Joseph Conrad was a Polish-British writer regarded as one of the greatest novelists to write in the English language. Though he did not speak English fluently until his twenties, he was a master prose stylist who brought a non-English sensibility into English literature. Conrad wrote stories and novels, many with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of what he saw as an impassive, inscrutable universe. Conrad is considered an early modernist, his narrative style and anti-heroic characters have influenced numerous authors, many films have been adapted from, or inspired by, his works. Numerous writers and critics have commented that Conrad's fictional works, written in the first two decades of the 20th century, seem to have anticipated world events. Writing near the peak of the British Empire, Conrad drew, among other things, on his native Poland's national experiences and on his own experiences in the French and British merchant navies, to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a European-dominated world—including imperialism and colonialism—and that profoundly explore the human psyche.
Conrad was born on 3 December 1857 in Berdychiv, Ukraine part of the Russian Empire. He was the only child of Apollo Korzeniowski—a writer, political activist, would-be revolutionary—and his wife Ewa Bobrowska, he was christened Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski after his maternal grandfather Józef, his paternal grandfather Teodor, the heroes of two poems by Adam Mickiewicz and Konrad Wallenrod, was known to his family as "Konrad", rather than "Józef". Though the vast majority of the surrounding area's inhabitants were Ukrainians, the great majority of Berdychiv's residents were Jewish all the countryside was owned by the Polish szlachta, to which Conrad's family belonged as bearers of the Nałęcz coat-of-arms. Polish literature patriotic literature, was held in high esteem by the area's Polish population; the Korzeniowski family had played a significant role in Polish attempts to regain independence. Conrad's paternal grandfather Teodor had served under Prince Józef Poniatowski during Napoleon's Russian campaign and had formed his own cavalry squadron during the November 1830 Uprising.
Conrad's fiercely patriotic father Apollo belonged to the "Red" political faction, whose goal was to re-establish the pre-partition boundaries of Poland, but which advocated land reform and the abolition of serfdom. Conrad's subsequent refusal to follow in Apollo's footsteps, his choice of exile over resistance, were a source of lifelong guilt for Conrad; because of the father's attempts at farming and his political activism, the family moved repeatedly. In May 1861 they moved to Warsaw; this led to his imprisonment in Pavilion X of the Warsaw Citadel. Conrad would write: "n the courtyard of this Citadel—characteristically for our nation—my childhood memories begin." On 9 May 1862 Apollo and his family were exiled to Vologda, 500 kilometres north of Moscow and known for its bad climate. In January 1863 Apollo's sentence was commuted, the family was sent to Chernihiv in northeast Ukraine, where conditions were much better. However, on 18 April 1865 Ewa died of tuberculosis. Apollo did his best to home-school Conrad.
The boy's early reading introduced him to the two elements that dominated his life: in Victor Hugo's Toilers of the Sea he encountered the sphere of activity to which he would devote his youth. Most of all, though, he read Polish Romantic poetry. Half a century he explained that "The Polishness in my works comes from Mickiewicz and Słowacki. My father read Pan Tadeusz aloud to me and made me read it aloud.... I used to prefer Konrad Wallenrod Grażyna. I preferred Słowacki. You know why Słowacki?... ". In December 1867, Apollo took his son to the Austrian-held part of Poland, which for two years had been enjoying considerable internal freedom and a degree of self-government. After sojourns in Lwów and several smaller localities, on 20 February 1869 they moved to Kraków in Austrian Poland. A few months on 23 May 1869, Apollo Korzeniowski died, leaving Conrad orphaned at the age of eleven. Like Conrad's mother, Apollo had been gravely ill with tuberculosis; the young Conrad was placed in the care of Tadeusz Bobrowski.
Conrad's poor health and his unsatisfactory schoolwork caused his uncle constant problems and no end of financial outlay. Conrad was not a good student. Since the boy's illness was of nervous origin, the physicians supposed that fresh air and physical work would harden him. Since he showed little inclination to study, it was essential. In fact, in the autumn of 1871, thirteen-year-old Conrad announced his intention to become a sailor, he recalled that as a child he had read Leopold McClintock's book about his 1857–59 expeditions in the Fox, in search of Sir John Franklin's lost ships Erebus and Terror. He recalled having read books by the American James Fenimor
Joshua Furno is an Italian rugby union player who plays Lock for San Diego Legion in Major League Rugby. He represents Italy as a member of the Italian national team. Raffaele Joshua Furno grew up in Italy in the southern town of Benevento, he began his career with Viadana played with successor team Aironi in the Pro12 before their dissolution in 2012. He moved to RC Narbonne in the French second division. Furno signed for Biarritz Olympique, he made his test debut as a substitute in a 13–6 win against Scotland in the 2012 Six Nations Championship. On 22 February 2014, he scored his first try for Italy in a Six Nations defeat to Scotland, was subsequently named Man of the Match. On 14 May 2014, Furno moved to England to sign for Newcastle Falcons in the Aviva Premiership ahead of the 2014-15 season. Newcastle Falcons Profile
William Clyde "Bill" Friday was an American educator who served as the head of the University of North Carolina system from 1956 to 1986. He was born in Raphine and raised in Dallas, North Carolina. Friday graduated from Dallas High School in Dallas, North Carolina, where he played baseball and basketball, he held a bachelor's degree in textile manufacturing from North Carolina State University and a law degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While attending NCSU, Friday was elected president of the senior class of 1941, he was a member of Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity. Friday served in the United States Navy Reserve during World War II, his entire professional life was spent in higher education. Friday was assistant dean of students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill from 1948 to 1951, assistant to the President of the Consolidated University of North Carolina Gordon Gray from 1951 to 1955 Secretary of the University of North Carolina system, acting president of the system from 1956 to 1957, when he was chosen to take the position permanently.
Friday would remain in this position until retiring in 1986. Friday was the founding co-chairman of the Knight Foundation Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics and served in this role from 1989 to 2005. After retirement, Friday remained an influential voice in North Carolina and hosted a public television talk show, North Carolina People, which he began while still president of the University system. In 2012, the show began its 42nd season; when Friday endorsed Erskine Bowles as the new president of the University in 2006, it was seen as helping "seal the deal" for Bowles to get the post. Several educational institutions, or units of larger institutions, are named in Friday's honor. William C. Friday Middle School is located in Gaston County, Friday's home county; the William and Ida Friday Institute for Educational Innovation is located on the campus of North Carolina State University at Raleigh. The William and Ida Friday Center for Continuing Education is located on the campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
He died in his sleep on October 12, 2012, UNC's University Day, aged 92. North Carolina Now October 15, 2012: William C. Friday Remembered on YouTube Oral History Interviews with William C. Friday, from Oral Histories of the American South Inventory of the William C. Friday Papers, 1942-1999, at the Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill William and Ida Friday Institute for Educational Innovation William and Ida Friday Center for Continuing Education
Grass Valley is a small townsite 13 kilometres east of Northam, Western Australia in the Avon Valley area. The town is named after a local property of the same name, established in 1833 by William Nairn; the Northam to Kalgoorlie Eastern Goldfields Railway line passes through the town and includes a crossing loop. The railway was built through the area in 1894. Land was set aside for a townsite in 1898 and the town was gazetted in the same year; the surrounding areas produce wheat and other cereal crops. During its heyday of the 1950s–90s the town's local farmers were the largest producers of chaff in Western Australia; the product was sought after by buyers throughout Western Australia as well as Asia and the Middle East. The town had a Type B structure in the 1970s; the post office within the town is reputed to be the smallest in Australia. The town has an excellent tavern dating back to the golden days of the once-important rail head; the town is situated on the Golden Pipeline heritage trail.
The pipeline passes through Grass Valley. Grass Valley and surrounding districts are serviced by the Grass Valley Bush Fire Brigade, supported by over 50 local volunteer members; the Brigade has one appliance being a 4.4B truck, although it has been recognized for over 10 years that a second appliance is needed to adequately protect the district. The Grass Valley fire district is the largest fire district within the Shire of Northam and the Brigade is the second most active Brigade in regards to call-outs in the Shire; the Grass Valley Fire Shed is located on the corner of Wilson St and Keane St, Grass Valley on the site of the old Grass Valley school which ran from 1899-1945
The Purcell Operatic Society was a short-lived but influential London opera company devoted to the production of stage works by Henry Purcell and his contemporaries. It was founded in 1899 by the composer Martin Shaw and folded in 1902, its stage director and production designer was Gordon Craig whose productions for the company marked the beginning of his career as a theatre practitioner. Their debut production of Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas in 1900 was one of the earliest staged performances of the work in modern times. Martin Shaw founded the Purcell Operatic Society in 1899 on the suggestion of his Hampstead neighbour, Nannie Dryhurst, who became the Society's secretary. Interest in Purcell's long-neglected stage works had been revived four years earlier on the bicentenary of his death when Dido and Aeneas received its first major staging in two hundred years. Shaw recruited his close friend, Gordon Craig, to create a new staging of the opera for the Society's debut production. Both men were in their mid-twenties at the time, it was to be Craig's first major outing as a stage director.
Craig and Shaw decided to rent lodgings closer to Nannie Dryhurst while they prepared their first production, moved into a house at 8 Downshire Hill, to serve as their living quarters and the offices of the Purcell Operatic Society. To pay the initial rent on the Downshire Hill house, Shaw sold many of his books and Craig pawned the gold watch which Henry Irving had given him. From the outset, the Society was run on a shoe-string using gifted amateur musicians and singers, recruited from Martin Shaw and Nannie Dryhurst's Hampstead friends, supplemented by two professionals for the leads. Shaw arranged the scores and trained the singers and conducted all the productions. Craig not only designed and directed all the productions, he produced and illustrated the programmes and designed the Society's stationery and posters. Neither of them took any pay. Craig's sister, Edith Craig worked on their productions as did the painter Jean Inglis and the scenic artist William Thompson Hemsley. Rehearsals took place in private houses in Hampstead, first in a large room in Guyon House lent to them by William Boulting, at Lested Lodge in Well Walk.
Dido and Aeneas opened at the Hampstead Conservatoire on 17 May 1900, to critical success but a financial loss of £180 for the three performance run. Friends made up the shortfall, the company staged the work again the following year at the Coronet Theatre in Notting Hill, it ran there from 25 to 30 March 1901, along with the Society's new production of The Masque of Love from Purcell's semi-opera, Dioclesian. To help pull in audiences, Ellen Terry, Craig's mother performed Charles Reade's one-act play Nance Oldfield as a curtain raiser. However, reviews criticised the addition of the play which had no obvious connection with the other two works and made the evening long. Much of the audience had left before The Masque of Love started. Despite the criticism, Craig approached Lillie Langtry to provide a similar curtain raiser for their next production, but after showing initial interest in the proposal, she declined; the company's third and last production was Handel's Acis and Galatea which opened at the Great Queen Street Theatre on 10 March 1902.
Shaw had convinced W. S. Penley, to let them rent it for only £ 40 a week; the production's finances were precarious. The 1901 Dido and Aeneas revival had not made any profit, Acis and Galatea had no working capital apart from two or three small donations from friends, including one of £10 from Walter Crane. With insufficient money to pay the stage hands and other creditors, the planned two-week run had to be curtailed to six performances. According to Craig, the creditors' agents called at the theatre on the last night to ensure that no property was removed and searched the bags of the chorus members as they left. Ellen Terry paid the outstanding bills, but the Purcell Operatic Society was bankrupt, with no funds forthcoming for future productions had to close down. In July 1902, Shaw and Craig had started work on the Society's fourth production, a masque entitled Harvest Home, to incorporate both English folk songs and songs by Purcell. However, the project was abandoned. After the Purcell Operatic Society's demise and Craig went on to collaborate on three other productions, all with Craig as designer/stage director and Shaw as music director: Laurence Housman's nativity play Bethlehem Ibsen's The Vikings at Helgeland Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing.
The Vikings and Much Ado About Nothing, both of which starred Ellen Terry and had incidental music composed by Martin Shaw, were commercial disasters and proved to be the last plays Craig directed in England. † The programme began with Nance Oldfield performed by Ellen Terry's company The following were the Honorary and General committee members listed in the programme for the 1900 performance of Dido and Aeneas: Honorary Members General Committee Burden, Michael "Purcell's operas on Craig's stage: the productions of the Purcell Operatic Society", Early Music, Vol. 32, Issue 3, August 2004, pp. 442–458 Carrick, Edward. Gordon Craig: The Story of his Life. Knopf Chamberlain, Franc. "Introduction" to Craig, Edward Gordon. On the art of the theatre. Taylor & Francis, pp. vii–xvi. ISBN 0-415-45033-0 Eynat-Confino, Irène. Beyond the mask: Gordon Craig and the actor. SIU Press. ISBN 0-8093-1372-3 Fisher, James. "'An Idealist': The Legacy o
No. 134 Squadron RAF was a part of the Royal Air Force, formed as a light bomber unit in World War I and reformed as a fighter squadron in World War II. No. 134 Squadron Royal Flying Corps was formed on 1 March 1918 and became a unit of the Royal Air Force a month but disbanded on 17 August 1918. The squadron reformed from a nucleus provided by 17 Squadron in July 1941 as a fighter unit equipped with Hawker Hurricanes stationed at RAF Leconfield, it was based near Murmansk to train Russian pilots until the Hurricanes were handed over to the Russian Navy. Back in the UK the squadron was re-assembled at RAF Catterick on 7 December 1941, moved to Northern Ireland for two months and returned to RAF Baginton to prepare to move overseas once again, it operated in Egypt until November 1943 when it moved to India and Burma. The squadron disbanded by being renumbered 131 Squadron. History of 131–135 Squadrons at RAF Web 134 Squadron history on the official RAF website