Joseph Hooker

Joseph Hooker was an American Civil War general, chiefly remembered for his decisive defeat by Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. Hooker had served in the Seminole Wars and the Mexican–American War, receiving three brevet promotions, before resigning from the Army. At the start of the Civil War, he joined the Union side as a brigadier general, distinguishing himself at Williamsburg and Fredericksburg, after which he was given command of the Army of the Potomac, his ambitious plan for Chancellorsville was thwarted by Lee's bold move in dividing his army and routing a Union corps, as well as by mistakes on the part of Hooker's subordinate generals and his own loss of nerve. The defeat handed Lee the initiative. Hooker was kept in command, but when General Halleck and Lincoln declined his request for reinforcements, he resigned. George G. Meade was appointed to command the Army of the Potomac three days before Gettysburg. Hooker returned to combat in November 1863, helping to relieve the besieged Union Army at Chattanooga and continuing in the Western Theater under Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, but departed in protest before the end of the Atlanta Campaign when he was passed over for promotion.

Hooker became known as "Fighting Joe" following a journalist's clerical error. His personal reputation was as a hard-drinking ladies' man, his headquarters were known for parties and gambling. Hooker was born in Hadley, the grandson of a captain in the American Revolutionary War, he was of English ancestry, all of, in New England since the early 1600s. His initial schooling was at the local Hopkins Academy, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, ranked 29th out of a class of 50, was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 1st U. S. Artillery, his initial assignment was in Florida fighting in the second of the Seminole Wars. He served in the Mexican–American War in staff positions in the campaigns of both Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, he received brevet promotions for his staff leadership and gallantry in three battles: Monterrey, National Bridge, Chapultepec. His future Army reputation as a ladies' man began in Mexico, where local girls referred to him as the "Handsome Captain".

After the Mexican–American War, he served as assistant adjutant general of the Pacific Division, but resigned his commission in 1853. Hooker struggled with the tedium of peacetime life, passed the time with liquor and gambling, he settled in Sonoma County, California, as a farmer and land developer, ran unsuccessfully for election to represent the region in the California legislature. He was unhappy and unsuccessful in his civilian pursuits because, in 1858, he wrote to Secretary of War John B. Floyd to request that his name "be presented to the president Buchanan as a candidate for a lieutenant colonelcy", but nothing came of his request. From 1859 to 1861, he held a commission as a colonel in the California militia. At the start of the Civil War in 1861, Hooker requested a commission, but his first application was rejected because of the lingering resentment harbored by Winfield Scott, general-in-chief of the Army, he had to borrow money to make the trip east from California. After he witnessed the Union Army defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run, he wrote a letter to President Abraham Lincoln that complained of military mismanagement, promoted his own qualifications, again requested a commission.

He was appointed, in August 1861, as brigadier general of volunteers to rank from May 17. He commanded a brigade and division around Washington, D. C. as part of the effort to organize and train the new Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan. In the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, Hooker commanded the 2nd Division of the III Corps and made a good name for himself as a combat leader who handled himself well and aggressively sought out the key points on battlefields, he led his division with distinction at Seven Pines. Hooker's division did not play a major role in the Seven Days Battles, although he and fellow division commander Phil Kearny tried unsuccessfully to urge McClellan to counterattack the Confederates, he chafed at the cautious generalship of McClellan and criticized his failure to capture Richmond. Of his commander, Hooker said, "He is not only not a soldier, but he does not know what soldiership is." The Peninsula cemented two further reputations of Hooker's: his devotion to the welfare and morale of his men, his hard drinking social life on the battlefield.

On July 26, Hooker was promoted to major general, to rank from May 5. During the Second Battle of Bull Run, the III Corps was sent to reinforce John Pope's Army of Virginia. Following Second Bull Run, Hooker replaced Irvin McDowell as commander of the Army of Virginia's III Corps, soon redesignated the I Corps of the Army of the Potomac. During the Maryland Campaign, Hooker led the I Corps at South Mountain and at Antietam, his corps launched the first assault of the bloodiest day in American history, driving south into the corps of Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson, where they fought each other to a standstill. Hooker and inspiring to his men, left the battle early in the morning with a foot wound, he asserted that the battle would have been a decisive Union victory if he had managed to stay on the field, but General McClellan's caution once again failed the Northern


Michniów pronounced is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Suchedniów, within Skarżysko County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, in south-central Poland. It lies 5 kilometres south of Suchedniów, 14 km south-west of Skarżysko-Kamienna, 22 km north-east of the regional capital Kielce; the village has a population of 440. During World War II, the region of Michniów was occupied by the Germans from September 1939 until January 1945. Under the occupation, it was one of the local centres of the Polish underground resistance movement. On 12–13 July 1943, the population of Michniów was massacred by the German Police units of the 17th and the 22nd Police Regiments, commanded by Hauptmann Gerulf Mayer, in punishment for the partisan activity in the area. In the first massacre, on 12 July 1943, 98 men were burned alive locked in barns; the same night, the partisans headed by Jan Piwnik "Ponury", made a retaliatory assault on a German train from Kraków to Warsaw. The Germans committed a second punitive massacre.

During two days, at least 203 inhabitants were killed - 53 women and 47 children. After ad hoc investigation, a further 11 persons - the only ones suspected by the Germans of underground activities - were sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, where 6 died; the village was completely burned. After the war, Michniów was resettled again; the village became one of the best-known symbols of the Nazi German atrocities committed in rural Poland, although there were several greater massacres. From early 1980s, on the initiative of the Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce a museum and a mausoleum to all Polish pacified villages was built in Michniów. Michnów at Muzeum Wsi Kieleckiej, retrieved 19-7-2010

Kahaluu, Hawaii

Kahaluʻu is a residential community and census-designated place in the City and County of Honolulu, United States, in the District of Koolaupoko on the island of Oahu. In Hawaiian ka haluʻu means "diving place"; as of the 2010 Census, the CDP had a total population of 4,738. At Kahaluʻu, visitors to the windward side travelling via the Pali Highway, H-3, or Likelike Highway first encounter the ocean close beside the highway. Kahaluʻu is a rural area transforming into a denser residential community; the U. S. postal code for Kahaluʻu is 96744. Kahaluʻu is located at 21°27′40″N 157°50′28″W, it is directly adjacent to Ahuimanu to Waiahole to the north. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.5 square miles, of which 3.5 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water. The total area is 23.07% water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,935 people, 927 households, 716 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,410.8 people per square mile. There were 980 housing units at an average density of 805.0 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the CDP was 26.85% White, 0.37% Black or African American, 0.07% Native American, 22.18% Asian, 17.51% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 32.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.81% of the population. There were 927 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.7% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.7% were non-families. 13.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.17 and the average family size was 3.50. In the CDP the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $61,098, the median income for a family was $61,184.

Males had a median income of $41,310 versus $28,194 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $22,204. About 7.4% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.7% of those under the age of 18 and 3.0% of those 65 and older. Chris McKinney, writer Hiram Fong and senator who ran for president in 1964. Katherine Kealoha, Former Honolulu Deputy City Prosecutor