Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
George B. McClellan
George Brinton McClellan was an American soldier, civil engineer, railroad executive, politician. A graduate of West Point, McClellan served with distinction during the Mexican War, left the Army to work in railroads until the outbreak of the Civil War. Early in the war, McClellan was appointed to the rank of major general and played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army, which would become the Army of the Potomac in the Eastern Theater. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these characteristics hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment, he chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points. McClellan organized and led the Union army in the Peninsula Campaign in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, it was the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater.
Making an amphibious clockwise turning movement around the Confederate Army in northern Virginia, McClellan's forces turned west to move up the Virginia Peninsula, between the James and York Rivers, landing from the Chesapeake Bay, with the Confederate capital, Richmond, as their objective. McClellan was somewhat successful against the cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee to command the Army of Northern Virginia turned the subsequent Seven Days Battles into a partial Union defeat. General McClellan failed to maintain the trust of President Abraham Lincoln, he did not trust his commander-in-chief and was derisive of him. He was removed from command in November after failing to decisively pursue Lee's Army following the tactically inconclusive but strategic Union victory at the Battle of Antietam outside Sharpsburg and never received another field command. McClellan went on to become the unsuccessful Democratic Party nominee in the 1864 presidential election against Lincoln's reelection.
The effectiveness of his campaign was damaged when he repudiated his party's platform, which promised an end to the war and negotiations with the southern Confederacy. He served as the 24th Governor of New Jersey from 1878 to 1881, became a writer, vigorously defended his Civil War conduct. Most modern authorities have assessed McClellan as a poor battlefield general; some historians view him as a capable commander whose reputation suffered unfairly at the hands of pro-Lincoln partisans who made him a scapegoat for the Union's military setbacks. After the war, subsequent commanding general and 18th President Ulysses S. Grant was asked for his opinion of McClellan as a general. George Brinton McClellan was born in Philadelphia, the son of a prominent surgeon, Dr. George McClellan, the founder of Jefferson Medical College, his father's family was of Scottish heritage. His mother was Elizabeth Sophia Steinmetz Brinton McClellan, daughter of a leading Pennsylvania family, a woman noted for her "considerable grace and refinement".
The couple had five children: Frederica. McClellan was the great-grandson of Revolutionary War general Samuel McClellan of Woodstock, Connecticut. McClellan attended the University of Pennsylvania in 1840 at age twelve, resigning himself to the study of law. After two years, he changed his goal to military service. With the assistance of his father's letter to President John Tyler, young George was accepted at the United States Military Academy in 1842, the academy having waived its normal minimum age of sixteen. At West Point, he was an energetic and ambitious cadet interested in the teachings of Dennis Hart Mahan and the theoretical strategic principles of Antoine-Henri Jomini, his closest friends were aristocratic Southerners such as James Stuart, Dabney Maury, Cadmus Wilcox, A. P. Hill; these associations gave McClellan what he considered to be an appreciation of the Southern mind and an understanding of the political and military implications of the sectional differences in the United States that led to the Civil War.
He graduated at age nineteen in 1846, second in his class of 59 cadets, losing the top position to Charles Seaforth Stewart only because of poor drawing skills. He was commissioned a brevet second lieutenant in the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. McClellan's first assignment was with a company of engineers formed at West Point, but he received orders to sail for the Mexican War, he arrived near the mouth of the Rio Grande in October 1846, well prepared for action with a double-barreled shotgun, two pistols, a saber, a dress sword, a Bowie knife. He complained that he had arrived too late to take any part in the American victory at Monterrey in September. During a temporary armistice in which the forces of Gen. Zachary Taylor awaited action, McClellan was stricken with dysentery and malaria, which kept him in the hospital for nearly a month; the malaria would recur in years—he called it his "Mexican disease". He served as an engineering officer during the war, was subject to enemy fire, was appointed a brevet first lieutenant for his services at Contreras and Churubusco and to captain for his service at Chapultepec.
He performed reconnaissance missions for Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott, a close friend of McClellan's father. McClellan's experiences in the war would shape his political life, he learned that flanking movements are bette
Brigadier general (United States)
In the United States Armed Forces, brigadier general is a one-star general officer with the pay grade of O-7 in the U. S. Army, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Air Force. Brigadier general ranks above a colonel and below major general; the rank of brigadier general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral in the other uniformed services. The NATO equivalent is OF-6; the rank of brigadier general has existed in the U. S. military since the inception of the Continental Army in June 1775. To prevent mistakes in recognizing officers, a general order was issued on July 14, 1775, establishing that brigadier generals would wear a ribband, worn across the breast, between coat and waistcoat, pink in color. On June 18, 1780, it was prescribed that brigadier generals would instead wear a single silver star on each epaulette. At first, brigadier generals were infantry officers. During the period from March 16, 1802, to January 11, 1812, the rank of major general was abolished and brigadier general became the highest rank in the U.
S. Army. Foreseeing the need for an expanded general staff in case of war, which seemed imminent, Congress restored the rank of major general in January 1812; the first brigadier general in the U. S. Marine Corps was Commandant Archibald Henderson, brevetted to the rank of brigadier general in the 1830s for his service in the Second Seminole War; the first non-brevet brigadier general in the Marines was Commandant Jacob Zeilin, promoted to the rank in 1874, but when he retired in 1876, colonel once again became the highest rank in the Marines until March 1899 when Commandant Charles Heywood was promoted. Since the office of Commandant has been held by a general officer, with the permanent rank of the commandant raised to major general in 1908, to lieutenant general and subsequently to general during World War II, which rank it has held since; the insignia for a brigadier general is one silver star worn on the shoulder or collar, has not changed since the creation of the rank two centuries ago.
Since the Mexican–American War, the lower rank of colonel has been the normal rank appointed to command a brigade, organic to a division. While separate brigades were traditionally commanded by brigadier generals, this practice has ceased in recent history. Today, an Army or Marine Corps "BG" or "BGen," typically serves as deputy commander to the commanding general of a division or division-sized units and assists in overseeing the planning and coordination of a mission. A Marine Expeditionary Brigade, as the medium capability scalable Marine Air Ground Task Force with up to 20,000 Marines, is commanded by a Marine BGen. An Air Force brigadier general commands a large wing or serves as the deputy commander for a NAF. Additionally, one-star officers of all services may serve as high-level staff officers in large military organizations; the U. S. law explicitly limits the total number of general officers. The total of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army, 62 for the Marine Corps, 198 for the Air Force.
The President or Secretary of Defense may increase the number of general slots in one branch, so long as they subtract an equal number from another. Some of these slots are reserved by statute. For promotion to the permanent grade of brigadier general, eligible officers are screened by a promotion board consisting of general officers from their branch of service; this promotion board generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank. This list is sent to the service secretary and the joint chiefs for review before it can be sent to the President, through the defense secretary, for consideration; the President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the service secretary, if applicable, the service's chief of staff or commandant. The President may nominate any eligible officer, not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, but this is uncommon; the Senate must confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted.
Once the nominee is confirmed, they are promoted to that rank once they assume or hold an office that requires or allows an officer of that rank. For positions of office reserved by statute, the President nominates an officer for appointment to fill that position. For all three uniformed services, because the grade of brigadier general is a permanent rank, the nominee may still be screened by an in-service promotion board; the rank does not expire. Tour length varies depending on the position, by statute, or when the officer receives a new assignment; the average tour length per one-star billet is two to four years. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement. All brigadier generals must retire after five years in grade or 30 years of service, whichever is unless selected or appointed for promotion, or reappointed to grade to serve longer. Otherwise all general and flag officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday. However, the Secretary of Defense can defer a general or flag officer's retirement until the officer's 66th birthday and the President can defer it
Battle of Antietam
The Battle of Antietam known as the Battle of Sharpsburg in the Southern United States, was a battle of the American Civil War, fought on September 17, 1862, between Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Union General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, near Sharpsburg and Antietam Creek. Part of the Maryland Campaign, it was the first field army–level engagement in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War to take place on Union soil, it was the bloodiest day in United States history, with a combined tally of 22,717 dead, wounded, or missing. After pursuing the Confederate general Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan of the Union Army launched attacks against Lee's army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek. At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee's left flank. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller's Cornfield, fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road pierced the Confederate center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up.
In the afternoon, Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside's corps entered the action, capturing a stone bridge over Antietam Creek and advancing against the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, Confederate Maj. Gen. A. P. Hill's division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a surprise counterattack, driving back Burnside and ending the battle. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout September 18, while removing his battered army south of the Potomac River. Despite having superiority of numbers, McClellan's attacks failed to achieve force concentration, which allowed Lee to counter by shifting forces and moving along interior lines to meet each challenge. Therefore, despite ample reserve forces that could have been deployed to exploit localized successes, McClellan failed to destroy Lee's army.
McClellan's persistent but erroneous belief that he was outnumbered contributed to his cautiousness throughout the campaign. McClellan had halted Lee's invasion of Maryland, but Lee was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference from the cautious McClellan. McClellan's refusal to pursue Lee's army led to his removal from command by President Abraham Lincoln in November. Although the battle was tactically inconclusive, the Confederate troops had withdrawn first from the battlefield, abandoned their invasion, making it a Union strategic victory, it was a sufficiently significant victory to give Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which discouraged the British and French governments from pursuing any potential plans to recognize the Confederacy. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia—about 55,000 men—entered the state of Maryland on September 3, 1862, following their victory at Second Bull Run on August 30. Emboldened by success, the Confederate leadership intended to take the war into enemy territory.
Lee's invasion of Maryland was intended to run with an invasion of Kentucky by the armies of Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith. It was necessary for logistical reasons, as northern Virginia's farms had been stripped bare of food. Based on events such as the Baltimore riots in the spring of 1861 and the fact that President Lincoln had to pass through the city in disguise en route to his inauguration, Confederate leaders assumed that Maryland would welcome the Confederate forces warmly, they sang the tune "Maryland, My Maryland!" as they marched, but by the fall of 1862 pro-Union sentiment was winning out in the western parts of the state. Civilians hid inside their houses as Lee's army passed through their towns, or watched in cold silence, while the Army of the Potomac was cheered and encouraged; some Confederate politicians, including President Jefferson Davis, believed that the prospect of foreign recognition would increase if the Confederacy won a military victory on Union soil. While McClellan's 87,000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, two Union soldiers discovered a mislaid copy of Lee's detailed battle plans—Special Order 191—wrapped around three cigars.
The order indicated that Lee had divided his army and dispersed portions geographically, thus making each subject to isolation and defeat if McClellan could move enough. McClellan waited about 18 hours before deciding to take advantage of this intelligence and reposition his forces, thus squandering an opportunity to defeat Lee decisively. There were two significant engagements in the Maryland campaign prior to the major battle of Antietam: Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson's capture of Harpers Ferry and McClellan's assault through the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Battle of South Mountain. The former was significant because a large portion of Lee's army was absent from the start of the battle of Antietam, attending to the surrender of the Union garrison. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac, bolstered by units absorbed from John Pope's Army of Virg
Fort Brown was a military post of the United States Army in Cameron County, Texas during the half of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century. Established in 1846, it was the first United States Army military outpost of the annexed state. Confederate Army troops stationed there saw action during the American Civil War. In the early 20th century, it was garrisoned in relation to military activity over border conflicts with Mexico. Surviving elements of the fort were designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1960. In 1846, Captain Joseph K. Mansfield directed the construction of a star-shaped earthwork for 800 men called "Fort Texas" on the northern side of the Rio Grande, "by the order from General Taylor to command the city of Matamoros" south of the river; the next year, the fort was besieged during the opening of the Mexican–American War. During the Siege of Fort Texas, two Americans were killed, including Major Jacob Brown and George Oakes Stevens of the 2nd Dragoons. In honor of the fallen major, General Taylor renamed the post as Fort Brown.
In 1849, the city of Brownsville, was established not far from the fort's grounds, after the United States had acquired Texas following the war. While in command at the fort, Major Samuel P. Heintzelman coordinated with John Salmon Ford in the Cortina Troubles, culminating in the Battle of Rio Grande City in 1859. In 1861 Confederate Col. John "Rip" Ford occupied the fort, with a garrison there until 1863; the Confederate forces were driven out by Union forces under General Nathaniel P. Banks, who had his troops camped in tents erected at the fort site; this Union occupation ended in 1864, when Confederate forces under General James E. Slaughter and Colonel Ford took control of the area, they held the post until the end of the war, when it was occupied again by Union forces under General Egbert Brown. From 1867–1869, a permanent US Army fort was constructed under the supervision of Capt. William A. Wainwright. In 1882, Dr. William Crawford Gorgas was assigned to the hospital at Fort Brown during the height of a yellow fever outbreak.
Using Fort Brown as his base of operations, Gorgas studied the disease for several years. He was sent to Cuba during the Spanish–American War. A unit of African-American soldiers, known as Buffalo Soldiers, were stationed at Fort Brown. White residents of town resented the presence of the black soldiers, tensions rose. On August 13 and 14, 1906, unknown persons "raided" Brownsville, indiscriminately shooting bystanders, they killed white resident Frank Natus. The townspeople of Brownsville blamed the black soldiers for the incident; the Army investigated the matter and concluded that the black soldiers were guilty, although their supervising officers supported them and said they had been at the fort. William H. Taft President Theodore Roosevelt's Secretary of War and soon to be elected as president, ordered all 168 black soldiers to be discharged "without honor". Sixty years the Army conducted another investigation, concluding that the African Americans were not responsible, they were given posthumous honorable discharges.
But, by only two of the original 168 men were still alive. The Army did not restore the pensions to which the men would have been entitled to their descendants. Since the late 20th century, historians have speculated about the incident; the History Channel's program History's Mysteries attributed the incident to Brownsville residents' shooting up the town with rifles using the same caliber ammunition as the soldiers and framing the soldiers. On April 20, 1915, U. S. Signal Corps Officers Byron Q. Jones and Thomas Millings flew a Martin T. O. Curtiss over the fort to spot movements of Mexican Revolutionary leader Francisco "Pancho" Villa; the plane was up for 20 minutes. It did not cross the border into Mexico, although it was fired upon by small arms; these frequent patrols lasted for a period of 6 weeks and were used more in 1916. The troopers stationed at Fort Brown from 1929-45 were from the 124th Cavalry Regiment, Texas National Guard, one of the last mounted cavalry regiments in the United States Army.
On November 18, 1940, they went into active military training. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the division served with distinction, dismounted, in the China Burma India Theater, where a member of the unit from Fort Brown earned the theater's only Medal of Honor. During World War II, Fort Brown was transferred to the USAAF Training Command on July 7, 1943; the USAAF Gulf Coast Training Center used the fort for flexible gunnery training until the fort was inactivated on February 1, 1946. On February 1, 1946 Fort Brown was decommissioned, it was acquired by the City of Brownsville and Texas Southmost College in 1948. Three areas that were once part of the post were designated a discontiguous National Historic Landmark District in 1960, in recognition of its historic importance; these include earthworks built in 1846, a cavalry barracks built in 1848, a collection of buildings erected between 1868 and 1870, including a hospital, barracks, colonel's house, officers' quarters. List of National Historic Landmarks in Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Cameron County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic L
Captain (United States O-3)
In the United States Army, U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Air Force, captain is a company grade officer rank, with the pay grade of O-3, it ranks above below major. It is equivalent to the rank of lieutenant in the Navy/Coast Guard officer rank system; the insignia for the rank consists of two silver bars, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Marine Corps version. Promotion to captain is governed by Department of Defense policies derived from the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980. DOPMA guidelines suggest 95% of first lieutenants should be promoted to captain after serving a minimum of two years at their present rank. An Army captain serves as a battalion/squadron or brigade staff officer and may have an opportunity to command a company/battery /troop; when given such a command, they bear the title company/battery/troop commander. U. S. Army Special Forces Operational Detachments Alpha are commanded by a captain, who has the title of "detachment commander."
Marine captains serve as staff officers in battalions/squadrons, regiments/aviation groups, or in MAGTFs and may have an opportunity to command companies, batteries or various types of detachments, with the title of commanding officer. In the Marine Raider Regiment, a captain, with the title of "team leader," commands a 14-man Marine Special Operations Team. Marine captains serve as executive officers of infantry battalion weapons companies and some other larger combat logistics and aviation support units. Marine Aviation captains serve as aircraft and air mission commanders, aircraft section and division leaders, aviation maintenance department division officers, as officers-in-charge of various combat logistics and aviation support functional and staff sections. An Air Force captain's authority varies by group assignment. In an operations group, senior captains may be flight commanders while more junior captains may be heads of departments. In the maintenance or logistics and mission support groups they are always flight commanders.
In the medical group, captains have limited administrative and command responsibility as captain is the entry-level rank for most medical officers and dental officers. Captains of all three services serve as instructors at service schools and combat training centers, aide-de-camps to general officers and exchange officers to other units and foreign militaries, recruiting officers, students in advanced and graduate/post-graduate programs in Professional Military Education institutions and civilian universities, on various types of special assignments. In Army and Air Force medical units, captain is the entry-level rank for those possessing a medical degree, or a doctorate in a healthcare profession. In Army and Air Force Judge Advocate General Corps, lawyers with a Juris Doctor degree and membership in the bar of at least one U. S. state or territory are appointed captains, or first lieutenants promotable upon completion of initial entry training. The U. S. military inherited the rank of captain from its British Army forebears.
In the British Army, the captain was designated as the appropriate rank for the commanding officer of infantry companies, artillery batteries, cavalry troops, which were considered as equivalent-level units. Captains served as staff officers in regimental and brigade headquarters and as aides-de-camp to brigadiers and general officers. British Marine battalions utilized captain as the appropriate rank of their constituent Marine companies. Therefore, American colonial militia and Provincial Regular units, as well as colonial Marines, mirrored British Army and Marine organization and rank structure. On July 23, 1775 General Washington decreed that captains would wear a "yellow or buff" cockade in their hats as their badge of rank. In 1779 the rank insignia for captains was changed to an epaulette worn of the right shoulder. Infantry captains wore a silver epaulette. Both company grade officers and non-commissioned officers began wearing chevrons as rank insignia in 1821; the captain wore a single chevron, point up, above the elbow on each sleeve— again, the color was silver for infantry captains and gold for all other captains.
In 1832 company grade officers went back to a system of epaulettes. In 1836 captains began wearing an insignia of two bars. In 1872, all captains, regardless of branch, began to wear two silver bars. Police captain United States Army officer rank insignia United States Air Force enlisted rank insignia DA Pamphlet 600–3, Co