby Rio Cipreses nature reserve, both of which can be visited by private vehicle or with local tour companies. Rancagua offers sports centers and easy access to smaller villages and towns; the city is connected to Santiago by the Panamerican Highway, the Metrotren connects the metro service in Santiago to Rancagua by train. Rancagua is home of the University of Rancagua, the first private university to be established in the O'Higgins Region. Rancagua is known for El Teniente, the "largest underground copper mine in the world", located about 40 km to the east of the city in the Andes mountain range. El Teniente is a division of Codelco; the city's Braden Copper Stadium was one of the four venues of the 1962 FIFA World Cup. More it houses the O'Higgins professional soccer club, one of the leading teams in Chilean professional soccer.
Every year, the National Championship of Chilean rodeo is held in the Medialuna Monumental de Rancagua. On 2015, the city will be host the 2015 Copa América; the population of Rancagua is either of Spanish descent or mestizo, with a strong Basque influence. However, there are Chileans of German, Italian, Levantine Arab, French, English or Irish ancestry living in the city, as well as indigenous Mapuche migrant workers from the south and some Roma gypsies. Furthermore, the city has seen increasing immigration from neighbouring South American countries such as Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Rancagua spans an area of 260.3 km2 and has 214,344 inhabitants. Of these, 206,971 lived in 7,373 in rural areas; the population grew by 14.4 % between the 2002 censuses. Germán Riesco, President of Chile between 1901 and 1906. Lucho Gatica, bolero singer. José Victorino Lastarria and politician. Mariano Díaz, graphic designer, writer. Clarence Acuña, ex-footballer.
Bryan Rabello, footballer. Mario Núñez, ex-footballer; as a commune, Rancagua is a third-level administrative division of Chile, administered by a municipal council and headed by an alcalde, directly elected every four years. Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Rancagua is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Mr. Alejandro García-Huidobro and Mr. Juan Luis Castro as part of the 32nd electoral district, which consists of the Rancagua commune; the commune is represented in the Senate by Andrés Chadwick Piñera and Juan Pablo Letelier Morel as part of the 9th senatorial constituency. This area is known as the "huaso province" after the name of the huaso; the population is a mixture of both European and indigenous races and cultures, thus the region has a homogeneous culture known as Chileanidad is present and a mestizo imprint is evident. Rancagua and the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region was settled by Spaniards and other Europeans. French and Italian families established agriculture including the important wine industry: the Wine Route is one of the main tourist attractions of the Colchagua valley.
Breweries can be found as well, the legacy of Swiss immigration. Livestock herding was influenced by British and Yugoslavian settlers; the small distance from Santiago has led to a growing urban influence in the local culture. Rancagua, is fast becoming a suburb of Santiago's upper-class professional workforce. Public Transport is provided by Trans O'Higgins by six lines of busses. Rancagua has a Mediterranean climate, with marked seasons. Summers are extremely dry, with cool mornings and hot afternoons, while winters are mild with cold mornings and occasional periods of heavy rainfall that averages around 510 millimetres or 20.08 inches each year – all of which occurs during a handful of storms between May and August. In some years there can be a little snow; the s