Joseph Joachim

Joseph Joachim was a Hungarian violinist, conductor and teacher. A close collaborator of Johannes Brahms, he is regarded as one of the most significant violinists of the 19th century. Joseph Joachim was born in Moson County, Kingdom of Hungary, he was the seventh of eight children born to Julius, a wool merchant, Fanny Joachim, who were of Hungarian-Jewish origin. His infancy was spent as a member of the Kittsee Kehilla, one of Hungary's prominent Siebengemeinden under the protectorate of the Esterházy family, he was a first cousin of Fanny Wittgenstein, née Figdor, the mother of Karl Wittgenstein and the grandmother of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and the pianist Paul Wittgenstein. In 1833 his family moved to Pest, which in 1873 was united with Óbuda to form Budapest. There from 1836 he studied violin with the Polish violinist Stanisław Serwaczyński, the concertmaster of the opera in Pest, said to be the best violinist in Pest. Although Joachim's parents were "not well off", they had been well advised to choose not just an "ordinary" violin teacher.

Joachim's first public performance was 17 March 1839 when he was of age 7. In 1839, Joachim continued his studies at the Vienna Conservatory. In 1843 he was taken by his cousin, Fanny Figdor, who married "a Leipzig merchant" named Wittgenstein, to live and study in Leipzig. In the journal Neue Zeitschrift fůr Musik Robert Schumann was enthusiastic about Felix Mendelssohn, on which Moser writes "Only in Haydn's admiration for Mozart does the history of music know a parallel case of such ungrudging veneration of one great artist for his equal." In 1835, Mendelssohn had become director of the Leipzig Gewandhaus orchestra. In 1843 Joachim became a protégé of Mendelssohn, who arranged for him to study theory and composition with Moritz Hauptmann and violin with Ferdinand David. In his début performance in the Gewandhaus Joachim played the Otello Fantasy by Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst. On 27 May 1844 Joachim, not quite 13, in his London debut with Mendelssohn conducting at a concert of the Philharmonic Society, played the solo part in Beethoven's violin concerto.

This was a triumph in several respects. The Philharmonic had a policy against performers so young, but an exception was made after auditions persuaded gatherings of distinguished musicians and music lovers that Joachim had mature capabilities. Despite Beethoven's recognition as one of the greatest composers, the ranking nowadays of his violin concerto as among the greatest few, it was far from being so ranked before Joachim's performance. Ludwig Spohr had harshly criticized it, after the London premiere by violinist Edward Eliason, a critic had said it "might have been written by any third or fourth rate composer." But Joachim was well prepared to play Beethoven's concerto, having written his own cadenzas for it and memorized the piece. The audience anticipated great things, having got word from the rehearsal, so, Mendelssohn wrote, "frenetic applause began" as soon as Joachim stepped in front of the orchestra; the beginning was applauded still more, "cheers of the audience accompanied every... part of the concerto."

Reviewers had high praise. One for'The Musical World' wrote "The greatest violinists hold this concerto in awe... Young Joachim... attacked it with the vigour and determination of the most accomplished artist... no master could have read it better," and the two cadenzas, written by Joachim, were "tremendous feats... ingeniously composed". Another reviewer, for the'Illustrated London News', wrote that Joachim "is the first violin player, not only of his age, but of his siècle". "He performed Beethoven's solitary concerto, which we have heard all the great performers of the last twenty years attempt, invariably fail in... its performance was an eloquent vindication of the master-spirit who imagined it." A third reviewer, for the'Morning Post', wrote that the concerto "has been regarded by violin-players as not a proper and effective development of the powers of their instrument" but that Joachim's performance "is beyond all praise, defies all description" and "was altogether unprecedented." Joachim remained a favorite with the English public for the rest of his career.

He visited England in each year 1858, 1859, 1862, for several decades thereafter. Moser writes "After the appearance of the six String Quartets Beethoven had complete command of the field of chamber-music", although in the quartets he "makes many exacting demands" of string players. Moser further writes that "at the time of Beethoven's death", such people as Spohr and Hauptmann did not esteem the late quartets above the earliest ones. Moser, p. 30 writes that in Vienna "the public showed a marked hostility toward" the late quartets. But Joachim's teacher Bohm had an appreciation of the late quartets, which he communicated to Joachim. At the age of 18, "in the whole of Germany" Joachim had no equal, either in the rendering of Bach or in the concertos of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. Following Mendelssohn's death in 1847, Joachim stayed in Leipzig, teaching at the Conservatorium and playing on the first desk of the Gewandhaus Orchestra with Ferdinand David, whom Mendelssohn had appointed as concertmaster on taking up the conductorship in 1835

Ridgmount Street

Ridgmount Street is a street in Bloomsbury, London. Ridgmount Street runs from Chenies Street in the north to Store Street in the south, it runs parallel with Alfred Place. Ridgmount Place joins Ridgmount Street on its western side; the street is home to: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals at number 7. Institute for Fiscal Studies at number 7; the Child and Family Practice at number 8. The former Bloomsbury Petrol Station at the south end of the street was the subject of an award-winning redevelopment. At number 22 Chenies Street, on the north western corner of Ridgmount Street, once stood the Medical Graduates' College and Polyclinic, it has since been replaced by Nicholas Cooper House, owned by the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. The Polyclinic was the first British postgraduate medical institution

Jacob Dolson Cox

Jacob Dolson Cox, was a statesman, Union Army general during the American Civil War, Republican politician from Ohio, Liberal Republican Party founder and recognized microbiologist. He served as United States Secretary of the Interior; as Governor of Ohio, Cox sided for a time with President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction plan and was against African American suffrage in the South, though he supported it in Ohio. Seeing himself caught between Johnson and the Radical Republicans, Cox decided not to run for reelection, he stayed out of politics for a year, though both Sherman and Grant advocated that Cox replace Stanton as Secretary of War as a means of stemming the demands for Johnson's impeachment. But Johnson declined; when Ulysses S. Grant became president, he nominated Cox Secretary of Interior and Cox accepted. Secretary of Interior Cox implemented the first civil service reform in a federal government department, including examinations for most clerks. Grant supported Cox and civil service reform, creating America's first Civil Service Commission.

However, Cox was opposed by Republican Party managers, who convinced Grant to cease civil service reforms in the Interior, a large department coveted for its vast Congressional patronage. President Grant and Secretary Cox were at odds over the fraudulent McGarahan Claims and the Dominican Republic annexation treaty. Secretary Cox advocated a lasting and comprehensive Indian policy legislated by Congress after the Piegan Indian massacre. Cox resigned as Secretary of Interior having been unable to gain Grant's support over civil service reform. Although Cox was a reformer, Grant had believed Cox had overstepped his authority as Secretary of Interior, had undermined his authority as President. In 1871 Cox founded the Liberal Republicans in opposition to Grant's renomination. In 1876, Cox served one term as a United States Congressman from Ohio. Congressman Cox supported President Hayes's reform efforts, but his term as Congressman was unsuccessful at establishing permanent Civil Service reform. Cox was elected U.

S. Representative and served in Congress from 1877 to 1879. Afterwards, Cox never returned to active politics. Cox served as president and receiver of a railroad, Dean of Cincinnati Law School, as President of the University of Cincinnati. Cox studied microscopy and made hundreds of photo-micrographs, in 1881 he was elected fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society. In 1882, Cox started a series of books he authored on Civil War campaigns, which remain today respected histories and memoirs. After Cox retired in 1897, he died in Massachusetts in 1900. Throughout the 20th century, Cox's life was forgotten by historians, there has been renewed interest during the 21st century in Cox's military career as Union general during the Civil War, his implementation of civil service while Secretary of Interior under President Grant, the first cabinet officer to do so in U. S. history. Jacob Dolson Cox was born in Montreal on October 27, 1828, his father and mother were Jacob Dolson Cox and Thedia Redelia Cox, both Americans and residents of New York.

His father Jacob was of Dutch origin, descended from Hanovarian emigrant Michael Cox who arrived in New York in 1702. His mother Thedia was descended from Revolutionary War Connecticut soldier Payne Kenyon, there when British General John Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga in 1777. Thedia was descended from Revolutionary War Connecticut soldier Freeman Allyn, who fought against Benedict Arnold at Groton; the Allyns were the early settlers of Manchester, Massachusetts. Thedia was additionally descended from the Elder William Brewster who emigrated to the Plymouth Colony on the Mayflower in 1620; the elder Jacob was a New York building contractor and superintended the roof construction of the Church of Notre Dame in Montreal. Cox returned with his parents to New York City a year later, his early education included private readings with a Columbia College student. His family suffered a financial setback during the Panic of 1837, Cox was unable to afford a college education and obtain a law degree. New York State law mandated that an alternative to college would be to work as an apprentice in legal firm for seven years before entering the bar.

In 1842, Cox worked for two years. Having changed his mind on becoming a lawyer, Cox worked as bookkeeper in a brokerage firm and studied mathematics and classical languages in his off hours. In 1846 he enrolled at Oberlin College in the preparatory school having been influenced by the Reverends Samuel D. Cochran and Charles Grandison Finney, leaders of Oberlin College to study theology and become a minister. Oberlin College was a progressive educational facility, coeducational and admitted students of different races, he graduated from Oberlin with a degree in theology in 1850 or 1851. After a disagreement with his father-in-law over theology, Cox left his ministerial studies and became superintendent of the Warren, school system, he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1853. While attending Oberlin, Cox married the eldest daughter of college president Finney in 1849; the couple lived with the president, but Cox and his father-in-law became estranged due to theological disputes. Cox was the father of the painter Kenyon Cox.

Cox had voted for Winfield Scott in 1852, having strong family abolitionist ties. As the Whig party dissolved, in 1855 Cox h