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Josef Stefan

Josef Stefan was an ethnic Carinthian Slovene physicist and poet of the Austrian Empire. Stefan was born in an outskirt village of St. Peter in the Austrian Empire to father Aleš Stefan, born in 1805, mother Marija Startinik, born 1815, his parents, both ethnic Slovenes, married. The Stefans were a modest family, his father was his mother served as a maidservant. Stefan's mother died in 1863 and his father in 1872. Stefan attended elementary school in Klagenfurt, they recommended to him to continue his schooling, so in 1845, he went to Klagenfurt Lyceum. As a thirteen-year-old boy, he experienced the revolutionary year of 1848, which inspired him to be sympathetic toward Slovene literary production. After having graduated top of his class in high school, he considered joining the Benedictine Order, but his great interest in physics prevailed, he left for Vienna in 1853 to study physics. His professor of physics in the gymnasium was Karel Robida, who wrote the first Slovene physics textbook. Stefan earned his habilitation in mathematical physics at the University of Vienna in 1858.

During his student years, he wrote and published a number of poems in Slovene. Stefan taught physics at the University of Vienna, was Director of the Physical Institute from 1866, Vice-President of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, member of several scientific institutions in Europe, he died in Austria-Hungary. His life and work have been extensively studied by the physicist Janez Strnad. Stefan published nearly 80 scientific articles in the Bulletins of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, he is best known for originating Stefan's law in 1879, a physical power law stating that the total radiation from a black body is proportional to the fourth power of its thermodynamic temperature T: j ⋆ = σ T 4 He derived this law from the measurements of the French physicists Dulong and Petit. As both incident radiation and blackbody emission are always equal, this equation applies to the temperature of any ideal body subject to incident radiation across its surface. In 1884, the law was extended to apply to grey-body emissions by Stefan's student Ludwig Boltzmann and hence is known as Stefan–Boltzmann law.

Boltzmann treated a heat engine with light as a working matter. This law is the only physical law of nature named after a Slovene physicist. Today, the law is derived from Planck's law of black body radiation: j ⋆ = ∫ 0 ∞ d λ With his law, Stefan determined the temperature of the Sun's surface, which he calculated to be 5,430 °C; this was the first sensible value for the temperature of the Sun. Stefan provided the first measurements of the thermal conductivity of gases, treated evaporation, among others studied diffusion, heat conduction in fluids. For his treatise on optics, the University of Vienna bestowed the Lieben Prize on him; because of his early work in calculating evaporation and diffusion rates, flow from a droplet or particle, induced by evaporation or sublimation at the surface is now called the Stefan flow. Important are his electromagnetic equations, defined in vector notation, works in the kinetic theory of heat. Stefan was among the first physicists in Europe who understood Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and one of the few outside England who expanded on it.

He calculated inductivity of a coil with a quadratic cross-section, he corrected Maxwell's miscalculation. He researched a phenomenon called the skin effect, where high-frequency electric current is greater on the surface of a conductor than in its interior. In mathematics, the Stefan problems or Stefan's tasks with movable boundary are well known; the problem was first studied by Lamé and Clapeyron in 1831. Stefan solved the problem when he was calculating how a layer of ice on water grows. In physics, several concepts are named after Joseph Stefan. In particular: Stefan–Boltzmann law Stefan–Boltzmann constant σ Stefan problem Stefan's equation Stefan's formula Stefan flow Stefan number Stefan's forceThe Jožef Stefan Institute was named after him. Stefan tube "Josef Stefan: His life and legacy in the thermal sciences," Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Volume 31, Issue 7, July 2007,s 795–803, by John C. Crepeau O'Connor, John J.. Extended biography of Josef Stefan, by John C. Crepeau

R.E.X. Records

R. E. X. Records known as R. E. X. Music, was an independent record label founded by Doug Mann and Gavin Morkel, which operated from 1987 until running into financial difficulty in 1995. Operations were based in Chicago until 1990; the label was artistic in nature, though they were active in the Christian metal genre some acts were marketed to mainstream audiences. Sublabels included Storyville Records and Street Level Records, founded by Randy Stonehill. In Christian markets their records were distributed by the Diamante Music Group until 1995 when they switched to Light Distribution, by a division of Platinum Entertainment. In general markets they were distributed by RED. By 1996 R. E. X was looking for a buyer. Platinum acquired the label in July 1996. In 1997 R. E. X. sued Platinum for breach of contract, asserting that Platinum had not properly distributed their product and had misrepresented their financial position in the buyout. For a short time R. E. X. provided distribution for Jesus People USA's Grrr Records.

Employee Alex Parker left and began Flying Tart in 1990. Founder Doug Mann took a position with ForeFront Records in April 1993. List of record labels Tooth & Nail Records, successor to R. E. X. in the propagation of Christian metal and alternative music Interview with Klay of Circle of Dust about R. E. X. Records Discogs: R. E. X. Music profile Site Featuring No Laughing Matter and related Worthless Records Artists

List of birds of Egypt

This is a list of the species of birds found in Egypt, a country in north-east Africa. The avifauna of Egypt include a total of 487 species of birds. No species are endemic to Egypt; this list's taxonomic treatment and nomenclature follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2019 edition. All of the birds below are included in the total bird count for Egypt; the following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories. Accidental - a species that or accidentally occurs in Egypt Introduced - a species introduced to Egypt as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Egypt although populations exist elsewhere Extinct - a species or subspecies that no longer exists. Order: Struthioniformes Family: Struthionidae The ostrich is a flightless bird native to Africa, it is the largest living species of bird. It is distinctive in its appearance, with a long neck and legs and the ability to run at high speeds.

Common ostrich, Struthio camelus North African ostrich, Struthio camelus camelus Arabian ostrich, Struthio camelus syriacus Order: Anseriformes Family: Anatidae Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These birds are adapted to an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills, feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. Graylag goose, Anser anser Greater white-fronted goose, Anser albifrons Lesser white-fronted goose, Anser erythropus Taiga bean-goose, Anser fabalis Brant, Branta bernicla Barnacle goose, Branta leucopsis Red-breasted goose, Branta ruficollis Mute swan, Cygnus olor Whooper swan, Cygnus cygnus Egyptian goose, Alopochen aegyptiacus Ruddy shelduck, Tadorna ferruginea Common shelduck, Tadorna tadorna Garganey, Spatula querquedula Blue-winged teal, Spatula discors Northern shoveler, Spatula clypeata Gadwall, Mareca strepera Eurasian wigeon, Mareca penelope Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos Northern pintail, Anas acuta Green-winged teal, Anas crecca Marbled teal, Marmaronetta angustirostris Red-crested pochard, Netta rufina Common pochard, Aythya ferina Ferruginous duck, Aythya nyroca Tufted duck, Aythya fuligula Velvet scoter, Melanitta fusca Smew, Mergellus albellus Red-breasted merganser, Mergus serrator Ruddy duck, Oxyura jamaicensis White-headed duck, Oxyura leucocephala Order: Galliformes Family: Phasianidae The Phasianidae are a family of terrestrial birds.

In general, they are plump and have broad short wings. Sand partridge, Ammoperdix heyi Common quail, Coturnix coturnix. Flamingos filter-feed on algae, their oddly shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume and, are used upside-down. Greater flamingo, Phoenicopterus roseus Lesser flamingo, Phoenicopterus minor Order: Podicipediformes Family: Podicipedidae Grebes are small to medium-large freshwater diving birds, they are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body. Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis Red-necked grebe, Podiceps grisegena Great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus Eared grebe, Podiceps nigricollis Order: Columbiformes Family: Columbidae Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. Rock pigeon, Columba livia, they have long pointed wings and sometimes a fast direct flight. Flocks fly to watering holes at dusk, their legs are feathered down to the toes.

Pin-tailed sandgrouse, Pterocles alchata Chestnut-bellied sandgrouse, Pterocles exustus Spotted sandgrouse, Pterocles senegallus Black-bellied sandgrouse, Pterocles orientalis Crowned sandgrouse, Pterocles coronatus Lichtenstein's sandgrouse, Pterocles lichtensteinii Order: Otidiformes Family: Otididae Bustards are large terrestrial birds associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World. They are omnivorous and nest on the ground, they walk on strong legs and big toes, pecking for food as they go. They have long broad wings with "fingered" striking patterns in flight. Many have interesting mating displays. Great bustard, Otis tarda Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata Macqueen's bustard, Chlamydotis macqueenii Little bustard, Tetrax tetrax Order: Cuculiformes Family: Cuculidae The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos and anis; these birds are of variable size with long tails and strong legs. Senegal coucal, Centropus senegalensis Great spotted cuckoo, Clamator glandarius Common cuckoo, Cuculu

Bajazid Doda

Bajazid Elmaz Doda was an Albanian ethnographic writer and photographer. Secretary and lover of Hungarian baron and scholar Franz Nopcsa, he is author of the book Albanisches Bauerleben im oberen Rekatal bei Dibra, written in Vienna in 1914, as well as of numerous rare early-20th-century photos of Albanian-inhabited lands during the period when they belonged to the Ottoman Empire of Upper Reka, his birthplace region; the extinct turtle species Kallokibotion bajazidi was named after him by his lover Franz Nopcsa. Bajazid Doda was born in 1888 in Štirovica, an Albanian-inhabited village of the Upper Reka region of Macedonia in what was the Ottoman Empire, he went to Romania to work abroad, like many other Upper Reka inhabitants. In Bucharest, Romania, in 1906 he met the Hungarian baron and scholar Franz Nopcsa, who hired him as his servant; the two began to live together. Nopcsa and Doda left Bucharest for the Nopcsa family mansion in Săcel and thereafter spent some several months in London where Doda fell ill with influenza.

In mid-November 1907 the two traveled to Shkodër, where they maintained a house from 1907 to 1910 and again from October 1913. They were kidnapped by a famous bandit Mustafa Lita. After their release in Prizren, they travelled to Skopje and went to visit the home of Doda in Upper Reka. Back in Shkodër, they visited the lands of tribes Hoti and Gruda. Both traveled separately throughout the Albanian lands. During the First World War in 1915-1916, Nopcsa took Doda with him while serving in the Austro-Hungarian army in Kosovo. After the war, they lived in Vienna where Nopcsa published several books and became known not only as an albanologist, but as a paleontologist and geologist. However, for about 3 years they went on a tour through Europe on a motorcycle. On April 25, 1933, suffering from depression Nopcsa killed Doda in his sleep and committed suicide. Doda is author of the book Albanisches Bauerleben im oberen Rekatal bei Dibra, completed in Vienna in April 1914 and was published posthumously in Vienna 2007, after being rediscovered within the archives.

The publication is accompanied by original photographs taken by Doda during 1907 consisting of village Štirovica and its surroundings, along with two accompanying photographs of Skopje. The book by Doda contains much valuable information about Upper Reka and its culture, customs and other facets of life; the book's aim, according to the author was to describe the vanishing lifestyle of the Muslim element in Upper River and to refute claims by Spiridon Gopčević in his book Macedonia and Old Serbia about Upper Reka Albanians being albanicised Slavs. Robert Elsie stated that the original script, regarded as lost may have been translated into German by Nopcsa from Albanian, due to the amount of Albanian vocabulary it contained. Elsie has praised the book for its detailed information on Upper Reka and because it was composed at a time when little Albanian literature had been produced. Elsie contends. Other scholars like Andrea Pieroni describe the work as a “very detailed ethnographic account” that includes “important notes concerning local food and medicinal plant uses” about research of the Upper Reka region.

Media related to Bajazid Doda at Wikimedia Commons


Merzhin is a rock band from Landerneau, in Brittany, formed in 1996 by six friends of high school. Their music is characterized by the displayed energy and by the uncommon use of instruments in the standards of the rock. Indeed, inspired by their native Brittany, six musicians don't hesitate to intervene in lead instrument bombards or various types of flutes or brass instruments besides the traditional guitars and drums. Performing in rear rooms of cafés and going as far as the biggest festivals, Merzhin is a band recognized on the French scene, they are distinguished by their festive and energetic scenic performances and by their musical universe, proposing original rock music of a Breton inspiration. In 2014, the band released their sixth studio album. Pierre Bourdonnec: singing, guitar, harmonica Ludovic Berrou: bombard, oboe, saxophone, vocals Damien Le Bras: bass Stephane Omnes: electric guitar Vincent The Hour: electric and acoustic guitars, backing vocals Jean- Christophe Colliou: drums, backing vocalsFor the Merzhin Moon Orchestra: Baptiste Moalic: accordion Antoine Pierre Colas: trumpet Emmanuel Chobriat: trombone Mathieu Person: drums and percussion until 2005 Christophe "Tof" Rossini: drums and percussion from 2005 to March 2008 2000: Pleine Lune 2002: Adrénaline 2006: Pieds nus sur la braise 2009: Moon Orchestra 2010: Plus loin vers l'Ouest 2014: Des heures à la seconde 2016: Babel 2007: Pieds nus sur le Scène – Live in India 2008: Merzhin Live 2012: 15 1998: Merzhin 1999: Première Lune 2002: Live au Bataclan * Official site

100 mph Club

The Champion Spark Plug 100 Mile an Hour Club was a group formed to honor drivers who completed the Indianapolis 500 at an average speed of 100 miles per hour or faster. It was formed in 1935, continued to be recognized through 1969, it was sponsored by Champion Spark Plugs, was the brainchild of M. C. deWitt, the company's advertising manager. During its heyday, it was considered one of the most prestigious honors in motorsports, membership was sought after by drivers. A total of 124 drivers were inducted as members, with 1930 winner Billy Arnold named the club's first member; the first driver to complete the Indianapolis 500 at an average speed of 100 mph was Pete DePaolo in 1925. However, Norman Batten drove 21 laps of relief while DePaolo had his hands bandaged due to blisters and bruises, thus DePaolo did not accomplish the feat solo. Five years in 1930, Billy Arnold won the race with an average speed of 100.488 mph. He was the second driver to complete the race in under five hours, but the first to do so without relief help.

In 1934, M. C. deWitt, the advertising manager for Champion, had a conversation with driver Dave Evans. Evans had finished 6th in the 1934 "500", in doing so, had become the twelfth driver in history to complete the full 500 miles solo, at an average speed of 100 mph. DeWitt envisioned an idea to create an honorary "club" for the drivers who had accomplished the noteworthy feat. In 1935, the'Champion Spark Plugs 100 mph Club was born; the inaugural class would consist of the 12 drivers. The first member retroactively being Billy Arnold, along with Fred Frame, Howdy Wilcox II, Cliff Bergere, Bob Carey, Russ Snowberger, Louis Meyer, Chet Gardner, Wilbur Shaw, Lou Moore, Stubby Stubblefield, Dave Evans. An annual banquet would be held in the drivers' honor, each inductee would receive a leather jacket. Carey and Stubblefield were deceased, Arnold did not attend, but all of the other nine living members were present at the first banquet; the requirements to qualify for the 100 mph Club were straightforward.

A driver was required to complete the Indianapolis 500 at an average speed of 100 mph or faster, driving the entire race without any relief help. It was permissible to be accompanied by a riding mechanic. However, the period in which riding mechanics were utilized at Indianapolis overlapped only from when the club was formed; the 100 mph average speed equated to finishing the race in five hours or less. The driver was not required to win the race, but a strict requirement was to complete the full 500 miles. Rain-shortened races, or drivers that were flagged off the track before completing all 200 laps would not qualify. Drivers were inducted for lifetime memberships, but drivers were separately honored each time they accomplished the feat. Many drivers broke the 100 mph barrier multiple times during the career. Ted Horn accomplished the feat a record total of eight times in his career; each subsequent membership was rewarded with being seated at the head table during the next annual banquet. Prior to the 1960s, the drivers were permitted ample time to complete the full 500 mile distance if it meant remaining on the track for several minutes or over an hour after the winner crossed the finish line.

In the early years, completing the full 500 miles was a requirement to receive any prize money. For a time, it was the norm for officials to wait until at least 10-12 cars completed the 500 miles before waving the cars off the track. However, not a hard-and-fast rule. Officials just used judgement to decide when it prudent to stop. A total of 16 cars went the distance in 1959, while only five did so in 1938. In 1940, only the top three were permitted to finish, due to a rain shower; the honor of joining the prestigious 100 mph Club was considered motivation to continue racing if the chance to win the race had gone away. In most cases, several cars would complete the distance, numerous drivers might be added to the Club annually. Around 1954, Champion formed as part of their public relations efforts, a Driver's education program geared towards teenagers and young adults; the Champion Highway Safety Program traveled around the country giving presentations at high schools and military bases about driving safety tips.

For many years, a team of drivers from the 100 mph Club were used to give the lectures, some were used in Educational films. The lectures were popular and well-received, were sponsored by a local newspaper or radio station; the appearances were used as promotional tool for automobile racing, offered the drivers work during the off-season. In 1964, when the race started airing live on MCA closed-circuit television, the rules were changed which limited the time drivers were allotted to finish the race once the winner crossed the finish line. Five minutes were allowed for the other cars on the track to complete the 200 laps; this had the effect of limiting the chances of joining the 100 mph Club, only a handful of drivers earned the honor after 1964. Contributing to the club's demise was the evolving times. By the mid-1960s, speeds at Indy had risen since the club's formation - and were poised to rise over the next few years. Covering the full 500 miles at an average speed of 100 mph was nay considered a noteworthy accomplishment any longer.

Most winners were finishing the race with as much as an hour and a half to spare to fulfill the 100 mph Club's qualifications. Apropos to that, membership in the drivers' eyes was still coveted. In 1964, Autolite create