Frank Porter Wood
Frank Porter Wood was a Canadian businessman and philanthropist. He is best remembered for his gifts and bequests of artworks to the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto. Wood was born in Peterborough, Ontario to Canadian immigrants of mixed parentage, his father was Irish and he married Emma Matilda Junkin in 1906 and had three daughters, Mary Dorothy Porter Wood, Frances Junkin Wood and Joyce Rogers Wood. In 1897, he started working in Peterborough, Ontario as a clerk of Central Canada Loan, in 1899, Wood moved to Montreal to work at the National Trust, incorporated a year earlier by Cox and his brother Edward Rogers Wood. Later in life, he became a Vice-President of the National Trust, in 1903, Wood started up, with Sir Frank Wilton Baillie and his brother James W. Baillie, a brokerage firm, Baillie Brothers and Company, which operated on the Toronto Stock Exchange. In 1910, Wood became President of Burlington Steel, in 1912, the Bankers’ Bond Company Limited was formed to succeed Baillie and Croft.
Until his death in 1955, Wood continued to participate in the Canadian business community as a financier and his family were consummately modest, they never spoke of their accolades and were quickly forgotten. Wood, will be remembered not for his business accomplishments but for his love of the arts, to this date, he is still the single most generous donor of the Art Gallery of Ontario. “He is given a place of honour among the collectors of Old Master paintings in Toronto”, according to David McTavish of Queen’s University. Wood was a client of Sir Joseph Duveen, McTavish, D. Campbell, Sheila D. ed. From Rembrandt to Renoir in Toronto, Frank P. Woods role as private collector, public adviser, the private collector and the public institution. Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Art Centre, pp.298, 441–442,448,493,517. A Gainsborough Bill for the Prince of Wales, London, UK, The Burlington Magazine Publications, Ltd. Jacob van Ruisdael, A Complete Catalogue of His Paintings, New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.
Three Paintings, The Frank P. Wood Bequest, Toronto, ON, Art Gallery of Toronto. Listening to the Sirens, Musical Technologies of Queer Identity from Homer to Hedwig, berkeley, CA, University of California Press. Brown, George William, David M. Hayne, Francess G. Halpenny, Toronto, ON, University of Toronto Press. McCall, George Henry, Adriaan Jacob Barnouw, Paintings by the Great Dutch Masters of the Seventeenth Century
In art history, Old Master refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An old master print is a print made by an artist in the same period. The term old master drawing is used in the same way, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the term as A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern, a pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries. The term is used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master. Les Maitres dautrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin may have helped to popularize the concept, the collection in the Dresden museum essentially stops at the Baroque period. The end date is necessarily vague – for example, Goya is certainly an Old Master, the term might be used for John Constable or Eugène Delacroix, but usually is not. The term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague, especially when discussing paintings, although the terms Old Master Prints and it remains current in the art trade.
Auction houses still usually divide their sales between, for example, Old Master Paintings, Nineteenth-century paintings and Modern paintings, christies defines the term as ranging from the 14th to the early 19th century. S. Master of Flémalle, Master of Mary of Burgundy, Master of Latin 757, Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein
Henry Clay Frick
Henry Clay Frick was an American industrialist, union-buster, and art patron. Frick & Company coke manufacturing company, was chairman of the Carnegie Steel Company and he financed the construction of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Reading Company, and owned extensive real estate holdings in Pittsburgh and throughout the state of Pennsylvania. Frick was born in West Overton, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, in the United States, a grandson of Abraham Overholt, Fricks father, John W. Frick, was unsuccessful in business pursuits. Henry Clay Frick attended Otterbein College for one year, but did not graduate, the company was called Frick Coke Company. Thanks to loans from the family of lifelong friend Andrew W. Mellon, by 1880, the company was renamed H. C. Some of the brick and stone structures are visible in both Fayette and Westmoreland Counties. Shortly after marrying Adelaide Howard Childs, in 1881, Frick met Andrew Carnegie in New York City while the Fricks were on their honeymoon and this introduction would lead to an eventual partnership between H. C.
Frick & Company and Carnegie Steel Company and, eventually, to United States Steel and this partnership ensured that Carnegies steel mills had adequate supplies of coke. Frick became chairman of the company, Carnegie made multiple attempts to force Frick out of the company they had created by making it appear that the company had nowhere left to go and that it was time for Frick to retire. Despite the contributions Frick had made towards Andrew Carnegies fortune, Carnegie disregarded him in many executive decisions including finances, at the suggestion of his friend Benjamin Ruff, Frick helped to found the exclusive South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club high above Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The charter members of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club were Benjamin Ruff, T. H. Sweat, Charles J. Clarke, Thomas Clark, Walter F. Fundenberg, Howard Hartley, Henry C. White, Henry Clay Frick, E. A. Meyers, hussey, D. R. Ewer, C. A. Carpenter, W. L. Dunn, W. L. McClintock, and A. V. Holmes and Andrew Carnegie.
The club members made inadequate repairs to what was at time the worlds largest earthen dam. Less than 20 miles downstream from the dam sat the city of Johnstown, Cambria Iron Company operated a large iron and steel work in Johnstown and its owner, Daniel J. Morrell, was concerned about the safety of the dam and the thoroughness of repairs made to it. Morrell had even sent his own engineer to inspect the site but little was done in the run to satisfy his concerns. Poor maintenance, unusually high snow melt and heavy spring rains combined to cause the dam to give way on May 31,1889, resulting in the Johnstown Flood. Other sources blame a screen placed across the spillway by the club to prevent fish from escaping, as a cause and this strategy was a success, and Knox and Reed were able to fend off all lawsuits that would have placed blame upon the club’s members. With a volumetric flow rate that temporarily equalled that of the Mississippi River, although Cambria Irons facilities were heavily damaged, they returned to full production within a year and a half
The Dutch, occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, Nederlanders—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a culture and speak the Dutch language. The high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at an early date. During the Republic the first series of large scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place, despite the small size of the Netherlands, the Dutch left behind a legacy in excess of their mere numbers. The traditional art and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of music, architectural styles and clothing. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt and Van Gogh are held in high regard, the dominant religion of the Dutch is Christianity, although in modern times the majority is no longer religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, atheism or individual spirituality, as with all ethnic groups the ethnogenesis of the Dutch has been a lengthy and complex process.
The text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group, for Dutch national history, for Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. Following the end of the period in the West around 500, with large federations settling the decaying Roman Empire. In the Low Countries, this began when the Franks, themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes. Eventually, in 358, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the areas Southern lands as foederati, Roman allies in charge of border defense. On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism and founded a number of kingdoms, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or even early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part of the Empire, the current Dutch-French language border has remained virtually identical ever since, and could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks.
The medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the already relatively loose local form of feudalism, as they became increasingly powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility. While the cities were of political importance, they formed catalysts for medieval Dutch culture. The various city guilds as well as the necessity of water boards in the Dutch delta and it is around this time, that ethnonyms such as Diets and Nederlands emerge. This process marked a new episode in the development of the Dutch ethnic group, as now political unity started to emerge, consolidating the strengthened cultural, despite their linguistic and cultural unity, and economic similarities, there was still little sense of political unity among the Dutch people. However, the centralist policies of Burgundy in the 14th and 15th centuries, at first violently opposed by the cities of the Low Countries, had a profound impact and changed this
Leonardo da Vinci
He has been variously called the father of palaeontology and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute and tank, many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the Universal Genius or Renaissance Man, an individual of unquenchable curiosity and feverishly inventive imagination. Much of his working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He worked in Rome and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded to him by Francis I of France, Leonardo was, and is, renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait, Leonardos drawing of the Vitruvian Man is regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, and T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings have survived, Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated power, an adding machine.
Some of his inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder. A number of Leonardos most practical inventions are nowadays displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci. He made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, Leonardo is widely considered one of the most diversely talented individuals ever to have lived. Leonardo was born on 15 April 1452 at the hour of the night in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci. He was the son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, and Caterina. Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense – da Vinci simply meaning of Vinci, his birth name was Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci, meaning Leonardo. The inclusion of the title ser indicated that Leonardos father was a gentleman, little is known about Leonardos early life. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother and his father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died young in 1465 without children.
When Leonardo was sixteen, his father married again to twenty-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, pieros legitimate heirs were born from his third wife Margherita di Guglielmo and his fourth and final wife, Lucrezia Cortigiani. Leonardo received an education in Latin and mathematics. In life, Leonardo recorded only two childhood incidents, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face
The London Gazette
The London Gazette claims to be the oldest surviving English newspaper and the oldest continuously published newspaper in the UK, having been first published on 7 November 1665 as The Oxford Gazette. This claim is made by the Stamford Mercury and Berrows Worcester Journal. It does not have a large circulation, in turn, The London Gazette carries not only notices of UK-wide interest, but those relating specifically to entities or people in England and Wales. However, certain notices that are only of specific interest to Scotland or Northern Ireland are required to be published in The London Gazette, the London and Belfast Gazettes are published by TSO on behalf of Her Majestys Stationery Office. They are subject to Crown Copyright, the London Gazette is published each weekday, except for Bank Holidays. The official Gazettes are published by The Stationery Office, the content, apart from insolvency notices, is available in a number of machine-readable formats, including XML and XML/RDFa via Atom feed.
The London Gazette was first published as The Oxford Gazette on 7 November 1665. Charles II and the Royal Court had moved to Oxford to escape the Great Plague of London, the Gazette was Published by Authority by Henry Muddiman, and its first publication is noted by Samuel Pepys in his diary. The King returned to London as the plague dissipated, and the Gazette moved too, the Gazette was not a newspaper in the modern sense, it was sent by post to subscribers, not printed for sale to the general public. Her Majestys Stationery Office took over the publication of the Gazette in 1889, publication of the Gazette was transferred to the private sector, under government supervision, in the 1990s, when HMSO was sold and renamed The Stationery Office. In time of war, dispatches from the conflicts are published in The London Gazette. People referred to are said to have mentioned in dispatches. When members of the forces are promoted, and these promotions are published here. Man tally-ho, Miss piano, Wife silk and satin, Boy Greek and Latin, the phrase gazetted fortune hunter is probably derived from this.
Notices of engagement and marriage were published in the Gazette. Gazettes, modelled on The London Gazette, were issued for most British colonial possessions
William Randolph Hearst
Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak and he expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Politically he espoused the Progressive Movement, speaking on behalf of the working class and he controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines and thereby exercised enormous political influence. He called for war in 1898 against Spain—as did many other newspaper editors—but he did it in sensational fashion, after 1918, he called for an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs. He was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist, and deeply suspicious of the League of Nations and of the British, French and Russians. He was a supporter of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932–34, but broke with FDR.
His life story was the inspiration for Charles Foster Kane. His famous mansion, Hearst Castle, on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean near San Simeon, is now a State Historical Monument and a National Historic Landmark. William R. Hearst was born in San Francisco, to mining engineer, goldmine owner and U. S. senator George Hearst. His paternal great-grandfather was John Hearst, of Ulster Protestant origin and he migrated to America from Ballybay, County Monaghan as part of the Cahans Exodus with his wife and six children in 1766 and settled in South Carolina. Their immigration to South Carolina was spurred in part by the governments policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants. The names John Hearse and John Hearse Jr, the Hearse spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. Hearsts mother, née Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was of Irish ancestry and she was the first woman regent of University of California, funded many anthropological expeditions and founded the Phoebe A.
Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Following preparation at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, while there he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the A. D. Searching for an occupation, in 1887, Hearst took over management of a newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, a self-proclaimed populist, Hearst went on to publish stories of municipal and financial corruption, often attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market, the inventor of color comics, and all of Pulitzers Sunday staff as well. Another prominent hire was James J. Montague, who came from the Portland Oregonian, Hearst imported his best managers from the San Francisco Examiner and quickly established himself as the most attractive employer among New York newspapers. Hearsts activist approach to journalism can be summarized by the motto, While others Talk, the New York Journal and its chief rival, the New York World, mastered a style of popular journalism that came to be derided as yellow journalism, after Outcaults Yellow Kid comic
J. P. Morgan
John Pierpont J. P. Morgan was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in late 19th and early 20th Century United States. In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and he was instrumental in the creation of the United States Steel Corporation, International Harvester and AT&T. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907 and he was the leading financier of the Progressive Era, and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business. Morgan has been described as America’s greatest banker, Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. His fortune was estimated at only US$80 million, prompting John D. Rockefeller to say, Morgan was born into the influential Morgan family in Hartford and was raised there. He was the son of Junius Spencer Morgan and Juliet Pierpont, Pierpont, as he preferred to be known, had a varied education due in part to the plans of his father.
In the fall of 1848, Pierpont transferred to the Hartford Public School and to the Episcopal Academy in Cheshire, boarding with the principal. In September 1851, Morgan passed the exam for The English High School of Boston. In the spring of 1852, an illness struck which was to more common as his life progressed. Rheumatic fever left him in so much pain that he could not walk and he convalesced there for almost a year, returned to the English High School in Boston to resume his studies. After he graduated, his father sent him to Bellerive, a school near the Swiss village of Vevey and his father sent him to the University of Göttingen in order to improve his German. He attained a level of German within six months and a degree in art history, traveled back to London via Wiesbaden. Morgan went into banking in 1857 at the London branch of merchant banking firm Peabody, in 1858, he moved to New York City to join the banking house of Duncan, Sherman & Company, the American representatives of George Peabody and Company.
Morgan had avoided serving during the war by paying a substitute $300 to take his place, from 1860 to 1864, as J. Pierpont Morgan & Company, he acted as agent in New York for his fathers firm, renamed J. S. Morgan & Co. upon Peabodys retirement in 1864, from 1864–72, he was a member of the firm of Dabney and Company. In 1871, he partnered with the Drexels of Philadelphia to form the New York firm of Drexel, at that time, Anthony J. Drexel became Pierponts mentor at the request of Junius Morgan. After the death of Anthony Drexel, the firm was rechristened J. P. Morgan & Company in 1895, retaining close ties with Drexel & Company of Philadelphia, Harjes & Company of Paris, and J. S. By 1900, it was one of the most powerful banking houses of the world, Morgan had many partners over the years, such as George W. Perkins, but always remained firmly in charge
Andrew William Mellon was an American banker, industrialist, art collector, and politician. From the wealthy Mellon family of Pennsylvania, he established a vast business empire before transitioning into politics. He served as United States Secretary of the Treasury from March 9,1921 to February 12,1932, presiding over the years of the 1920s. Leaving office after the onset of the Great Depression, he served as the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. A conservative Republican, Mellon lowered taxes and government spending in the aftermath of World War I, Mellon was born in Pennsylvania on March 24,1855. His name is listed on the 1860 Census as William A. Mellon and his father was Thomas Mellon, a banker and judge who was a Scots-Irish immigrant from County Tyrone, his mother was Sarah Jane Negley Mellon. He had three brothers, Thomas A. James R. and Samuel, and he had a younger brother named Richard B. He was educated at the Western University of Pennsylvania and left before graduating, in 1872 his father set him up in a lumber and coal business, which he soon turned into a profitable enterprise.
He joined his fathers banking firm, T, Mellon & Sons, in 1880 and two years had ownership of the bank transferred to him. In 1889, Mellon helped organize the Union Trust Company and Union Savings Bank of Pittsburgh and he branched into industrial activities, steel and construction. Areas where Mellons backing created giant enterprises included aluminum, industrial abrasives, Mellon financed Charles Martin Hall, whose refinery grew into the Aluminum Company of America. He became the partner of Edward Goodrich Acheson in manufacturing silicon carbide and he created an entire industry through his help to Heinrich Koppers, inventor of coke ovens which transformed industrial waste into usable products such as coal-gas, coal-tar, and sulfur. He became an investor in the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. Mellon was one of the wealthiest people in the United States, while he served as Secretary of the U. S. Treasury Department his wealth peaked at around $300–$400 million in 1929–1930. Mellon was a member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, along with his closest friends Henry Clay Frick and Philander Knox, Mellon served as a director of the Pittsburgh National Bank of Commerce.
Mellon was one-third owner with Frick and one Charles W. Mauck in the Old Overholt whiskey distillery in West Overton, at the time, Old Overholt was one of the largest and most respected whiskey producers in the country. In 1907, as prohibition became more popular across the country and Mellon removed their names from the distilling license and it is believed that Mellons connections in the Treasury Department are what allowed the company to secure a medicinal permit during Prohibition. This permit allowed Overholt to sell existing whiskey stocks to druggists for medicinal use, when Frick died in December 1919, he left his share to Mellon
The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history. It started as a movement in Italy in the Late Medieval period and spread to the rest of Europe. This new thinking became manifest in art, politics, Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, the Renaissance began in Florence, in the 14th century. Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan, the word Renaissance, literally meaning Rebirth in French, first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelets 1855 work, Histoire de France, the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.
The Renaissance was a movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism, however, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were back from Byzantium to Western Europe. Political philosophers, most famously Niccolò Machiavelli, sought to describe life as it really was. Others see more competition between artists and polymaths such as Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Masaccio for artistic commissions as sparking the creativity of the Renaissance. Yet it remains much debated why the Renaissance began in Italy, several theories have been put forward to explain its origins. During the Renaissance and art went hand in hand, Artists depended entirely on patrons while the patrons needed money to foster artistic talent. Wealth was brought to Italy in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries by expanding trade into Asia, silver mining in Tyrol increased the flow of money.
Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusades, increased the prosperity of Genoa, unlike with Latin texts, which had been preserved and studied in Western Europe since late antiquity, the study of ancient Greek texts was very limited in medieval Western Europe. One of the greatest achievements of Renaissance scholars was to bring this entire class of Greek cultural works back into Western Europe for the first time since late antiquity, Arab logicians had inherited Greek ideas after they had invaded and conquered Egypt and the Levant. Their translations and commentaries on these ideas worked their way through the Arab West into Spain and Sicily and this work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history
University College School
University College School, generally known as UCS Hampstead, is an independent day school in Hampstead, northwest London, England. The school was founded in 1830 by University College London and inherited many of that institutions progressive, according to the Good Schools Guide, the school Achieves impressive exam results with a relaxed atmosphere. UCS aims to combine the highest standards of achievement and pastoral care with outstanding facilities for all-round education with a distinctive liberal ethos. The UCS Hampstead Foundation is composed of four entities, The UCS Pre-Prep or The Phoenix as it was previously known. This was acquired by UCS in 2003, the Junior Branch, for boys aged 7 to 11 on the Holly Hill site in the heart of Hampstead. The Senior School, for boys aged 11 to 16 and co-educational for ages 16 to 18 on the Frognal site, the main campus and the Great Hall are noted examples of Edwardian architecture. Inside the hall is a magnificent Walker pipe organ, used for concerts, professional recordings and other festivities.
The Playing Fields are situated in West Hampstead on Ranulf Road, UCS is a member of the Eton Group of twelve independent schools, the Haileybury Group of 26 independent schools, and the Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference. It has ties with the Equatorial College School in Uganda. The school motto is Paulatim Sed Firmiter, in 2016, the school updated its school logo to incorporate its widely known name of UCS Hampstead and to include the full motto in its distinctive roundel emblem. The schools colours are maroon and black which are shown to the distinctive vertical striped blazers. UCS publishes an online newsletter called The Frognal and a yearly printed magazine called The Gower sent to current. The latest editions are available on the school website, in the Lower School, there is one form per year in each house. Kestrel – Blue Eagle – Yellow Hawk – Black Falcon – Green Students in the Middle School and Upper School are arranged into Demes and this is similar to a school house. In the Middle School, there is one form per year in each Deme, as well as a Deme Warden, each deme has two or three Deme Captains.
Deme and Full Colours are awarded through an accumulation of academic, there are regular inter-Deme competitions in sport and drama throughout the year. In the Middle School, the school blazer carries a coloured school logo on the breast pocket depicting the pupils Deme. Entry at 4+, 5+, 6+ by assessment of the Headmistress, Junior Branch, at age 7, judged by a combination of internal exam and interview
In addition to the library, the institution houses an extensive art collection with a focus in 18th and 19th-century European art and 17th to mid-20th-century American art. The property includes approximately 120 acres of specialized botanical landscaped gardens, most notably the Japanese Garden, the Desert Garden, as a landowner and visionary, Henry Edwards Huntington, played a major role in the growth of southern California. Huntington was born in 1850, in Oneonta, New York, in 1892, Huntington relocated to San Francisco with his first wife, Mary Alice Prentice, and their four children. He was one of the founders of the City of San Marino, before his death in 1927, Huntington amassed far and away the greatest group of 18th-century British portraits ever assembled by any one man. In accordance with Huntingtons will, the collection, worth $50 million, was opened to the public in 1928. On October 17,1985, a fire erupted in a shaft of the Huntington Art Gallery. After a year-long, $1 million refurbishing project, the Huntington Gallery reopened in 1986, with its artworks cleaned of soot and stains.
Most of the funds for the cleanup and refurbishing of the Georgian mansion and its artworks came from donations from the Michael J. Connell Foundation and individuals. Both the Federal art-supporting establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts, the Library building was designed in 1920, by the southern California architect Myron Hunt in the Mediterranean Revival style. Hunts previous commissions for Mr. and Mrs. Huntington included the Huntingtons residence in San Marino in 1909, and the Huntington Hotel in 1914. The library contains a collection of rare books and manuscripts, concentrated in the fields of British and American history, art. Spanning from the 11th century to the present, the librarys holdings contain 7 million items, over 400,000 rare books, and over a million photographs and other ephemera. Highlights include one of 11 vellum copies of the Gutenberg Bible known to exist,1410, and letters and manuscripts by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Abraham Lincoln.
The Librarys Main Exhibition Hall showcases some of the most outstanding rare books and manuscripts in the collection, the Dibner Hall of the History of Science is a permanent exhibition on the history of science with a focus on astronomy, natural history and light. Use of the collection for research is restricted to qualified scholars, generally requiring a degree or at least candidacy for the PhD. Through a rigorous program, the institution awards approximately 150 grants to scholars in the fields of history, art. Through the Huntington Library Press, the produces the Huntington Library Quarterly. Scholarly pursuits lead to best-selling books, Pulitzer prizes, acclaimed documentary films, the Huntington hosts numerous scholarly events, lectures and workshops