SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Joseph Jenkins Roberts

Joseph Jenkins Roberts was an African-American merchant who emigrated to Liberia in 1829, where he became a noted politician. Elected as the first and seventh President of Liberia after independence, he was the first man of African descent to govern the country, serving as governor from 1841 to 1848. Born free in Norfolk, Roberts emigrated as a young man with his mother, siblings and child to the young West African colony, he opened a trading firm in Monrovia and engaged in politics. After Liberia became independent on July 26, 1847, Roberts was elected as the nation's first president, serving until 1856. In 1872, he was elected again to serve as Liberia's seventh president. Joseph Jenkins Roberts was born free in Norfolk, the second-oldest of seven children, his father was said to be a planter of Welsh origin. Joseph's mother Amelia, described as a "mulatto", quite fair, was the planter's slave mistress or concubine, he freed her when she was still young, before Joseph was born. Amelia gave all of her children but one the middle name of Jenkins, which suggests, the surname of their biological father.

After being freed, Amelia married James Roberts, a free black. Roberts raised them as his own. Roberts owned a boating business on the James River. By the time of his death, he had acquired substantial wealth for a free man of color of those times. Joseph Roberts and his siblings by the planter, were estimated to be of seven-eighths European ancestry; the Liberian historian Abayomi Karnga explained in 1926: "He was not black. However, his native Virginia classed him as a person of color because he was born to a mother of African descent; the family moved to Petersburg, an industrial city on the upper James River with a substantial population of free people of color. As a boy, Joseph began to work in his stepfather's business, handling goods on a flatboat that transported materials from Petersburg to Norfolk, Virginia on the James River. Shortly after the family relocated, his stepfather James Roberts died. Joseph continued to work in his family's business, but served as an apprentice in a barber shop.

The owner of the barber shop, William Colson, was a minister and one of Virginia's best-educated black residents. He gave Roberts access to his private library. In 1828, Roberts married an 18-year-old woman named Sarah, they had an infant child whom they took with them when they emigrated the next year to the new colony of Liberia under the auspices of the American Colonization Society. Both Sarah and the child died in the first year of living in the colony. There was a high rate of mortality due to disease among settlers to the new colony; some time after his wife's death, Roberts married again, to Jane Rose Waring, in 1836 in Monrovia, Liberia. She was a daughter of Colston Waring and Harriet Graves, other Virginians who had emigrated to the colony. After hearing about the American Colonization Society's efforts in creating the colony of Liberia on the West African coast, Roberts decided to join a group of fellow Virginians preparing to leave for Monrovia, the capital of the young colony. Although Roberts was educated and a successful merchant by the time he and his family emigrated, the restrictions in Virginia on free Negroes played an important part in his decision, as they were not able to live as full citizens prohibited from meaningful education, bearing arms, worshiping or gathering without the supervision of white authorities, other social constraints.

The Roberts family was religious, they felt called to evangelize the indigenous peoples of Africa. On February 9, 1829, they sailed for Africa on the ship Harriet, along with Roberts's mother and five of his six siblings. Another passenger on the same ship was James Spriggs Payne, who became a leader and was elected as Liberia's fourth president. Several years before leaving for Liberia, Roberts established a business with his friend William Nelson Colson from Petersburg. Known as Roberts, Colson, & Company, the partnership continued and expanded after Roberts emigrated, exporting palm products and ivory to the United States and trading American goods at a company store in Monrovia. Roberts made several trips to the United States, including stops in New York and Richmond as a representative of the firm. In 1835, Colson died shortly after his arrival. Expanding into coastal trade, the Roberts family became successful members of the local establishment. During this time, Joseph's brother, John Wright Roberts, entered the ministry of the Liberian Methodist Church.

He became a bishop. After starting as a trader, the youngest brother, Henry Roberts, studied medicine at the Berkshire Medical College in Massachusetts. Joseph Roberts was successful enough to pay for his brother's tuition. Henry returned to Liberia to work as a physician. In 1833, Joseph Roberts became high sheriff of the colony. One of his responsibilities was to organize militias to travel to the interior to collect taxes from the indigenous peoples and put down their raids against areas under colonial rule. In 1839, the American Colonization Society appointed Roberts as vice governor. Two years after the death of governor Thomas Buchanan, Roberts was appointed as the first American black governor of Liberia. In 1846, Roberts asked the legislature to declare the independence of Liberia, but to maintain cooperation with the American Colonization Society; the legislature called for a referendum. On July 26, 184

Hilton Moscow Leningradskaya

The Hilton Moscow Leningradskaya is one of Moscow's Seven Sisters, skyscrapers built in the early 1950s in the Stalinist neoclassical style. Stalinist neoclassical architecture mixes the Russian neoclassical style with the style of American skyscrapers of the 1930s. A main element of Stalinist neoclassicism is its use of socialist realism art; the hotel, completed in 1954, was designed to be the finest luxury hotel in Moscow. The staircase features one of the longest lighting fixtures in the world—it was once in The Guinness Book of Records; the halls and corridors of the hotel's upper floors are panelled in dark cherry wood. The hotel includes a restaurant, lounge and beauty salon, fitness centre with swimming pool, bureau de change, gift shop, meeting rooms, grand ballroom, business center; the tower of the Hilton Moscow Leningradskaya Hotel dominates Komsomolskaya Square, with its three ornate railway stations located nearby, along with a main ring road of downtown Moscow. The hotel joined the Hilton Hotels chain in 2008 after completing a multimillion-dollar restoration and renovation.

Official website All Hotels citation

Lloyd Garrett

Lloyd Fry Garrett was a tenor in vaudeville and musical comedy as well as a composer and lyricist. Lloyd Garrett was born in Moulton, into a well-educated, middle-class family. However, after three years at Drake University he joined his brother Hoyt W. Garrett, a pianist, in pursuing a career in entertainment, he was a saxophonist, first with the Colonial Saxophone Quartette and after 1907 in a duo with his brother. He evidently possessed a fine falsetto. By 1918 he had established himself as a solo singer in revues, he was active in Chicago until 1920, it was there that he met Gertrude Lehman, an actress, who became his first wife on December 12, 1922. In 1920 he was featured in the second edition of George White's Scandals, singing songs by George Gershwin, among others, he reappeared in the shows at least until 1926. At the same time he maintained a career in vaudeville and musical comedy, appearing in London in 1923 and in a Marx Brothers show in 1925. In 1925 he opened in a production of The Student Prince that toured intermittently for several years.

The couple settled in Stamford and Garrett thereafter limited himself to brief tours and club appearances in New York. His last vaudeville tour was with only scattered radio appearances thereafter, he took a sales position with the Stamford firm of Pitney Bowes, the Garretts became prominent in the social life of Stamford. In retirement he moved to Del Mar, where he died. Garrett’s career as a lyricist and composer was confined to the years 1917–23, it was concentrated in Chicago, where nearly all of his music was published, he is most noted as the author of the words to "Dallas Blues" in the form it became known. Root as part of "Songs from the Camps." These evidence skill and wit, making accomplished use of the emerging language of jazz and playing musically upon ethnic stereotypes. Other songs, like "My Mother" and "Roses of Memory" were designed for his own somewhat elevated style of ballad singing. In 1940 he penned "Let Dewey Do It," his last composition. "Garrett, Lloyd," in The ASCAP Biographical Dictionary, 2nd edition, ed. Daniel I. McNamara.

1952, p. 175