Joseph II was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from November 1780 until his death. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Emperor Francis I, the brother of Marie Antoinette, he was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism. Meanwhile, despite making some territorial gains, his reckless foreign policy badly isolated Austria, he has been ranked, with Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His reputation as an enlightened monarch was somewhat legendary, leading to false, but influential letters depicting him as a radical philosopher, his policies are now known as Josephinism. He was a supporter of the arts, most of composers such as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Antonio Salieri, he died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold II. Joseph was born in the midst of the early upheavals of the War of the Austrian Succession.
His formal education was provided through the writings of Voltaire and the Encyclopédistes, by the example of his contemporary King Frederick II of Prussia. His practical training was conferred by government officials, who were directed to instruct him in the mechanical details of the administration of the numerous states composing the Austrian dominions and the Holy Roman Empire. Joseph married Princess Isabella of Parma in October 1760, a union fashioned to bolster the 1756 defensive pact between France and Austria. Joseph loved his bride, finding her both stimulating and charming, she sought with special care to cultivate his favor and affection. Isabella found a best friend and confidant in her husband's sister, Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen; the marriage of Joseph and Isabella resulted in the birth of Maria Theresa. Isabella was fearful of pregnancy and early death a result of the early loss of her mother, her own pregnancy proved difficult as she suffered symptoms of pain and melancholy both during and afterward, though Joseph attended to her and tried to comfort her.
She remained bedridden for six weeks after their daughter's birth. On the back of their newfound parenthood, the couple endured two consecutive miscarriages—an ordeal hard on Isabella—followed by another pregnancy. Pregnancy was again provoking melancholy and dread in Isabella. In November 1763, while six months pregnant, Isabella fell ill with smallpox and went into premature labor, resulting in the birth of their second child, Archduchess Maria Christina, who died shortly after being born. Progressively ill with smallpox and strained by sudden childbirth and tragedy, Isabella died the following week; the loss of his beloved wife and their newborn child was devastating for Joseph, after which he felt keenly reluctant to remarry, though he dearly loved his daughter and remained a devoted father to Maria Theresa. For political reasons, under constant pressure, in 1765, he relented and married his second cousin, Princess Maria Josepha of Bavaria, the daughter of Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria.
This marriage proved unhappy, albeit brief, as it lasted only two years. Though Maria Josepha loved her husband, she felt inferior in his company. Lacking common interests or pleasures, the relationship offered little for Joseph, who confessed he felt no love for her in return, he adapted by distancing himself from his wife to the point of near total avoidance, seeing her only at meals and upon retiring to bed. Maria Josepha, in turn, suffered considerable misery in finding herself locked in a cold, loveless union. Four months after the second anniversary of their wedding, Maria Josepha grew ill and died from smallpox. Joseph neither visited her during her illness nor attended her funeral, though he expressed regret for not having shown her more kindness, respect, or warmth. One thing the union did provide him was the improved possibility of laying claim to a portion of Bavaria, though this would lead to the War of the Bavarian Succession. Joseph never remarried. In 1770, Joseph's only surviving child, the seven-year-old Maria Theresa, became ill with pleurisy and died.
The loss of his daughter was traumatic for him and left him grief-stricken and scarred. Lacking children, Joseph II was succeeded by his younger brother, who became Leopold II. Joseph was made a member of the constituted council of state and began to draw up minutes for his mother to read; these papers contain the germs of his policy, of all the disasters that overtook him. He was a friend to religious toleration, anxious to reduce the power of the church, to relieve the peasantry of feudal burdens, to remove restrictions on trade and knowledge. In these, he did not differ from Frederick, or his own brother and successor Leopold II, all enlightened rulers of the 18th century, he tried to liberate serfs. Where Joseph differed from great contemporary rulers, where he was akin to the Jacobins, was in the intensity of his belief in the power of the state when directed by reason; as an absolutist ruler, however, he was a
The Korean Mathematical Olympiad is a Mathematical Olympiad held by the Korean Mathematical Society in Republic of Korea. In 1988, only high school students were tested and middle school students were supposed to take the'high school exam'. From the 11th exam, the middle school students' test was introduced. In the 53rd International Mathematical Olympiad, the Korean delegation won 209 out of 252 out of the total score and 6 gold medals and ranked the first place for the first time in history. From Korean mathematicians have made outstanding achievements in advanced math research and International Mathematical Olympiad. In order to obtain excellent grades in the International Mathematics Olympiad, the Korean Mathematical Society holds the Korean Mathematical Olympiad, through the operation of the seasonal school, KMS will discover gifted students and educate them to contribute the development of mathematics and engineering in Korea; the primary test called PKMO, is held between May and June.
The current test consists of twenty multiple-choice questions, students have to take the test in 4 hours and 30 minutes. The trend is to present five problems from each subject, which are number theory, geometry and combinatorics; the awards are divided into regional and national awards, they are divided into honorable mention, bronze award, silver award, gold award. To take the second test, students must receive higher. Students who have a good score in PKMO can have the opportunity to attend in the summer school, it is held between July and August, the students sleep together for 12 days and take lectures. Students who have completed Summer School are subjected to the Summer Communication Lecture, they have weekly online performance assessments. The secondary test is composed of 8 questions with a narrative type, it is held between November and December. The test is divided in morning and afternoon time and 4 problems are given each period with a time limit of 3 hours; the trend is to present two problems from number theory, geometry and combinatorics each.
Local awards are not awarded separately and are divided into honorable mention, bronze award, silver award, gold award. Students who have a good grade in the second test is entitled to attend winter school, it is progressed for 2 weeks in early January. Every weekend, there is a Winter School Mock Examination, similar to FKMO, it is reflected in the selection of the national team. On the days without exams, there is a professor’s lecture in morning, assistant’s problem-solving in the noon, self-study in evening. If a student gets enough grades in the winter school mock examination, he or she will be exempted for PKMO next year. Students who have completed Winter School are subjected to the Spring Communication Lecture for 6 weeks, they have weekly online performance assessments. APMO is held in March. Winter School Participants are subjected to take the test. There are 5 problems in the exam, the awards are divided into honorable mention, bronze award, silver award, gold award. Only up to 10 people can get an award in this exam.
The students who have won higher than the bronze prize in the High School Level Secondary Test or those who have completed the Middle School Level Winter School are entitled to take FKMO. The exam consists of 6 questions in a narrative form, it is taken for two days at the end of March, each day you are required to solve 3 problems in 4 hours and 30 minutes. Awards are divided into Grand Prize, Excellence Prize, Encouragement Prize, 13 people are selected as representative candidates. Six students are selected from the candidates to represent Korea in the IMO. Since 2017, KMO has been divided into two parts: Euler Part; the Gauss Part is open to all students under the age of 20 and the Euler Part is available for high school students other than science high school students. About 12 to 13 students are selected based on the grades obtained by multiplying the grades of five tests by the weights set by the Korea Math Olympiad Committee. IMO mock test is conducted for these 12 students. Six finalists will be selected by the Korea Mathematics Olympiad Committee based on the results of combining the results of the tests held before and the results of this IMO mock test.
The final candidates and the target students will perform the weekend training for about 5 weeks in May, the final representative student will hold the intensive training before the participation in IMO, held from June to July. The Korean Mathematical Olympiad - Official website International Mathematical Olympiad - Official website Asian Pacific Mathematical Olympiad - Official website
Katmandu is a furry comic book set in a fantasy world populated by anthropomorphic feline and rodent species. It was created by Carole Curtis drawn by Terrie Smith and is one of two key titles published by Shanda Fantasy Arts—along with the publisher's namesake Shanda the Panda; the original story introduced the framing story characters and Thorin. They were members of warring cat nations; that first story arc involves their adventures in the desert which led to them falling in love and marrying. However, the primary focus of the series is the stories Leahtrah tells about Liska. Liska was a noted warrior chief, first captured in a raid and kept as a slave. However, when raiders attacked the village, Liska assisted in its defence and killed half the raiders. In recognition of her loyalty and her prowess in battle, Liska was manumitted and given status as a free warrior of the tribe, she is based loosely on Woman Chief the Absaroka Amazon, of the Crow Native American nation. Reviews have praised the book for its presentation of a detailed fictional setting and its characterization