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Joseph Bonanno

Joseph Charles Bonanno, sometimes referred to as Joe Bananas, was an Italian-born American crime boss of the Bonanno crime family, which he ran from 1931 to 1968. Bonanno was born in Castellammare del Golfo, where his father was involved in organized crime. At the age of three, Bonanno immigrated to New York City with his family, for about 10 years before he moved back to Italy, he slipped back into the United States in 1924, by stowing away on a Cuban fishing boat bound for Tampa, Florida. After the Castellammarese War, Salvatore Maranzano was murdered in 1931, Bonanno took control of most of the crime family, at age 26, Bonanno became one of the youngest-ever bosses of a crime family. In 1963, Bonanno made plans with Joseph Magliocco to assassinate several rivals on the Mafia Commission; when Magliocco gave the contract to one of his top hit men, Joseph Colombo, he revealed the plot to its targets. The Commission forced him into retirement, while Bonanno fled to Canada. In 1964, he returned to New York before disappearing until 1966.

This ensued the "Banana War". In life, he became a writer, publishing the book A Man of Honor: The Autobiography of Joseph Bonanno in 1983. Bonanno died on May 2002, in Tucson, Arizona. Bonanno was born on January 18, 1905, in Castellammare del Golfo, Sicily, to Salvatore Bonanno and Catherine Bonventre. Joseph's uncles, Giuseppe Bonanno and his older brother and advisor, led a mafia clan in Castellammare del Golfo; the clan's strongest ally was the leader of the Magaddino Mafia clan Stefano Magaddino, the brother of Joseph's maternal grandmother. During the 1900s, the clans feuded with the boss of the Buccellato Mafia clan. After the murders of Stefano and Giuseppe, their younger brother, took revenge by killing members of the Buccellatos. In 1902, Magaddino became a powerful member of the Castellammarese clan; when Joseph was three years old, his family moved to the United States and settled in Williamsburg, Brooklyn for about 10 years before returning to Italy. His father had returned to Sicily in 1911, died of a heart attack in 1915.

In 1921, Magaddino fled to Buffalo. Bonanno slipped back into the United States in 1924, by stowing away on a Cuban fishing boat bound for Tampa, Florida with Peter Magaddino. According to Bonanno, upon arriving at a train station in Jacksonville, Bonanno was detained by immigration officers and was released under $1,000 bail, he was welcomed by Willie Moretti and an unidentified man, it was revealed that Magaddino was responsible for bailing him out as a favour for Giovanni Bonventre, Bonanno's uncle. Bonanno first worked at a bakery owned by his uncle and took up acting classes near Union Square, Manhattan, he had become active in the Mafia during his youth in Italy, he fled to the United States after Benito Mussolini initiated a crackdown. Bonanno himself claimed years that he fled because he was ardently anti-Fascist. Bonanno became involved in bootlegging activities, he operated a distillery located inside an apartment building basement with Gaspar DiGregorio and Giovanni Romano, killed in the distillery due to an accidental explosion.

During this time, boss Salvatore Maranzano became his mentor. During the Castellammarese War, between 1930 and 1931, Maranzano and Bonanno fought against a rival group based in Brooklyn, led by Joe Masseria and Giuseppe Morello. However, a third, faction soon emerged, composed of younger mafiosi on both sides; these younger mafiosi were disgusted with the old-world predilections of Masseria and other old-line mafiosi, whom they called "Mustache Petes." This group of "Young Turk" mafiosi was led by Masseria's second-in-command, Lucky Luciano, included Frank Costello, Vito Genovese, Joe Adonis, Carlo Gambino and Albert Anastasia on the Masseria side and Joe Profaci, Tommy Gagliano, Tommy Lucchese, Joseph Magliocco and Stefano Magaddino on the Maranzano side. Although Bonanno was more steeped in the old-school traditions of "honor", "tradition", "respect" and "dignity" than others of his generation, he saw the need to modernize and joined forces with the Young Turks. In a secret deal with Maranzano, Luciano agreed to engineer the death of his boss, Masseria, in return for receiving Masseria's rackets and becoming Maranzano's second-in-command.

However, although Maranzano was more forward-thinking than Masseria, Luciano had come to believe that Maranzano was more greedy and hidebound than Masseria had been, giving himself the capo di tutti capi title. After Maranzano's death, Bonnano was awarded most of Maranzano's family. Years Bonanno wrote in his autobiography that he did not know about the plan to kill Maranzano. In place of the capo di tutti capi in Maranzano's plan, Luciano established a national commission in which each of the families would be represented by their boss and to which each family would owe allegiance; each family would be autonomous in their designated area, but the Commission would arbitrate disputes between gangs. In 1931, two months after Maranzano was murdered, Bonanno was married to Fay Labruzzo, they had three children: Salvatore "Bill" Bonanno and Joseph Charles Jr. Bonanno had property in Hempstead, New York, Middletown, New York, his son, Bill developed a severe mastoid ear infection at the age of 10.

Tim Montez

Tim Montez is an American college baseball coach serving as head coach of the Jacksonville Dolphins baseball team. He assumed this position prior to the 2014 season. Montez was a four-year letterwinner as a pitcher at Pepperdine, where he compiled a 19–11 record with three saves, he led the Waves to the Southern California Baseball Association title in his senior season, earned All-Conference honors. He was a first round pick by the Mexico City Reds and played two seasons before returning to the United States. While redshirting at Pepperdine, Montez coached at Esperanza High School, leading them to a playoff appearance and a 1.86 ERA. Montez was 1st hired by Pepperdine's Andy Lopez as a pitching coach, where he remained for two seasons, he returned to the high school ranks, assisting Montclair College Preparatory School for three seasons, including the 1991 CA state championship season. Montez spent three seasons as pitching coach at UC Santa Barbara followed by one season as pitching coach and recruiting coordinator at Cal State Northridge.

Next, he served for five seasons at Arkansas, where he served as recruiting coordinator and helped the Razorbacks to their first SEC titles and a super regional appearance. Montez spent three seasons as pitching coach and recruiting coordinator where he helped assemble three consecutive top 15 recruiting classes on the West Coast at Fresno State before moving to Jacksonville for his first collegiate head coaching position. At Jacksonville Montez was part of 4 NCAA Regionals and 3 Conference Championships. Overall, Montez has coached in 1 Super Regional. Montez has coached several 1st round draft picks and numerous MLB players such as Russ Ortiz, Michael Young, Cliff Lee, Matt Garza, Doug Fister... Montez is known for his legendary "ikik"; the following is a table of Montez's yearly records as an NCAA head coach. List of current NCAA Division I baseball coaches

Laval River

The Laval River is a salmon river in the Côte-Nord region of Quebec, Canada. The mouth of the Laval River is in La Haute-Côte-Nord. Route 385 follows the course of the river; the Commission de toponymie du Québec does not have information about the name, made official on 5 December 1968. A map of the ecological regions of Quebec shows the Laval River in sub-region 5g-T of the east fir/white birch subdomain; the Laval River originates in Lac Septembre and flows southeast through Lac Roger, Lac Kinney, Lac Stanley and Lac Laval, which it enters at the southwest angle and leaves from the southeast end. The 656 hectares Lac Laval, 42 kilometres from its mouth, is sometimes taken as the source of the river; the river flows through Lac Éric and Lac Courdeau enters a flat-bottomed valley where it is fed by the Adam River, receives water from Lac MacDonald and Lac Madeleine, enters Lac à Jacques. Below this lake, after some rapid sections, the river passes under Quebec Route 138 at Pont-Laval, near its mouth.

The 33 hectares Laval River Rare Forest is on the east side of the river between Lac à Jacques and Route 138. It is unusual in including red pines, which are rare on the Côte-Nord; the river enters the Saint Lawrence in the Baie Laval just north of the community of Forestville. The Pointe Laval defines the southeast point of the bay, the Île Laval is in the mouth of the bay; the rate of flow of the river varies from slow to fast. The bed of the river is rather dark, the waters are not clear, some of the pools are black. After rain the river level and color change significantly. For many years Anglo Pulp and Paper, a paper mill, owned the fishing rights, until the government of Quebec made the river a wildlife reserve; the Forestville Hunting and Fishing Association was formed on 16 October 1968, in 1978 became responsible for a 1,325 square kilometres reserve known as the Forestville ZEC. The Association took over management of the Laval River in spring of 1980; the Forestville Hunting and Fishing Association now manages the River Laval ZEC.

There are 45 trout pools. Both the Atlantic salmon and the sea trout are much larger than average; the large Lac à Jacques holds excellent northern pike. In May 2015 the Ministry of Forests and Parks of Quebec announced a sport fishing catch-and-release program for large salmon on sixteen of Quebec's 118 salmon rivers; these were the Mitis, Pigou, Aux Rochers, Magpie, Saint-Jean, Piashti, Little Watshishou, Nabisipi and Natashquan rivers. The Quebec Atlantic Salmon Federation said that the measures did not go nearly far enough in protecting salmon for future generations. In view of the declining Atlantic salmon population catch-and-release should have been implemented on all rivers apart from northern Quebec. In 2019 the The Upper North Shore Watershed Agency conducted inventories of the fish in the Laval River's tributaries; the OBVHCN team had studied the spawning grounds of the river in 2018, concluded there was no obstacle to the salmon run on one of the tributaries. Three more tributaries had been identified.

By better understanding the streams used for reproduction by the Atlantic salmon they would be able to better protect the environment and thus protect the fish

New Geneva Glass Works

The New Geneva Glass Works was an early American glass factory established in western Pennsylvania, active from 1797 until 1847. In 1795, Albert Gallatin gathered several investors together as Albert Gallatin & Company to purchase tracts of land including the towns of Wilson's Port and unused lots across the Monongahela River in Greensboro, they named the community New Geneva and built a general store, gun factory, a gristmill. Several years in 1797, Albert Gallatin & Company partner John Baddolet wrote to Gallatin about a group of German glassblowers who wanted to build a glass factory in the area. John Gabler, Adolph Eberhart, George Reppert, Lewis Reitz, Baltzer Kramer, Christian Kramer had the skills and knowledge of glassmaking, but needed the capital and land for a glassworks. Gallatin and the glassblowers entered into the venture, along with partners James Nicholson, Louis Bourdillon, Charles A. Cazenove; the first glasshouse was built near Georges Creek and production began on January 18, 1798.

The glassblowers produced window glass, although whiskey bottles and other hollow ware were made. Production soon grew to an annual average of 4,000 boxes of window glass. At the same time, the company was troubled by supply and production issues, including properly curing the wood they used for fuel, cleaning the sand used to make the glass, preparing batches of glass, obtaining clay used to make furnace pots. Gallatin maintained a half interest in the glassworks and provided all the sand and wood used until 1803; that May, he posted an advertisement in the Tree of Liberty, a Pittsburgh newspaper, announcing an auction of his interest in the glassworks, a ferry across the Monongahela River, several properties in the town of New Geneva. There were no offers, Gallatin sold his company shares to his partners. Shortly afterward, the partners decided to move the glassworks across the river to Greensboro and replaced wood with coal as their source of fuel; the Greensboro factory functioned from 1807 into the late 1840s, but closed in 1847 because it could no longer compete with newer, nearby glasshouses.

In 1837, the sons of Reitz and the Kramers founded a second glassworks in New Geneva and produced the same products as the earlier factories. The firm existed until 1857, when the last glass was made by John Gabler and Charles Kramer

Manius Aquillius (consul 129 BC)

Manius Aquillius, member of the ancient Roman gens Aquillia, was consul in 129 BC. He put an end to the war, carried on against Aristonicus, the son of Eumenes II, king of Pergamon, and, terminated by his predecessor, Marcus Perperna. On his return to Rome, he was accused by Publius Lentulus of maladministration in his province, but was acquitted by bribing the judges, he obtained a triumph on account of his successes in Asia, but not until 126 BC. A fragment of a speech made by Gaius Gracchus - regarding the unseemly corruption in the Republic - exists in relation to charges made against Aquillius. After the kingdom of Pergamum was inherited by the Republic, Aquillius put up one of the fiefdoms of Pergamum to the Kings of Bithynia and Pontus, it was purchased by the king of Pontus. As to the law regarding, to receive the kingdom the senators were divisible, Gracchus claimed into three camps: Those who were in favor of it, those who were against it, those who were silent. Gracchus observes that the first group was bribed by the king of Pontus, the second by the King of Bithynia, the third were the most cunning for they accepted money from both Kings and made each party believe they were silent in their interest.

Smith, William. "Aquilius". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. P. 253

Vedda language

Vedda is an endangered language, used by the indigenous Vedda people of Sri Lanka. Additionally, communities such as Coast Veddas and Anuradhapura Veddas who do not identify as Veddas use words from the Vedda language in part for communication during hunting and/or for religious chants, throughout the island; when a systematic field study was conducted in 1959, the language was confined to the older generation of Veddas from Dambana. In 1990s self-identifying Veddas knew few words and phrases in Vedda, but there were individuals who knew the language comprehensively. There was considerable debate amongst linguists as to whether Vedda is a dialect of Sinhalese or an independent language. Studies indicate that the language spoken by today’s Veddas is a creole which evolved from ancient times, when the Veddas came into contact with the early Sinhalese, from whom they borrowed words and synthetic features, yielding the cumulative effect that Vedda resembles Sinhalese in many particulars, but its grammatical core remains intact.

The parent Vedda language is of unknown linguistic origins, while Sinhalese is part of the Indo-Aryan branch of Indo-European language family. Phonologically, Vedda is distinguished from Sinhalese by the higher frequency of palatal sounds and; the effect is heightened by the addition of inanimate suffixes. Morphologically, the Vedda word classes are nouns and invariables, with unique gender distinctions in animate nouns, it has reduced and simplified many forms of Sinhalese such as second person pronouns and denotations of negative meanings. Instead of borrowing new words from Sinhalese or other languages, Vedda creates combinations of words from a limited lexical stock. Vedda maintains many archaic Sinhalese terms from the 10th to 12th centuries, as a relict of its close contact with Sinhalese, while retaining a number of unique words that cannot be derived from Sinhalese. Vedda has exerted a substratum influence in the formation of Sinhalese; this is evident by the presence of both lexical and structural elements in Sinhalese which cannot be traced to either Indo-Aryan or neighboring Dravidian languages.

It is unknown which languages were spoken in Sri Lanka before it was settled by Prakrit-speaking immigrants in the 5th century BCE. The term "Vedda" stems from Tamil word Vēdu meaning hunting. Cognate terms are used throughout South India to describe hunter-gatherers. Sri Lanka has had other hunter-gatherering peoples such as the Kinnaraya; the earliest account of Vedda was written by Ryklof Van Goens, who served as a Director General of the Dutch East India Company in Sri Lanka. He wrote. Robert Knox, an Englishman held captive by a Kandyan king, wrote in 1681 that the wild and settled Veddas spoke the language of the Sinhalese people; the Portuguese friar Fernão de Queiroz, who wrote a nuanced description of Vedda in 1686, reported that the language was not mutually intelligible with other native languages. Robert Percival wrote in 1803 that the Veddas, although speaking a broken dialect of Sinhalese, amongst themselves spoke a language, known only to them, but John Davies in 1831 wrote that the Veddas spoke a language, understood by the Sinhalese except for a few words.

These discrepancies in observations were clarified by Charles Pridham, who wrote in 1848 that the Veddas knew a form of Sinhalese that they were able to use in talking to outsiders, but to themselves they spoke in a language that, although influenced by Sinhalese and Tamil, was understood only by them. The first systematic attempt at studying the Vedda language was undertaken by Hugh Neville, an English civil servant in British Ceylon, he founded a quarterly journal devoted to the study of everything Ceylonese. He speculated, based on etymological studies, that Vedda is based on an Old Sinhalese form called Hela, his views were followed by Henry Parker, another English civil servant and the author of Ancient Ceylon, who wrote that most Vedda words were borrowed from Sinhalese, but he noted words of unique origin, which he assigned to the original language of the Veddas. The second most important study was made in 1935 by Wilhem Geiger, who sounded the alarm that Vedda would be soon be extinct and needed to be studied in detail.

One of the linguists to heed that call was Manniku W. Sugathapala De Silva who did a comprehensive study of the language in 1959 as a PhD thesis, which he published as a book: according to him, the language was restricted to the older generation of people from the Dambana region, with the younger generation shifting to Sinhalese, whereas Coast Veddas were speaking a dialect of Sri Lankan Tamil, used in the region. During religious festivals, people who enter a trance or spirit possession sometimes use a mixed language that contains words from Vedda. Veddas of the Anuradhapura region speak in Sinhalese, but use Vedda words to denote animals during hunting trips; the Vedda community or the indigenous population of Sri Lanka is said to have inhabited the island prior to the arrival of the Aryans in the 5th century B. C. and after the collapse of the dry zone civilization in the 15th century, they have extended their settlements once more in the North Central and Eastern regions. However, with the entering of the colonization schemes to the island after the 19th century the Vedda population has shrunk to the Vedi rata or Maha vedi rata.

Subsequently the Vedda language was subjected to hybridisation depending on the geographical locality of the community. For instance, the language of the Veddas living in the North Central and Uva regions was affected by Sinhala, while the language of the coastal Vedda