The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias, is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region. It was strategically located between the Magdalena and Sinú rivers and became the main port for trade between Spain and its overseas empire, establishing its importance by the early 1540s. During the colonial era it was a key port for the export of Peruvian silver to Spain and for the import of enslaved Africans under the asiento system, it was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean. It is the capital of the Bolívar Department, had a population 971,592 as of 2016, it is the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is the fifth-largest urban area in the country. Economic activities include petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism; the city was founded on June 1, 1533, named after Cartagena, settlement in the region around Cartagena Bay by various indigenous people dates back to 4000 BC.
During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire. It was a center of political and economic activity. In 1984, Cartagena's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Puerto Hormiga Culture, found in the Caribbean coast region in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC; the primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life. Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC.
The rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of Barú Island, has been hypothesized. The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture; the Monsú people's diet was based on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish. The development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area; until the Spanish colonization, many cultures derived from the Karib and Arawak language families lived along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, whose language was related to the Chibcha language family. Around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more the Mocanae sub-family.
Mocana villages of the Carib people around the Bay of Cartagena included: on sandy island facing the ocean in what is present-day downtown: Kalamarí on the island of Tierrabomba: Carex on Isla Barú a peninsula: Bahaire on present-day Mamonal, the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique in the suburban area of Turbaco: Yurbaco TribeHeredia found these settlements, "...largely surrounded with the heads of dead men placed on stakes."Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas. Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence; these tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades. Rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500–01. On 14 February 1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosa's voyage to Uraba.
However, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510 along with 300 of Alonso de Ojeda's men, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, before Juan de la Cosa could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area. Similar contracts were signed in 1508 with Diego de Nicuesa for the settlement of Veragua and with Alonso de Ojeda for the settlement of Uraba, "where gold had been obtained on earlier voyages," according to Floyd. After the failed effort to find Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastián de Urabá in 1517 by Diego de Nicuesa, the southern Caribbean coast became unattractive to colonizers, they preferred Cuba. Although the royal control point for trade, the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and sighted the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the Gulf of Urabá, the location of the failed first settlements.
De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia entered the Bay of Cartagena with three ships, a lighter, 150 men, 22 horses, on 14 January 1533, he soon found. Proceeding onwards to Turbaco, where Juan
Venezuelan War of Independence
The Venezuelan War of Independence was one of the Spanish American wars of independence of the early nineteenth century, when independence movements in Latin America fought against rule by the Spanish Empire, emboldened by Spain's troubles in the Napoleonic Wars. The establishment of the Supreme Caracas Junta following the forced deposition of Vicente Emparan as Captain General of the Captaincy General of Venezuela on April 19, 1810, marked the beginnings of the war. On July 5, 1811, seven of the ten provinces of the Captaincy General of Venezuela declared their independence in the Venezuelan Declaration of Independence; the First Republic of Venezuela was lost in 1812 following the 1812 Caracas earthquake and the Battle of La Victoria. Simón Bolívar led an "Admirable Campaign" to retake Venezuela, establishing the Second Republic of Venezuela in 1813. Only as part of Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada in 1819-20 did Venezuela achieve a lasting independence from Spain. On 17 December 1819, the Congress of Angostura declared Gran Colombia an independent country.
After two more years of war, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821 under the leadership of its most famous son, Simón Bolívar. Venezuela, along with the present-day countries of Colombia and Ecuador, formed part of the Republic of Gran Colombia until 1830, when Venezuela separated and became a sovereign state; the French invasion of Spain in 1808 led to the collapse of the Spanish Monarchy. Most subjects of Spain did not accept the government of Joseph Bonaparte, placed on the Spanish throne by his brother, Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte of France. At the same time, the process of creating a stable government in Spain, which would be recognized throughout the empire, took two years; this created a power vacuum in the Spanish possessions in America, which created further political uncertainty. On 19 April 1810 the municipal council of Caracas headed a successful movement to depose the Spanish Governor and Captain General, Vicente Emparán. A junta was established in Caracas, soon other Venezuelan provinces followed suit.
The reverberations of this act of independence could be felt throughout Venezuela immediately. Across Venezuela and cities decided to either side with the movement based in Caracas or not, de facto civil war ensued throughout much of Venezuela; the Caracas Junta called for a congress of Venezuelan provinces to establish a government for the region. Both the Junta and Congress upheld the "rights of Ferdinand VII," meaning that they recognized themselves to still be part of the Spanish Monarchy, but had established a separate government due to the French invasion of the Iberian Peninsula; as the Congress deliberated, a faction proposing outright independence won favor. Persons such as Francisco de Miranda, a long-term Venezuelan expatriate, Simón Bolívar, a young, Criollo aristocrat—both influenced by Age of Enlightenment ideas and the example of the French Revolution—led the movement; the Congress declared Venezuela's independence on 5 July 1811, establishing the Republic of Venezuela. Before the Congress began its sessions in November 1810, a civil war started between those who supported the juntas, independence, royalists who wanted to maintain the union with Spain.
Two provinces, Maracaibo Province and Guayana Province, one district, never recognized the Caracas Junta and remained loyal to the governments in Spain. Military expeditions to bring Coro and Guayana under the control of the Republic failed. In 1811 an uprising in Valencia against the Republic was suppressed. By 1812 the situation became aggravated for the young Republic, it was short of funds, Spanish Regency set up a blockade, shortly after, on 26 March 1812, a devastating earthquake affected republican areas. In these desperate moments, Miranda was given dictatorial powers he was unable to stem the royalist advance headed by Captain Domingo de Monteverde. By midyear, after the Battle of San Mateo, the Republic collapsed. Miranda capitulated to Monteverde and signed an armistice on 25 July 1812. Bolívar and other republicans continued the resistance from other parts of the Spanish South America and the Caribbean, or organized guerrilla movements in the interior of the country. In 1813 Bolívar joined the army of United Provinces of New Granada.
After winning a series of battles, Bolívar received the approval of the New Granadan Congress to lead a liberating force into Venezuela in what became known as the Admirable Campaign. At the same time, Santiago Mariño invaded from the northeast in an independently organized campaign. Both forces defeated the royalist troops in various battles, such as Alto de los Godos. Bolívar entered Caracas on 6 August 1813, proclaiming the restoration of the Venezuelan Republic and his supreme leadership of it, something, not recognized by Mariño based in Cumaná, although the two leaders did cooperate militarily. In the viceroyalties of La Plata and New Granada the Creoles displaced the Spanish authorities with relative ease, as Caracas had done at first; the autonomous movement swept through New Granada. Bogotá inherited the role of capital from Spain, but the royalists were entrenched in southern Colombia. Cali was a bastion of the independence movement just north of royalist territory. Cartagena declared independence not only from Spain but from Bogotá.
Bolívar arrived in Cartagena and was well received, as
Pablo Morillo y Morillo, Count of Cartagena and Marquess of La Puerta, a.k.a. El Pacificador was a Spanish general. In 1791 Morillo enlisted in the Real Cuerpo de Marina and participated in the Battle of Trafalgar in which he was wounded and made prisoner by the English in 1805, he fought against Napoleon Bonaparte in 1808 during the Peninsular War to defend his mother country Spain against the French invasion. Once the war ended and the Spanish monarchy was restored, King Ferdinand VII of Spain appointed him Expedition Commander and General Captain of the Provinces of Venezuela on 14 August 1814, he set sail with a fleet of 18 warships and 42 cargo ships and disembarked in Carupano and Isla Margarita with the mission to pacify the revolts against the Spanish monarchy in the American colonies. He travelled to La Guaira, Puerto Cabello, Santa Marta and Cartagena de Indias in a military campaign to fight Simon Bolívar's revolutionary armies. On 22 August 1815 Morillo surrounded the walled city of Cartagena and put it under siege, preventing any supplies from going in until 6 December that year, when the Spanish Royal Army entered the city.
With control over Cartagena, Morillo returned to Venezuela to continue the fight against revolutionaries. In June 1820 Morillo, under Royal mandate, ordered that everyone in the colonies obey the Cadiz Constitution and sent delegates to negotiate with Bolivar and his followers. Bolivar and Morillo met in the Venezuelan town of Santa Ana and signed a six-months' armistice followed by a second one named "War Regularization". Morillo returned to Spain, was named General Captain of New Castile, supported the Liberal Constitution during the Liberal Triennium, he prevented a coup against the Constitution in 1822, fought in 1823 the French invasion under Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême in the north of Spain, where he was defeated. When King Ferdinand VII restored the absolute regime in 1823 he went to France. A few years he returned to Spain and participated in some military operations during the Carlist Wars, he felt ill and went back to France where he died on 27 July 1837. When Morillo ordered the execution of the scientist Francisco José de Caldas and the people present at San Francisco Square of Santa Fe appealed for the life of the scientist, Morillo responded: "Spain does not need wise people.".
This sentence became the slogan of Spain's wars for the re-conquest of the rebel colonies. Spanish reconquest of New Granada Reconquista Royalist Costeloe, Michael P. Response to Revolution: Imperial Spain and the Spanish American Revolutions, 1810-1840. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-521-32083-6 Earle, Rebecca. Spain and the Independence of Colombia, 1810-1825. Exter: University of Exter Press, 2000. ISBN 0-85989-612-9 Stoan, Stephen K. Pablo Morillo and Venezuela, 1815-1820. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1959. National Museum of Colombia - Pablo Morillo
New Kingdom of Granada
The New Kingdom of Granada, or Kingdom of the New Granada, was the name given to a group of 16th-century Spanish colonial provinces in northern South America governed by the president of the Audiencia of Santa Fe, an area corresponding to modern-day Colombia and Venezuela. The conquistadors organized it as a captaincy general within the Viceroyalty of Peru; the crown established the audiencia in 1549. The kingdom became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada first in 1717 and permanently in 1739. After several attempts to set up independent states in the 1810s, the kingdom and the viceroyalty ceased to exist altogether in 1819 with the establishment of Gran Colombia. In 1514, the Spanish first permanently settled in the area. With Santa Marta and Cartagena, Spanish control of the coast was established, the extension of colonial control into the interior could begin. Starting in 1536, the conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada explored the extensive highlands of the interior of the region, by following the Magdalena River into the Andean cordillera.
There his force defeated the powerful Muisca and founding the city of Santa Fé de Bogotá and naming the region El nuevo reino de Granada, "the new kingdom of Granada", in honor of the last part of Spain to be recaptured from the Moors, home to the brothers De Quesada. After Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada left for Spain in May 1539, the reign of the colony was transferred to his brother Hernán. De Quesada, lost control of the province when Emperor Charles V granted the right to rule over the area to rival conquistador, Sebastián de Belalcázar, in 1540, who had entered the region from what is today Ecuador, named himself governor of Popayán. Belalcázar's victory placed the region under the Viceroyalty of Peru, being organized at the time. Charles V ordered the establishment of an audiencia, a type of superior court that combined executive and judicial authority, at Santa Fé de Bogotá in 1549; the Royal Audiencia was created by a royal decree of July 17, 1549. It was given authority over the provinces of Santa Marta, Río de San Juan, Popayán, Guayana and Cartagena de Indias.
The Audiencia was charged with dispensing justice, but it was to oversee the running of government and the settlement of the territory. It held its first session on April 7, 1550, in a mansion on the Plaza Mayor at the site which today houses the Colombian Palace of Justithey Law VIII of Title XV of Book II of the Recopilación de Leyes de las Indias of 1680—which compiles the decrees of July 17, 1549. In Santa Fé de Bogotá of the New Kingdom of Granada shall reside another Royal Audiencia and Chancery of ours, with a president and captain general, and we order that the Governor and Captain General of said provinces and president of their Royal Audiencia, have and exercise by himself the government of all the district of that Audiencia, in the same manner as our Viceroys of New Spain and appoint the repartimiento of Indians and other offices that need to be appointed, attend to all the matters and business that belong to the government, that the oidores of said Audiencia do not interfere with this, that all sign what in matters of justice is provided for and carried out.
One further change came as part of the Bourbon Reforms of the eighteenth century. Because of the slowness in communications between Lima and Bogotá, the Bourbons decided to establish an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717; the governor-president of Bogotá became the viceroy of the new entity, with military and executive oversight over the neighboring Presidency of Quito and the provinces of Venezuela. The New Kingdom was organized into several Governments and Provinces: The largest cities of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 1791 Census were Cartagena de Indias – 154,304 Santa Fé de Bogotá – 108,533 Popayan – 56,783 Santa Marta – 49,830 Tunja – 43,850 Mompóx – 24,332 Patria Boba United Provinces of New Granada Avellaneda Navas, José Ignacio; the Conquerors of the New Kingdom of Granada Cook, Karoline P. "Religious Identity and Status in New Granada." Race and Blood in the Iberian World. Fisher, John R. Allan J. Keuthe, Anthony McFarlane, eds. Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990. ISBN 978-0-8071-1654-8 Graff, Gary W. "Spanish Parishes in Colonial New Granada: Their Role in Town-Building on the Spanish-American Frontier." The Americas: 336-351. Grahn, Lance Raymond; the Political
Francisco Tomás Morales
Francisco Tomás Morales, was a Spanish military, the last of that country to hold the post of Captain General of Venezuela, reaching the rank of field marshal during the Venezuelan War of Independence. As recounted in a series of letters distributed by the Philadelphia Gazette, in 1822 General Morales issued a decree interpreted by the American merchants in Caracas, La Guaira and Puerto Cabello as a threat; the Americans solicited the help of Capt. Robert T. Spence, whose frigate, the Cyane was in the area, to delay his departure for Africa to protect them from Morales. Spence complied for several days in October 1822, much to the relief of the Americans, at least briefly. Morales conceded defeat after the Battle of Lake Maracaibo in July 1823. Puerto Cabello, the last Royalist stronghold in Venezuela, fell to the independist forces in November 1823
The Colombian Navy the Colombian National Navy known as the "Armada Nacional" or just the "Armada" in Spanish, is the naval branch of the military forces of Colombia. The Navy is responsible for security and defence in the Colombian zones of both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the extensive network of rivers inside the country, a few small land areas under its direct jurisdiction; the Colombian Navy has a strength of 35,086 personnel as of September 2013 including 22,000 in the Marine Infantry corps. The acronym "ARC", is used both as the official ship prefix for all the Colombian Navy ships, as well as a common short name for the Navy itself. "Protecting the blue of our flag"As stated in its institutional site, the mission of the Colombian Navy is: “Contribute with the defense of the Nation through the effective use of flexible naval power in the maritime and land spaces under its responsibility, in order to fulfill the constitutional role and participate in the development of sea power and the protection of the interests of Colombians".
In order to accomplish its mission, the Colombian navy establishes four strategic objectives: Protection of the population and resources and consolidation of territorial control. Neutralization of illegal drug trafficking. Strategic deterrence. Maritime and riverine safety. In addition to functions of security and defense the Navy is called to participate in missions aimed to ensure the integral use of the sea by the Nation. For this purpose it must fulfill both military and diplomatic activities along with implementation and enforcement of law and order, its formal motto has been "Plus Ultra". Its former slogan was "Sailing our pride"; the history of the Colombian Navy is tied to, somewhat reflects the history of Colombia itself: from its birth at the Declaration of Independence from Spain, the subsequent ups and downs throughout a 19th century rife with civil wars, a 20th-century where it starts asserting itself only to be challenged by the internal conflict and drug traffic of the decades, to a Navy, now reaching a more mature and modern shape, much like the country it protects.
The Colombian Navy celebrates its birthday on July 24, the anniversary of the Battle of Lake Maracaibo fought on July 24, 1823, the last large naval battle of the Spanish American wars of independence and helped cement the South American independence. But the roots of the Navy can be traced 13 years back, to 1810, just a few weeks after the Colombian Declaration of Independence of July 20, 1810; the president of the Supreme Board of Cartagena, José María García de Toledo, created the Naval Command Office by means of a decree dated September 17, 1810. The Navy was placed under the command of Captain Juan Nepomuceno Eslava, junior son of the Spanish Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava. During this period, the young navy operated with small schooners, either acquired directly or by providing letters of marque to friendly captains which operated as part or on behalf of the navy; some of these captains would obtain renown during the independence war, like Luis Brión and Renato Beluche. This small navy was effective in limited operations intercepting Spanish ships, but was not strong enough to attack port cities, as evidenced by the failed attacks to Santa Marta and Portobello.
During 1815, a Spanish army headed by Pablo Morillo besieged Cartagena, as the first step of its "Pacifying Expedition". The five-month siege was so harsh that earned the city its title of "Heroic"; the small independent navy was impotent against the large fleet commanded by Morillo, but managed some daring actions, in particular that of Luis Brión, who attempted to run the blockade with his corvette Dard with a load of guns and powder to the city before fleeing again to Haiti. In 1816, Simón Bolívar attempted his first campaign, the Cayos expedition, sailing from Haiti with seven schooners and corvettes: Bolivar, Mariño, Constitución, Brión, Fénix, Conejo, but this expedition fizzled out due to infighting amongst its generals shortly after the liberation of Margarita Island. It was only after the Liberation Campaign of 1819 that General Francisco de Paula Santander created the Naval School on June 28, 1822, issued additional decrees for the provision of the navy. Admiral José Prudencio Padilla would go on reorganizing and building the fleet, to support Bolívar's plans for the campaign of Zulia and the complete liberation of the east.
This fleet engaged in the Battle of Lake Maracaibo, which crushed the Spanish naval aspirations in South America. In 1824 the first – and only – eight cadet officers graduated from naval school. On March 3, 1826, the Ministry of the Navy was created, with Lino de Clemente as minister. By 1826, both from bought and captured vessels, the Colombian Navy had become a respectable force, commanding a large number of ships, including a ship of the line, a frigate, six corvettes, five brigantines, 10 schooners, 13 gunboats, many minor vessels, but the fledgling government was strapped financially, in a decree of December 7, 1826, Bolívar decommissioned the Naval school, abolished the Ministry of the Navy, and
Bogotá Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D. C. and known as Santafé/Santa Fé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although erroneously thought of as part of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia, it is the political, economic and industrial center of the country. Bogotá was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on August 6, 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes conquering the Muisca; the Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region and called the settlement where Bogotá was founded Bacatá, which in the Chibcha language means "The Lady of the Andes." Further, the word'Andes' in the Aymara language means "shining mountain," thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá as "The Lady of the shining mountain." After the Battle of Boyacá on August 7, 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia.
Since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá has remained the capital of this territory. The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes, it is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2,640 metres above sea level. Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres and a cool climate, constant through the year; the city is home to central offices of the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch of the Colombian government. Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital, it is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country.
The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia and the Andean natural region, is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia. It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, responsible for a quarter of the nation's total; the city's airport, El Dorado International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, is third in number of people. Bogotá is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country, is an important cultural center, with many theaters and museums, of which the Museo del Oro is the most important. Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, is considered a global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC; the area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages. The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas.
The name Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos. The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking and mummification; the religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods related to natural phenomena as the Sun and his wife, the Moon. Their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented, their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá. The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá, were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene; the oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra, north of Zipaquirá. Dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soacha provided ages of ~11,000 BP.
Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated part of their meat diet. The people inhabiting the Bogotá savanna in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a member of the Chibcha language family. Muisca means "person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. At the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people on the Bogotá savanna of up to two million in the Muisca Confederation, they occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km2, comprising Bogotá's high plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander region. Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other Chibcha-speaking neighbours, such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and with Cariban groups as the Muzo or "Emerald People", their knowledge of salt pro