The British responded by imposing punitive laws on Massachusetts in 1774 known as the Coercive Acts, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, the conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress determined King George IIIs rule to be tyrannical and infringing the rights as Englishmen. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. The British were forced out of Boston in 1776, but captured and they blockaded the ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but failed to defeat Washingtons forces. After a failed Patriot invasion of Canada, a British army was captured at the Battle of Saratoga in late 1777, a combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in 1781, effectively ending the war in the United States.
The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the conflict, confirming the new nations complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada. Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of a new Constitution of the United States. Historians typically begin their histories of the American Revolution with the British victory in the French and Indian War in 1763, the lands west of Quebec and west of a line running along the crest of the Allegheny mountains became Indian territory, temporarily barred to settlement. For the prior history, see Thirteen Colonies, in 1764, Parliament passed the Currency Act to restrain the use of paper money which British merchants saw as a means to evade debt payments. Parliament passed the Sugar Act, imposing customs duties on a number of articles, none did and Parliament passed the Stamp Act in March 1765 which imposed direct taxes on the colonies for the first time.
All official documents, newspapers and pamphlets—even decks of playing cards—were required to have the stamps, the colonists did not object that the taxes were high, but because they had no representation in the Parliament. Benjamin Franklin testified in Parliament in 1766 that Americans already contributed heavily to the defense of the Empire, stationing a standing army in Great Britain during peacetime was politically unacceptable. London had to deal with 1,500 politically well-connected British officers who became redundant, in 1765, the Sons of Liberty formed. They used public demonstrations, boycott and threats of violence to ensure that the British tax laws were unenforceable, in Boston, the Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice admiralty court and looted the home of chief justice Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October 1765, moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances stating that taxes passed without representation violated their rights as Englishmen.
Colonists emphasized their determination by boycotting imports of British merchandise, the Parliament at Westminster saw itself as the supreme lawmaking authority throughout all British possessions and thus entitled to levy any tax without colonial approval
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin
Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin, KG, PC was a leading British politician of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. He was a Privy Councillor and Secretary of State for the Northern Department before attaining real power as First Lord of the Treasury and he was instrumental in negotiating and passing the Acts of Union 1707 with Scotland, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. He had many roles, including that of Governor of Scilly. He came from an ancient Cornish family, being the son of Sir Francis Godolphin, although he very seldom addressed the House, when he did so, only in the briefest manner, he gradually acquired a reputation as its chief if not its only financial authority. In 1669 he was awarded a 31-year lease on all tin mines in Rialton, in 1670 Godolphin was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber along with a pension of £500 per annum, holding the post until 1678. Charles appointed Godolphin envoy-extraordinary to Louis XIV in 1672 in order to reassure the French King of Charless allegiance before Louis attacked the Dutch, Godolphin was with Louis in the field during the Franco-Dutch War but was unimpressed with Louiss capabilities as a military commander.
In March 1679 he was appointed a member of the Privy Council, and in the September following he was promoted, along with Viscount Hyde and the Earl of Sunderland, to the chief management of affairs. After the accession of James II he was chamberlain to the queen, Mary of Modena. In 1687 he was named commissioner of the treasury, Godolphin was involved in the payment of approximately £125,000 by Louis XIV to James II of money in return for Jamess support for Louis, despite Parliament voting James £6,000,000. On the accession of William, though he obtained the third seat at the treasury board. He retired in March 1690, was recalled in the following November, Godolphin was not only a Tory by inheritance, but was thought to have a romantic admiration for the wife of James II. Though not technically a favourite with Queen Anne, he was, after her accession, appointed to his old office, in 1704 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in December 1706 he was created Viscount Rialton and Earl of Godolphin.
Though a Tory, he had a share in the intrigues which gradually led to the predominance of the Whigs in alliance with Marlborough. He died two years and his estate was more than £12,000. On 16 May 1675 Godolphin married Margaret Blagge, daughter of Thomas Blagge and she died in childbirth in 1678 bearing his only son, and Godolphin never remarried. Margaret is buried at Breage, the spot marked by a small brass floor plaque erected by the Duke of Leeds. Progeny, Francis Godolphin, 2nd Earl of Godolphin The Whig historian Lord Macaulay said of Godolphin in 1848, He was laborious, clear-headed, and profoundly versed in the details of finance. Every government, found him a servant
An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the authors own argument — but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet, and a short story. Essays have traditionally been sub-classified as formal and informal, Essays are commonly used as literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays, while brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Lockes An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthuss An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries, essays have become a part of formal education. The concept of an essay has been extended to other mediums beyond writing, a film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary filmmaking styles, and focuses more on the evolution of a theme or idea. A photographic essay covers a topic with a series of photographs that may have accompanying text or captions.
An essay has been defined in a variety of ways, one definition is a prose composition with a focused subject of discussion or a long, systematic discourse. It is difficult to define the genre into which essays fall, aldous Huxley, a leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. He notes that the essay is a device for saying almost everything about almost anything, and adds that by tradition, almost by definition. Furthermore, Huxley argues that essays belong to a species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference. Their art consists of setting forth, passing judgment upon, the abstract-universal, In this pole we find those essayists who do their work in the world of high abstractions, who are never personal and who seldom mention the particular facts of experience. Huxley adds that the most satisfying essays. make the best not of one, the word essay derives from the French infinitive essayer, to try or to attempt. In English essay first meant a trial or an attempt, for the rest of his life, he continued revising previously published essays and composing new ones.
Francis Bacons essays, published in form in 1597,1612. Ben Jonson first used the word essayist in English in 1609, English essayists included Robert Burton and Sir Thomas Browne. In France, Michel de Montaignes three volume Essais in the mid 1500s contain over 100 examples widely regarded as the predecessor of the modern essay, in Italy, Baldassare Castiglione wrote about courtly manners in his essay Il Libro del oregano. In the 17th century, the Jesuit Baltasar Gracián wrote about the theme of wisdom, in the 18th and 19th centuries, Edmund Burke and Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote essays for the general public. In the 20th century, a number of essayists tried to explain the new movements in art, whereas some essayists used essays for strident political themes, Robert Louis Stevenson and Willa Cather wrote lighter essays
Jacob Tonson, sometimes referred to as Jacob Tonson the elder was an eighteenth-century English bookseller and publisher. He was the founder of the famous Kit-Cat Club and his nephew, Jacob Tonson the younger was his business partner. The business was continued by the younger Tonsons son Jacob Tonson, scholars have not always been sure of Tonsons birthdate, and it has in the past been listed as occurring in 1655 or 1656. But the register of christenings in the parish of St Andrew Holborn demonstrates that Tonson was born on 12 November 1655, Tonson was the second son of Jacob Tonson and citizen of London, who died in 1668. He is believed to have related to Major Richard Tonson, who obtained a grant of land in county Cork from Charles II. His fathers will left him and his elder brother Richard, as well as three sisters, each £100, to be paid when they came of age, on 5 June 1670 Jacob was apprenticed to Thomas Basset, a stationer, for eight years. Richard Tonson had a shop within Grays Inn Gate, Jacob Tonsons shop was for years at the Judges Head in Chancery Lane.
The names of both appear on the title-page, as was often the case at that time. Tonson was sufficiently well off to purchase plays by Otway and Nahum Tate, the other half was purchased at an advance in 1690. Tonson afterwards said he had more by Paradise Lost than by any other poem. In the earlier part of his life Tonson was much associated with Dryden, a step which did much to establish his position was the publication in 1684 of a volume of Miscellany Poems, under Drydens editorship. Other volumes followed in 1685,1693,1694,1703, and 1708, and the collection, which was several times reprinted, is known as both as Drydens Miscellany and Tonsons Miscellany. During the ensuing year Tonson continued to bring out pieces by Dryden, Drydens translation of Virgil, executed between 1693 and 1696, was published by Tonson in July 1697 by subscription. Tonson would pay nothing for notes, Dryden retorted, The notes and prefaces shall be short and he added that all the trade were sharpers, Tonson not more than others.
Subsequently the letters became more friendly, and on the publication of Alexanders Feast, in late 1697, Dryden wrote to Tonson, I hope it has done you service, and will do more. Drydens collection of translations from Boccaccio and others, known as The Fables, was published by Tonson in November 1699, a second edition did not appear until 1713. There is a letter from Mrs. Aphra Behn to Tonson at Bayfordbury. She begged hard for five more than Tonson offered for some of her verses
Charterhouse is an independent day and boarding school in Godalming, Surrey. Today pupils are referred to as Carthusians, and ex-pupils as Old Carthusians. Charging full boarders up to £36,000 per annum in 2015/16, Charterhouse is amongst the most expensive Headmasters and it has educated one British Prime Minister and has a long list of notable alumni. In May 1611, the London Charterhouse came into the hands of Thomas Sutton of Knaith and he acquired a fortune by the discovery of coal on two estates which he had leased near Newcastle-on-Tyne, and afterwards, removing to London, he carried on a commercial career. Charterhouse established a reputation for excellence in care and treatment, thanks in part to Henry Levett. Levett was widely esteemed for his writings, including an early tract on the treatment of smallpox. Levett was buried in Charterhouse Chapel and his widow married Andrew Tooke, the school was moved to its present site in 1872 by the headmaster, the Reverend William Haig Brown – a decision influenced by the findings of the Clarendon Commission of 1864.
The school bought a 68-acre site atop a hill just outside Godalming, in addition to the main school buildings, they constructed three boarding houses, known as Saunderites and Gownboys. The school was built by Lucas Brothers, who built the Royal Albert Hall. As pupil numbers grew, other houses were built alongside the approach road, each was titled with an adaptation of the name of their first housemaster, such as Weekites and Girdlestoneites. The last of these is referred to as Duckites, reflecting the unusual gait of its original housemaster. There are now the four old houses plus eight new houses. The twelve Houses have preserved a unique identity and pupils compete against each other in sports and the arts. The school continued to expand over the 20th century, around 350 names have been subsequently added to commemorate those who died in the Second World War and other more recent conflicts. Most still attend a chapel service there six times a week. Charterhouse was all male until the 1970s when girls were first admitted in the sixth form, of over 400 sixth formers today, almost a third are girls.
An addition to the campus was seven new Houses, built in the 1970s, in 2003, the School renovated its onsite Library. 2006 saw the opening of The Beveridge Centre for the Social Sciences, in 2007, a £3m Modern Languages building was completed
William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein
Battle of Blenheim
The Battle of Blenheim, fought on 13 August 1704, was a major battle of the War of the Spanish Succession. The overwhelming Allied victory ensured the safety of Vienna from the Franco-Bavarian army, Louis XIV of France sought to knock Emperor Leopold out of the war by seizing Vienna, the Habsburg capital, and gain a favourable peace settlement. Vienna was pressure from Rákóczis Hungarian revolt from its eastern approaches. Realising the danger, the Duke of Marlborough resolved to alleviate the peril to Vienna by marching his forces south from Bedburg, after securing Donauwörth on the Danube, Marlborough sought to engage the Electors and Marsins army before Marshal Tallard could bring reinforcements through the Black Forest. However, with the Franco-Bavarian commanders reluctant to fight until their numbers were deemed sufficient, the battle has gone down in history as one of the turning points of the War of the Spanish Succession. Bavaria was knocked out of the war, and Louis hopes for a victory came to an end.
France suffered over 30,000 casualties including the commander-in-chief, Marshal Tallard, before the 1704 campaign ended, the Allies had taken Landau, and the towns of Trier and Trarbach on the Moselle in preparation for the following years campaign into France itself. By 1704, the War of the Spanish Succession was in its fourth year, Vienna had been saved by dissension between the two commanders, leading to the brilliant Villars being replaced by the less dynamic Marshal Marsin. In the courts of Versailles and Madrid, Viennas fall was confidently anticipated, a scarlet caterpillar, upon which all eyes were at once fixed, began to crawl steadfastly day by day across the map of Europe, dragging the whole war with it. Marlboroughs march started on 19 May from Bedburg,20 miles north-west of Cologne, the army consisted of 66 squadrons,31 battalions and 38 guns and mortars totalling 21,000 men. This force was to be augmented en route such that by the time Marlborough reached the Danube, whilst Marlborough led his army, General Overkirk would maintain a defensive position in the Dutch Republic in case Villeroi mounted an attack.
In this assumption Marlborough proved correct, Villeroi shadowed the Duke with 30,000 men in 60 squadrons and 42 battalions, such a long march would almost certainly involve a high wastage of men and horses through exhaustion and disease. However, Marlborough was convinced of the urgency – I am very sensible that I take a deal upon me, he had earlier written to Godolphin, but should I act otherwise. Whilst Allied preparations had progressed, the French were striving to maintain, Tallard returned with his own force to the Rhine, once again side-stepping Thüngens efforts to intercept him. The whole operation was a military achievement. On 26 May, Marlborough reached Coblenz, where the Moselle meets the Rhine, If he intended an attack along the Moselle the Duke must now turn west, instead, the following day the army crossed to the right bank of the Rhine. There will be no campaign on the Moselle, wrote Villeroi who had taken up a position on the river. A second possible objective now occurred to the French – an Allied incursion into Alsace, with Villeroi shadowing Marlboroughs every move, Marlboroughs gamble that the French would not move against the weakened Dutch position in the Netherlands paid off
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
The Queen's College, Oxford
The Queens College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault, the college is distinguished by its predominantly neoclassical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor. In 2014, the college had an endowment of £206.1 million, the college was founded during the 14th century by Robert de Eglesfield, chaplain to Queen Philippa of Hainault, hence its name. The colleges coat of arms is that of the founder, it slightly from his familys coat of arms. The current coat of arms was adopted by dEglesfield because he was unable to use his familys arms, the frontage of the college was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, part of a substantial rebuilding in the 18th century during which the library was built. The medieval foundations, remain beneath the current 18th-century structure, in 2012, the college had net assets of £201.4 million. The college has had an association with the north of England, in part because of its founder.
This connection was reinforced for many years until recently by the large number of Hastings Scholarships given to men from 20 schools in Yorkshire. Graduate students from the universities of Bradford, Leeds, the college is named for its first patroness, Queen Philippa of Hainault. Established in January 1341 under the name of the Hall of the Queens scholars of Oxford, an Act of 1585 sought to end this confusion by providing that it should be called by the one name the Queens College, in practice the definite article is usually omitted. The full name of the College, as indicated in its reports, is The Provost. Queens College in Cambridge positions its apostrophe differently and has no article, in April 2012, as part of the celebrations of the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, a series of commemorative stamps were released featuring A-Z pictures of famous British landmarks. The Queens Colleges front quad was used on the Q stamp, alongside other landmarks such as the Angel of the North on A, the college has one of the best-stocked college libraries in Oxford.
The current lending library consists of around 50,000 volumes, the Upper Library has been a focal point for the College ever since its construction at the end of the 17th century. Unlike many other rooms in Oxford libraries, the Upper Library remains as a silent reading room for students open during staffed hours. The open cloister below the Upper Library was enclosed in the 19th century to form the Lower Library, the college has one of the largest and most diverse collections of rare books in Oxford. The chapel is noted for its Frobenius organ in the west gallery and it was installed in 1965, replacing a Rushworth and Dreaper organ from 1931. The earliest mention of an organ is 1826, the Chapel Choir has been described as Oxfords finest mixed-voice choir and continues to perform termly concerts, with recent examples including Handels Messiah and Bachs St. John Passion
Valley Forge was the military camp 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia where the American Continental Army spent the winter of 1777–78 during the American Revolutionary War. Starvation, disease and exposure killed more than 2,500 American soldiers by the end of February 1778, General George Washington sought quarters for his men with winter almost setting in, and with greatly diminishing prospects for campaigning. Washington and his troops had fought in early December what was the last major engagement of 1777 at the Battle of White Marsh and he devised to pull his troops from their present encampment in the White Marsh area and move to a more secure location for the coming winter. Several locations were considered for the winter quarters, but Washington selected Valley Forge. Valley Forge was named for a forge on Valley Creek in Whitemarsh. It was not the best place to set up camp for the Continental Army. This location left the vulnerable under-supplied army in striking distance of the British, the area was close enough to the British to keep their raiding and foraging parties out of the interior of Pennsylvania, yet far enough away to halt the threat of British surprise attacks.
The densely forested plateau of Mount Joy and the adjoining two-mile-long plateau of Mount Misery made the area easily defensible and it provided abundant forests of timber that were used to construct thousands of log huts. Seventy-eight of the huts in the camp housed the soldiers, on December 19,1777, Washingtons poorly fed, ill-equipped army staggered into Valley Forge, weary from long marches. Winds blew as the 12,000 Continentals prepared for winters fury, only about one in four of them had shoes, and many of their feet had left bloody footprints from the marching. Grounds were selected for brigade encampments, and defense lines were planned, the first properly constructed hut appeared in three days. One hut required 80 logs, and timber had to be collected from miles away and it went up in one week with the use of only one axe. These huts provided sufficient protection from the cold and wet conditions of a typical Pennsylvania winter. By the beginning of February, construction was completed on 2,000 huts and they provided shelter, but did little to offset the critical shortages that continually plagued the army.
Washington ordered that two windows should be cut into each hut during the springtime, as the climate grew considerably warmer, mud was chipped between the logs to improve ventilation. The soldiers received inadequate supplies of meat and bread, some getting their only nourishment from firecake, there would be pepper pot soup, a black pepper-flavored tripe broth. So severe were conditions at times that Washington despaired that unless some great, dissolve, or disperse, in order to obtain subsistence in the best manner they can. Snow was limited and small in amounts, the layer of snow was often too thin to be collected and melted into drinking water
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14,1775, the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war, most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. The 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne and this became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796. The Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies, and after 1776, when the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19,1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the leading to the war.
Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774, colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23,1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of an army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut soon raised similar, on July 18,1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age. It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days, after Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place. As the Continental Congress increasingly adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, as a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units.
Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army. The army never numbered more than 17,000 men, turnover proved a constant problem, particularly in the winter of 1776–77, and longer enlistments were approved. Major General Philip Schuylers ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada, the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus. This army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies. Enlistment terms extended to three years or to the length of the war to avoid the crises that depleted forces
Sir Richard Steele was an Irish writer and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison, of the magazine The Tatler. Steele was born in Dublin, Ireland in March 1672 to Richard Steele, an attorney, Steele was largely raised by his uncle and aunt, Henry Gascoigne and Lady Katherine Mildmay. A member of the Protestant gentry, he was educated at Charterhouse School, after starting at Christ Church in Oxford, he went on to Merton College, joined the Life Guards of the Household Cavalry in order to support King Williams wars against France. He was commissioned in 1697, and rose to the rank of captain two years. Steele left the army in 1705, perhaps due to the death of the 34th Foots commanding officer, Lord Lucas, in 1706 Steele was appointed to a position in the household of Prince George of Denmark, consort of Anne, Queen of Great Britain. He gained the favour of Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, Steele became a Whig Member of Parliament in 1713, for Stockbridge. He was soon expelled for issuing a pamphlet in favour of the Hanoverian succession, when George I of Great Britain came to the throne in the following year, Steele was knighted and given responsibility for the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London.
He returned to parliament in 1715, for Boroughbridge, while at Drury Lane, Steele wrote and directed the sentimental comedy The Conscious Lovers, which was an immediate hit. However, he fell out with Addison and with the administration over the Peerage Bill, and in 1724 he retired to his wifes homeland of Wales, Steele was a member of the Kit-Kat Club. Both Steele and Addison became closely associated with Childs Coffee-house in St Pauls Churchyard, Steele remained in Carmarthen after his wife Marys death, and was buried there, at St Peters Church. During restoration of the church in 2000, his skull was discovered in a lead casket, Steeles first published work, The Christian Hero, attempted to point out the differences between perceived and actual masculinity. Written while Steele served in the army, it expressed his idea of a pamphlet of moral instruction, the Christian Hero was ultimately ridiculed for what some thought was hypocrisy because Steele did not necessarily follow his own preaching.
He was criticized for publishing a booklet about morals when he enjoyed drinking, occasional dueling. Steele wrote a comedy that year titled The Funeral. This play met with success and was performed at Drury Lane, bringing him to the attention of the King. Next, Steele wrote The Lying Lover, one of the first sentimental comedies, the Tatler, Steeles first journal, first came out on 12 April 1709, and appeared three times a week, on Tuesdays and Saturdays. Steele wrote this periodical under the pseudonym Isaac Bickerstaff and gave Bickerstaff an entire, while Addison contributed to The Tatler, it is widely regarded as Steeles work. The Tatler was closed down to avoid the complications of running a Whig publication that had come under Tory attack and Steele founded The Spectator in 1711 and the Guardian in 1713